JULY 1999

Hello everyone!

If you read this before July 4th we hope it is a safe and enjoyable holiday for you filled with good food, fun, and thoughts on being Americans. Fireworks, music, and the ubiquitousness of red, white and blue can crystallize those patriotic emotions. If you read this after July 4th, we hope that all of the above were true for you.

Ken is busy writing a grant and, since I was not hired for my horticultural knowledge and that is what you come here to read, I will be brief. We hope you are enjoying the newsletter and our pages and would appreciate any suggestions. Have a wonderful month.

Bernice Fischman


The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:

1. CYCLIC IRRIGATION AND COPPER CONTAINER TREATMENTS ON ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR EXAMINED

2. CLEMATIS FANCIERS UNITE!

3. EVALUATION OF NEW INSECTICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF A MAPLE SHOOT BORER IN RED MAPLE SEEDLINGS

4. LANDSCAPE SPANISH

5. COMMODITY MARKETING ORDERS

6. OUTSTANDING PERENNIALS

7. AUBURN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS DEVELOP CONTAINER GARDENS - YEAR 2

8. ALABAMA PLANTS FOR THE OLYMPICS

9. LAWN AND LANDSCAPE MAGAZINE WEBSITE OF INTEREST

10. THE RESPONSE OF CONTROLLED-RELEASE FERTILIZERS IN POT-IN-POT PRODUCTION

11. THE CONTROL OF JOHNSONGRASS

12. JAPANESE BEETLES FEED ON ASIAN ELMS

13. PUT YOUR MONEY WHERE YOUR LAWN IS...

14. MONEY AVAILABLE FOR HOUSING FARM WORKERS

15. WEB SITE REVIEW: SIERRA HOME

16. VALUABLE WEB SITE FOR CHEMICAL LISTINGS

17. PROGRAM FOR THE 24TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOUTHERN REGION INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROPAGATORS' SOCIETY

18. LOVE VINE OR DODDER

19. NEW FUNGICIDE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROLLING POWDERY MILDEW ON DOGWOOD

20. 'APPALACHIAN SPRING', A HEALTHY CHOICE

21. JACKIE MULLEN'S PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

22. UPCOMING EVENTS


DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


CYCLIC IRRIGATION AND COPPER CONTAINER TREATMENTS ON ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR EXAMINED

Atlantic white cedars, Chamaecyparis thyoides, were used in a three-part study at Auburn University. The issues being examined were cyclic irrigation, the control of roots in container grown plants by using copper container treatments, and an evaluation of irrigation on copper effectiveness.

As the use of water becomes more regulated in container nurseries, the efficiency of irrigation systems takes on a new and urgent dimension. Typical water losses with overhead irrigation can be 75-90%. With cyclic irrigation there are a series of irrigation events throughout the day. Recent research findings indicate a savings with cyclic irrigation of as much as 38% compared with traditional irrigation methods. The Atlantic white cedars irrigated in a cyclic manner had a larger growth index and caliper than those watered once daily. Cyclic irrigation was applied 3 or 6 times a day with no differences recorded.

The second part of the study addressed the problem that root bound plants have when they are transplanted. Applying copper to the inner surface of the containers reduces surface root development. When the roots touch the container walls they are chemically pruned. Spin-Outä(copper hydroxide) and Root Rightä (copper chloride) are the two available copper treated containers. Plants treated with copper had a lower root rating (less root-bound) than those plants grown in the copper-free containers. Plants grown in Spin-outä containers had a lower root rating than those plants grown in the Root Right containers. Plants grown in the copper treated containers had a larger caliper than plants grown in copper-free containers. Both Root Rightä and Spin Outäwere effective in preventing plants from becoming root-bound. The third part of the study indicated that irrigation did not impact on the effectiveness of the copper treated containers.

(Research paper by Robert C. Trawick, Ken M. Tilt, Harry G. Ponder and Gary J. Keever, Auburn University).

CLEMATIS FANCIERS UNITE!

For those of you who are clematis fanciers you can now join a national organization. The Southern California Clematis Society has recently changed its name to the American Clematis Society. For $16 a year you can join what is reportedly the first clematis society in the United States. A newsletter subscription is included in the membership fee. Their web address is http://www.clematis.org .

(from David Morgan 's Weekly NMPRO e-mail, dated June 15, 1999).

EVALUATION OF NEW INSECTICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF A MAPLE SHOOT BORER IN RED MAPLE SEEDLINGS

Proteoteras aesculana Riley, a shoot boring caterpillar, is a damaging pest of red maples in Tennessee and Alabama nurseries. The object of this research was to test the efficacy of two new insecticides with the industry standard, Talstar T & O 10WP. The test site was a block of seedling rep maple at the Bob Young Nursery in Warren County, Tennessee. Trees averaged 3.85 feet in height during their second growing season.

On May 5, 1998 foliar sprays of the following insecticides were applied: Talstar T & O 10%WP (0.96 oz/10 gal.), Conserve SC Turf and Ornamental 11.6% suspension concentrate (6 fl oz/100 gal.) and Confirm 2 F (8 oz./acre) plus Latron CS-7 surfactant (8 oz./acre). Talstar T & O and Conserve SC are both labeled for use on ornamentals. Confirm 2F is currently labeled for use on walnuts. Sprays were applied at a 25 gal./acre rate using a CO2 compression sprayer operating at 40 psi, equipped with two TXVS-18 hollow cone nozzles. Trees were inspected on May 21 for shoot borer damage.

In previous studies, the percentage of trees in the untreated control with at least one shoot borer damaged shoot was 53% and 53.6%. The percent of the untreated control trees with damage in the present study was 39.7%. Only Talstar T & O was significantly different from the untreated control.

Controlling P. asesculana early in the season using a properly timed application of Talstar T & O will result in increased production of high quality red maple trees.

(from SNA Research Conference, vol. 43, 1998 - by F.A. Hale, C. Mannion, and M. Halcomb).

LANDSCAPE SPANISH

With the burgeoning number of Spanish speaking workers it is very important for employers to have a working knowledge of that language. The Illinois Nursery Association has written an English-to-Spanish translation for landscape growers and contractors. The pocket sized guide entitled "Sabes hablar espanol?" (Do you speak Spanish?) is available from the Wisconsin Landscape Federation (414)529-4705 or toriiad@execpc.com It is full of work related phrases. The price is $1.75.

(from David Morgan's Weekly NMPRO e-mail).

COMMODITY MARKETING ORDERS

A district court of appeals in California upheld the constitutionality of commodity marketing orders, holding that the forced funding of generic advertising under a valid marketing order does not violate the California constitution's liberty of speech and freedom of association provision. A plum grower had sued the California Department of Food and Agriculture, asserting that marketing orders violated administrative rulemaking requirements. See http://www.cdfa.ca.gov

(from David Morgan's Weekly NMPRO e-mail).


OUTSTANDING PERENNIALS

Dr. Allan Armitage of the University of Georgia has recommended the following perennials to professional growers because they are easy to grow and market. The following list is excerpted from an article published in Yankee Grower (March/April 1999):

Achillea 'Colorado', 'Fireland', 'Martina', 'Terra Cotta'

Algeratina altissima 'Chocolate'

Arachniodes simplicior 'Variegata'

Asarum Aster divaricatus A. 'Purple Dome', 'Raydon's Favorite', 'Wood's Pink'

Baptisia alba B. australis, B. 'Purple Smoke' B. tinctoria Campanula persifolia 'Chettle Charm'

Dendranthema 'Apricot Single'

Dianthus 'Baby Blanket', 'Bath's Pink', 'Firewitch', 'Mountain Mist' Echinacea pallida E. paradxa E. purpurea 'Kim's Knee High', 'White Swan'

Epimedium grandiflorum 'Lilofee' E. parralchium 'Frohnleiten'

Gaura lindheimeri 'Siskiyou Pink'

Heuchera 'Canyon Pink', 'Raspberry Regal', 'Winter Red' (for flowers) H. 'Amethyst Mist', 'Can-Can', 'Whirlwind' (for foliage) H. villosa 'Autumn Bride', 'Purpurea' (for foliage)

Iris ensata 'Rikki Rikki'

Kniphofia 'Shining Sceptor'

Lysimachia punctata 'Alexander'

Phlox divaricata 'Clouds of Perfume' P. nivalis 'Eco Flirtie Eyes' P. paniculata 'David', 'Robert Poore' P. 'Spring Delight'

Polemonium 'Brize d'Anjou'

Pulmonaria angustifolia 'Mawson's Variety' P. 'David Ward', 'Little Blue' P. saccharata 'Highdown' Ranunculus 'Susan's Song'

Saxifraga 'Athens Leather'

Tiarella 'Dunvegan', 'Ink Blot', 'Snowflake', 'Tiger Stripe'

Tricyrtis Verbascum 'Letitia'

(from HortIdeas on line, June 1999)

AUBURN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS DEVELOP CONTAINER GARDENS

Students in the Herbaceous Plant Class at Auburn University (spring session 1999) developed plans that addressed plant use, color, form, texture, design and scale. Principles of design were combined with an understanding of the habits of plants and their physical requirements. The horticulture students designed and planted window boxes and other container displays. This was a cooperative effort by the Horticulture Department at the University, The Alabama Extension System and generous sponsors: Buffalo Company, Inc., Euracast Caffco International; Fafard, Inc.; Village Arbors; Blooming Colors and American Designer Pottery. Auburn University faculty and staff involved in the project were Dee Smith, Beth Clendenen, Ken Tilt, Dave Williams, Raymond Kessler and Bernice Fischman.

Designs were judged in the Funchess courtyard by Master Gardeners, students, faculty and staff. Below are photographs of the top scoring containers, in random order, as well as lists of the plants in each planting for the benefit of domestic gardeners, commercial growers, and nursery owners.

TOP SCORING CONTAINERS:

Ipomoea batatas 'Blackie'-Ornamental sweet potato
Salvia splendens - Purple salvia
Acer palmatum - Japanese maple

Asparagus densiflorus 'Sprengeri' - Asparagus fern
Origanum vulgare - Golden oregano
Lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea' - Creeping jenny
Erigeron karvinskianus - Daisy fleabane

Vinca major 'Variegata' - Periwinkle
Begonia semperflorens cultorum - Waxed begonia
Dracaena marginata 'Tricolor' - Dragon tree

Ipomoea batatas 'Margarite' - Ornamental sweet potato
Coleus x hybridus - Coleus
Pennisetum setaceum 'Rubrum' - Red fountain grass

Ipomoea batatas 'Margarite' - Ornamental sweet potato
Dracaena marginata 'Tricolor' - Dragon tree
Ipomoea batatas 'Blackie' - Ornamental sweet potato

Dolichos lablab - Hyacinth bean vine
Cuphea hyssopifolia - Mexican heather
Hedera helix - Variegated English ivy
Chlorophytum cosmosum - Green airplane plant
Vinca major 'Variegata' - Periwinkle

Origanum vulgare - Golden oregano
Coleus x hybridus - Coleus
Lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea' - Creeping jenny
Acer palmatum - Japanese maple

Coleus x hybridus - Coleus
Dracaena marginata - Dragon tree
Thymus vulgare - Thyme

Nephrolepis bostoniensis - Boston fern
Caladium x hortulanum - Fancy leaf caladium
Hedera helix - Variegated English ivy

Ipomoea batatas 'Blackie' - Ornamental sweet potato
Coleus x hybridus - Coleus
Asparagus densiflorus 'Sprengeri' - Asparagus fern
Rhoea spathacea - Moses in a boat

Hedera helix - Variegated English ivy
Begonia semperflorens cultorum - Waxed begonia
Rhoea spathacea - Moses in a boat

Ipomoea batatas 'Blackie' - Ornamental sweet potato
Coleus x hybridus - Coleus
Salvia splendens - Red salvia
Tagetes patula - French marigold

Pelargonium x hortorum 'Rose coral' - Geranium
Lobularia maritima - Sweet allysum
Senecio cineraria - Dusty miller
Salvia leucantha - Mexican sage

Hedera helix - Variegated English ivy
Impatiens wallerana - Impatiens
Asparagus densiflorus - Asparagus fern


ALABAMA PLANTS FOR THE OLYMPICS

Beautification efforts (landscaping) are underway in preparation for the 2004 Olympics in Greece. The American Nursery and Landscape Association has fact sheets available for interested wholesale nurseries. Plants will be shipped to Greece bare root or in approved soilless media. For more information call 202-789-2900 or e-mail dwilliams@anla.org

(from NMPRO, June 1999).

LAWN AND LANDSCAPE MAGAZINE WEBSITE OF INTEREST

This site contains entire articles from Lawn & Landscape magazine along with classified ads, on-line articles and information on books, videos and conferences sponsored by Lawn & Landscape. You can also participate in discussion groups relating to general interest, irrigation, mowers, nursery/plants, and pesticides. There is also a free service whereby you would automatically be sent (via e-mail) notices of groundbreaking (no pun intended) news in the lawn and landscape industries. Their URL is http://www.lawnandlandscape.com/
(from Tennessee Nursery & Landscape Association, Inc. News, June 1999).

THE RESPONSE OF CONTROLLED-RELEASE FERTILIZERS IN POT-IN-POT PRODUCTION

Growers who are employing the pot-in-pot (PIP) system must figure out the most efficient and effective way to fertilize. Recommendations for most control release fertilizers are based on plants grown in small containers where fertilizers are incorporated in the media and irrigated with an overhead system. Large pot-in-pot containers, which are micro-irrigated, present different concerns. Water quality in nurseries is an issue, as well as the temperature of the root zone in pot-in-pot containers.

Researchers were trying to determine the optimal controlled-release fertilizer regimes and application techniques for PIP production and to evaluate plant growth. Red Sunset Red Maple and Krauter Vesuvius Plum were potted in 15-gallon containers with 100% pine bark media. Three controlled-release fertilizers, Nutricote 18-6-8 (270 day), Osmocote High N 22-4-7 (12-14 month), and Woodace 19-6-12 (10-12 month) were incorporated, dibbled, or top-dressed in the pine bark media. All plants received the same amount of nitrogen.

Height growth of Red Sunset Red Maple was affected by the fertilizer. Plants grown with Nutricote 18-6-8 and Osmocote High N 22-4-7 had more shoot growth than plants grown in Woodace 19-6-12. Incorporation of the controlled-release fertilizer, regardless of the brand, produced the most height growth compared to plants with dibble or top-dressed fertilizer treatments.

Height growth of Krauter Vesuvius Plums was greater in plants grown with Nutricote 18-6-8 or Osmocote High N 22-4-7 than with Woodace 19-6-12. How the fertilizers were applied affected plant height. Dibbling and incorporating resulted in greater height growth. On the other hand, caliper growth was not affected by the brand of fertilizer. Caliper growth was the greatest in plants grown in media with incorporated controlled-release fertilizer. Dibbling and top-dressing yielded inferior results.

It appears that top-dressed fertilizer treatments are less successful as the fertilizer is exposed to less moisture. When the fertilizers were incorporated into the media the moisture levels remained higher for longer.

Researchers concluded that the optimal application technique for producing large containerized PIP plants is the incorporation or dibbling of the controlled-release fertilizer, dolomitic lime and minor elements into the media. The nitrate-N levels didn't exceed the US-EPA drinking water standards of 10 ppm regardless of the fertilizer brand or the application technique.

(from The Response of Controlled-Release Fertilizers in Pot-In-Pot Production by Donna C. Fare, US National Arboretum, and Mark Halcomb, University of Tennessee, TNLA News).

THE CONTROL OF JOHNSONGRASS

Sphacelotheca holci, a pathogen responsible for loose kernel smut, is being used as a method to control Johnsongrass. Researchers have found that fifty to eighty percent of the weeds become infected and are unable to produce viable seeds. These Louisiana researchers are also looking for more effective Sphacelotheca species. For more information send an e-mail to Rmillhol@nola.srrc.usda.gov
(from David Morgan's Weekly NMPRO e-mail, dated June 15, 1999).

JAPANESE BEETLES FEED ON ASIAN ELMS

Japanese beetles do not appear to like hairy leaves. This is the finding of researchers in Illinois. Ulmus lamellosa and U. parviflora (lacebark elm) showed the least damage from the beetles. Both of these are native to Asia and quite hairy (pubescent). U. pumila (Siberian elm) and a cross between U. japonica and U. americana both had extensive damage. U. macrocarpa and U. wilsoniana showed some resistance to Japanese beetle damage.
(from HortIdeas online, June 1999).

PUT YOUR MONEY WHERE YOUR LAWN IS...

A recent Gallup survey was conducted that showed a rather astronomical increase in monies spent on professional horticultural services (landscape installation and maintenance) in the United States. More than 21 million households spent a record total of $16.8 billion on landscaping, lawn care, and tree care in 1998. That figure corresponds to a 15% growth in one year, up $2.2 billion from 1997. For more information on the survey contact Joel Albizo at the ANLA, 202-789-5980, ext. 3012.

(from HortIdeas online, June 1999).

MONEY AVAILABLE FOR HOUSING FARM WORKERS

More than 25 million dollars is available this year in loans and grants to help finance construction of more than 500 new units of rental housing for domestic farm workers. The USDA issued a Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) which will hopefully help build housing where it is most needed. The process is competitive, unlike the first-come first-served policy in years past. Projects with the most need and possibility of building a large number of housing units will be selected. A new feature of the program is the loaning of money to limited partnerships if they have a nonprofit general partner.

Applications must be submitted by 5 p.m. (central time) on July 15, 1999 to the:
USDA Rural Development State Office (attn: Multi-Family Housing)
4121 Carmichael Road, Suite 601
Montgomery, AL 36106-3683
For more information contact the USDA Rural Development office in Montgomery at 334-279-3455 or check their web site at http://www.rurdev.usda.gov

(USDA Rural Development News Release)

WEB SITE REVIEW: SIERRA HOME

This lovely web site houses an encyclopedia of over 3,000 plants which you can access by typing in their botanical or common name. Each color photo is accompanied by a description of the plant which includes where and when it will thrive as well as its height, width, foliage, blooming season, sunlight requirements, type of plant, and zone. Fertilizer suggestions are also included where relevant.

In addition to the encyclopedic listing there are also features on cooking, family trees, home design, and others. The URL for the site is: http://www.sierra.com/sierrahome/gardening/encyc


VALUABLE WEB SITE FOR CHEMICAL LISTINGS

This web site has a comprehensive listing of chemicals and the companies that market them along with full text labels for most compounds in common use. The address is http://www.cdms.net


PROGRAM FOR THE 24TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOUTHERN REGION INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROPAGATORS' SOCIETY

The meeting will be held on October 2-6, 1999 at the Adam's Mark Hotel in Mobile, Alabama. An abbreviated schedule follows:

October 2
Registration
Pre-conference tour at Flowerwood in Loxley followed by an international reception/dinner (at Flowerwood)

October 3
Pre-conference tour at Shore Acres Nursery, Flowerwood Meadows, Baywood, Rocky Creek, Twin Oaks, and Magnolia, dinner (at Magnolia).

October 4
Plant Hunting for the 21st Century
Plant Breeding Efforts in Stokesia, Cercis and Buddleia at North Carolina State University
Promising New Color
Selecting and Marketing 'New' Plants
Growing Clematis by Cuttings
Tour of Overlook Nursery, van der Giessen Nursery, Kinney Nursery, Martin's Nursery, dinner/auction (at Martin's)

October 5
Let's Think Out of the Pot
How to Computerize Production Scheduling
Shipping and Packaging of Propagated Material
A Tour of Your National Arboretum and its Latest Cultivar Releases
Camellia Propagation in Australia
Operational Use of Rooted Cuttings for Southern Pines: Current Status and Future Prospects
Effects of Timing and IBA Concentrations on Rooting of Cotinus coggygria 'Royal Purple'
Cutting-Grown Quercus: The Future
Tour of T&T Nursery, Blackwell Nursery, Tom Dodd Nursery, Dodd & Dodd Nursery

October 6
Propagation of Ornamental Grasses
Micropropagation of Farfugium japonicum 'Kitam'
The Dogwood Improvement Program at the University of Tennessee
Top 10 Plants from Europe
Growing Plants in a Cinder Block
Tidewater in 2000

For registration and other information write or call:
Dr. David L. Morgan, Secretary/Treasurer
IPPS Southern Region
P.O. Box 1868
Fort Worth, TX 76101
817-882-4148
fax 817-882-4121


LOVE VINE OR DODDER

The best way to kill love vine or dodder is to spray it and the host plant with Roundup, Finale or Gramoxone. You can also just pull up the host plants. If you leave this vine unattended it will spread. Hand removing the vine from plants is strictly a superficial measure as it will just grow back. Love vine has no true root system. It lives as a parasite off its host plant. Small suckers attach the yellowish, smooth, twining stems, which will sprout tiny flower clusters. Commonly found on lespedeza in pastures and hay fields, the vine will produce seeds this year that will germinate next year. Do whatever you can to get rid of it as soon as you see it, as it will have a very negative effect on its host plant.

(from Mark Halcomb, published in the Tennessee Nursery and Landscape Association, Inc. News, June 1999).

NEW FUNGICIDE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROLLING POWDERY MILDEW ON DOGWOOD

"Powdery Mildew usually attacks dogwood from mid to late May until frost. Our list of recommended fungicides has changed to reflect research findings. Banner MAXX, Rubigan, and Systhane have provided better control over the other previously recommended fungicides. These are systemic fungicides, as are Bayleton and Cleary's.

We are recommending that they be sprayed every 2 weeks and at least 6 hours prior to a rain. We are also recommending that you spray prior to a rain, rather than after the rain. Here's why. Powdery mildew produces thousands of spores per square inch on a dogwood leaf. Spores are spread by the impact of the raindrop. Protection is needed during this period of spread and infection.

We observed up to a 50 percent increase in caliper and height where these fungicides were sprayed every 2 weeks, May 28 - August 19, in 1998. The fungicides also prevented leaf scorch that was observed on the unsprayed control plants. Banner, Bayleton and Sythane are very effective, but should not be sprayed over and over or at high rates as stunting and resistance can result. Rotate. Their price per container may seem high; but they are concentrated. Compare cost per spray tank.

A good quality spreader should be added to the tank; but a sticker is not required for the systemics. The fungicides above are also effective on Dogwood Anthracnose (Discula) and Spot Anthracnose, except Rubigan. Banner1.1E has been replaced with Banner MAXX. Banner MAXX and Rubigan AS is mixed 8 fluid ounces per 100 gallons; 0.5 teaspoon (or 2.4 cc or ml) per gallon; or 1.5 teaspoons per 3 gallons. Sythane 40WP is mixed 4 ounces per 100 gallons. It comes in water soluble packets and should not be opened for backpacks or hand sprayers.

Others are listed for your convenience: Banner 1.1E and Bayleton 25WP is mixed 2-4 fluid ounces per 100 gallons. Bayleton 25WP is mixed 1/8 teaspoon per gallon. Daconil 2787 WDG (Water Dispersible Granule) is mixed 1 1/4 pounds per 100 gallons or 2 teaspoons per gallon. Daconil 2787 4.17 F (Flowable) is mixed 32 fluid ounces per 100 gallons or 2 teaspoons per gallon.

Cleary's 3336F is mixed 10-20 fl oz per 100 gallons or 3/4 to 1 1/4 teaspoon per gallon. Zyban 75WP is mixed 1 1/2 pounds per 100 gallons or 2.5 teaspoons per gallon. Use the lower rates as preventative and the higher rate after the disease is found. Spray every 7 days when the disease is severe. The Daconil label recommends no surfactant.

Scales are required that will weigh only a few ounces accurately for the dry formulations. Excellent coverage of the foliage is required. It is also recommended that container dogwoods not be watered overhead to avoid Dogwood Anthracnose and lessen the severity of Powdery Mildew. A drip system using a spray stake in each pot would keep the foliage dry. Watering overhead at 5 a.m. would be the best time of day until the conversion to drip can be made."

(By Alan Windham, Mark Windham & Mark Halcomb, UT Extension & Experiment Station - published in the June 1999 issue of Tennessee Nursery & Landscape Association, Inc. Newsletter).

'APPALACHIAN SPRING', A HEALTHY CHOICE

'Appalachian Spring' is a new cultivar, the first flowering dogwood released by the Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station (TAES). It is a clone from a tree that survived a devastating epidemic of dogwood anthracnose with very little damage. Clones of this tree from Maryland were tested by TAES and the US Forest Service scientists. It was very disease resistant to dogwood anthracnose even in situations wherein environmental conditions would have prompted the disease to develop.

The new cultivar has long, white, non-overlapping bracts, upright growth habit and many blooms. Bracts average 2.8 inches. Foliage is quite large, dark green in color (turns red in the fall) with abundant bright red berries. More information can be obtained from Mark Windham at 423-974-7135.

(from Cornus florida 'Appalachian Spring': A White Flowering Dogwood Resistant to Dogwood Anthracnose by M.T. Windham, W.T. Witte, and R.N. Trigiano, published in TNLA News).

JACKIE MULLEN'S PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

MONTHLY PLANT PROBLEM REPORT FROM THE PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LAB-MAY

May was predominately dry with a few welcomed rain events during the later half of the month. Diseases in May included Exobasidium gall and anthracnose of camellia; Pythium root rot of Leyland cypress; powdery mildew of Gerbera daisy; Phytophthora root rot of holly; impatiens necrotic spot virus on impatiens; Pythium crown and root decay of schip laurel; anthracnose of lemon; black mildew and algal leaf spot of southern magnolia; anthracnose of maple; Phytophthora aerial blight on periwinkle; and Phytophthora stem/leaf blight of petunia.

Exobasidium gall of azalea and camellia appears as green (gradually becoming white) fleshy swellings of flowers, leaves, and young shoots. Control requires removal of galls before they become white. The white coating on the gall is a surface layer of spores. Once the galls become white, they should still be removed, but chances are good that recent infections will cause some galls to develop next spring. If hand removal of galls is not practical, azaleas may be sprayed with protective treatments of Bayleton or Strike. These products are not labelled on camellia.

Anthracnose on maple appears usually in mid-late spring. Leaves become spotted and decayed in blotch, spots and marginal leaf areas. If the leaves show spots and a marginal leaf burn that extends around the whole leaf, it is likely that root stress is also involved. Anthracnose spots/blotches will often develop and expand along a leaf vein or along a leaf edge. Disease control involves sanitation. If trees are small, protective fungicide sprays may be helpful.

With Phytophthora stem and leaf blight of periwinkle and petunia, a brown blight and rot develops on leaves and stems. When cankers encircle the stem, dieback quickly results. Disease confirmations are made microscopically, by culture or by ELISA.

Impatiens necrotic spot virus on impatiens appears as stunted new growth and often black, rounded leaf spots are present. The leaf spots may be confused with fungal or bacterial spots. ELISA testing is the quickest and most reliable way to detect the presence of this virus. Infected plants should be removed. Near-by healthy plants should be treated with an insecticide to control thrips.

Algal leaf spot and black mildew on southern magnolia has been common this spring. Algal leaf spot is green or green-red, raised, with slightly raised ruffled edges. As the algal spots age, they often become parasitized by a lichen called Strigulla which causes the spots to become white. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook for protective chemical controls. All fallen leaves should be removed. Black mildew is a black fuzzy-looking mold which develops on lower leaf surfaces only. Black mildew typically does not cause real damage to the leaves.

PlantDiseaseCounty
CamelliaColletotrichum Leaf SpotLawrence
CamelliaExobasidium GallLawrence
CleyeraPhytophthora Root Rot*
Cypress, LeylandPythium Root RotCovington
Daisy, GerberaPowdery MildewGeneva
HollyPhytophthora Root RotLee
ImpatiensImpatiens Necrotic Spot Virus*
Laurel, SchipPythium Crown & Root DecayLimestone
MagnoliaAlgal Leaf Spot (Cephaleuros)Lowndes
Magnolia, SouthernBlack MildewShelby
MapleAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Clark, Elmore
PeriwinklePhytophthora Stem RotAutauga
PetuniaPhytophthora Stem RotChoctaw
*County locations for nursery/greenhouse problems are not reported.
DISEASE POSSIBILITIES FOR JUNE

Brief Disease Descriptions and Control Recommendations for Diseases Often Seen in June.
PlantDiseaseDescriptionControl
Arbor-vitaePhomopsis DiebackTip browning and dieback.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
BuddleaPhyllosticta Leaf SpotNumerous small brown circular spots.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 or Domain.
CrabappleCedar-Apple rust
(Gymnosporangium)
Large (3-6mm diam.) bright yellow spots; sometimes tiny black specks can be seen on upper leaf surface; sometimes orange spores bodies can be seen on lower leaf surface spots.See Ala. Pest Management Handbook for protective spray treatments; collect and destroy all fallen leaves this fall; remove nearby red cedars and other junipers if possible.
CrapemyrtlePowdery Mildew
(Erysiphe)
Leaves show white dusting; yellowing; new growth distortedSee the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Daisy, GerberaPowdery Mildew
(Erysiphe)
Leaves show a white dusting; yellowing followed by browning.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DogwoodAnthracnose (Discula) Small-large irregular brown spots/blotches often with purple margins. Dieback usually followsSee Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DogwoodPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked. With slight pressure, the outer cortex of the root will slip away from the central root core.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DogwoodPowdery Mildew
(Microsphaera)
White dusting on upper leaf surfaces.Cleary's 3336 or Domain.
DogwoodSpot Anthracnose
(Elsinoe)
White dusting on upper leaf surfaces.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
GeraniumAlternaria Leaf SpotBlack, small, angular leaf spots.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
GeraniumBotrytis BlightBlossoms and leaves develop brown blotchesStrict sanitation. Bordeaux mixture protective sprays.
GeraniumPythium Stem RotDark Brown, water-soaked lesions (cankers) develop on stems.Sanitation.
HawthorneEntomosporium Leaf SpotBlack spots develop on the foliage. Spot coalescence may occur.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
HollyPhytophthora Root RotRoots are black or brown and water-soaked.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
HydrangeaColletotrichum Petal BlightOrange-brown circular spots, blotches.Cleary's 3336 or Domain.
HydrangeaPhytophthora Crown RotRoots develop a wet brown decay that becomes dried with age.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
ImpatiensImpatiens Necrotic Spot VirusBlack circular spotting occurs on the foliage. New growth becomes stunted.Control thrips; sanitation.
ImpatiensPhythium Root RotRoots become soft, brown and water-soaked.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Ivy, EnglishAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Brown circular/irregular spots on the foliage. Spot coalescence may occur.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Ivy, EnglishBacterial Leaf Spot(Xanthomonas)Black, angular, water-soaked spots on foliage.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Ivy, EnglishRhizoctonia Leaf & Stem RotBrown, dry lesions on leaves/stems.Sanitation; Cleary's protective sprays.
JuniperCercospora BlightInner sections of branches turn brown and needles drop.Benlate protective sprays. Sanitation.
JuniperPhomopsis BlightBranches dieback beginning at twig tips. Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
JuniperPhytophthora Root RotRoots become browned, water-soaked.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
MapleAnthracnose
(Kabatiella)
Brown circular/irregular spots/blotches occur on leaves; large leaf areas may be involved. Defoliation may result.Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
MaplePhyllosticta Leaf SpotCircular (sometimes) irregular leaf spots. Leaf spot borders are often distinctive. Severe spotting will result in defoliation.Sanitation. See the alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Mondo GrassAnthracnose
Colletotrichum)
Brown spots/blotches develop on leaves, often at/near leaf tips.Sanitation. Cleary's or Domain protective sprays on a benomyl product labelled for ornamentals.
OakAlgal Leaf Spot((Cephaleuros))Red-green circular spots.Sanitation.
OakAnthracnose
(Apiognomonia)
Brown, irregular-shaped and sized spots/blotches on leaves. Often, blotches will follow along leaf veins. Early leaf drop will occur when disease is severe.Sanitation of leaves in the fall. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
OakOak Leaf Blister
(Taphrina)
Brown, puckered spots (1/8-1/2 inch diameter) develop. Spots may merge. Leaf drop will occur when disease in severe.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
OakXylella ScorchOaks develop drown leaf edges; dieback.Tree removal.
PetuniaPhytophthora Foliage
Blight/Root Rot
Brown, sometimes wet-looking lesions; dieback.Sanitation; See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PineLophodermium Needle Cast(Ploioderma) Needles turn brown and drop; very small (1-2 mm or 1/32 inch) football shaped, black fruiting bodies.Protective fungicide sprays during the spring and fall.
PrivetCercospora Leaf SpotMedium brown circular spots.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
RhododendronPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
RoseBlack Spot
(Diplocarpon)
Black spots with fringed borders develop on leaves. Defoliation will result from severe spotting.Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
RoseMosaic VirusYellow line patterns, mosaics.Plant removal.
RosePowdery MildewWhite dusiting on leaf surfaces; new growth distortion. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
RoseRhizoctonia Crown RotBrown lesions at soil line. Sanitation; Cleary's protective drenches.
SalviaPhytophthora Root RotRoots brown, water-soaked.Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
SnapdragonPhytophthora parasitica
Crown Rot
Crowns become water-soaked, brown, rotted.Sanitation. Avoid excessive irrigation. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
SycamorePowdery Mildew
(Microsphaera)
White coating develops on leaves; new leaves are deformed.Sanitation of leaves in the fall.
SycamoreXylella Scorch DiseaseLeaf edges become browned; dieback.Tree removal.
VerbenaPowdery MildewWhite dusty coating on leaves; leaves yellow and later turn brown.A benomyl product labelled for ornamentals or Cleary's 3336 or Domain.
Vinca, Catharanthus
(Periwinkle)
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum)Brown cankers on lower stems.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Vinca, Catharanthus
(Periwinkle)
Fusarium Crown RotBrown, dry rotting on stem at soil line.Rotation or solarization.
Vinca, Catharanthus
(Periwinkle)
Phomopsis Stem BlightA brown canker develops on stems.Sanitation. Apply protective sprays of Cleary's 3336. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Vinca, Catharanthus
(Periwinkle)
Phytophthora Foliage BlightDark brown lesions on stems and leaves; dieback.Sanitation. Avoid wet situations. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Vinca, Catharanthus
(Periwinkle)
Pythium/Phytophthora
Crown/Root Rot
Roots become brown, water-soaked.Sanitation. Avoid wet situations. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Vinca, Catharanthus
(Periwinkle)
Rhizoctonia Aerial BlightLeaves become dull green and then brown. Large areas of leaves become browned.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Vinca MinorAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum
Leaves become dull green and then brown. Large areas of leaves become browned.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook under perennial vinca.
Yaupon, DwarfPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown, water-soaked.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.

UPCOMING EVENTS

July 1-3, 1999:
American Association of Botanical Gardens & Arboreta 1999 Conference.
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Contact AABGA at 610-925-2500, ext. 11 or www.mobot.org/AABGA.

July 8-11, 1999:
International Herb Association Annual Conference, "Herbs Around the World"
http://www.herb-pros.com
Phone 717-697-1500; fax 717-697-2125

July 22-27, 1999:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Philadelphia, PA. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

July 24-27, 1999:
Pennsylvania Allied Nursery Trade Show (PANTS) & ANLA Convention.
Philadelphia, PA. ANLA 202-789-2900; PANTS: 717-238-1673; Fax 717-238-1675.

July 28-31, 1999:
96th American Society for Horticultural Science.
Minneapolis Convention Center, Minneapolis, MN. Contact ASHA: 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024; e-mail: ashs@ashs.org

July 30-August 1, 1999:
SNA 99 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;
http://www.sna.org

August 1-4, 1999:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference.
Stamford, CT. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

August 5-8, 1999:
National Christmas Tree Association Annual Meeting.
1000 Exec. Parkway, Suite 220, St. Louis, MO 63141-6372; E-mail info at christree.org; Website www.christree.org; Phone 314-205-0944; Fax 314-576-7989.

August 6-8, 1999:
TAN-MISSLARK
Dallas Convention Center, Dallas, TX.
Phone 800-880-0343; E-mail plantx@onr.com

August 8-10, 1999:
Missouri Landscape & Nursery Association Meeting & Trade Show
Columbia, MO. Phone 816-233-1481; Fax 816-233-4774.

August 20-21, 1999:
North Carolina Association of Nurserymen (NCAN) Charlotte Show.
Charlotte merchandise Mart, Charlotte, NC
Phone 919-266-3322; Fax 919-266-2137.

August 27-29, 1999:
Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon.
Phone 800-342-6401.

September 10-11, 1999:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at 931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail nurseryassn@blomand.net

September 15-18, 1999:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Minneapolis, MN. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268. Phone 860-429-6818; Fax 860-429-6665

September 17-18, 1999:
Tennessee Nursery & Landscape Association "TENNESSEE AMERICA'S NURSERY" 23rd Annual Trade Show and Conf.
Opryland Hotel & Conv. Ctr., Nashville, TN.
E-mail Tnurseryassn@blomand.net; www.tnla.com; Phone 931-473-3951; Fax 931-473-5883.

September 23-25, 1999:
6th Biennial Southern Plant Conference.
Richmond, VA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

October 3-6, 1999:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Mobile, AL. Contact David Morgan: 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

October 8 and 9, 1999:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticulture Trade Show.
Civic Center, McMinnville, Tennessee. For more information call Ann Halcomb, Exec. Sec., at 931-668-7322, fax 931-668-9601; e-mail: MTNA@blomand.net
www.growit.com/MTNA

November 4-6, 1999:
Gulf Coast Native Plant Conference
Camp Beckwith, Fairhope, Alabama
Featuring four habitats with guided field trips. For more information contact Thayer Dodd, Conference Coordinator, at 1-888-808-3633

November 10-12, 1999:
1999 Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Growers Conference
Holiday Inn South, Dothan, AL
For more information e-mail: Joe Kemble (jkemble@acesag.auburn.edu) or Arlie Powell (apowell@acesag.auburn.edu)

January 11-13, 2000:
Kentucky Landscape Industries Winter Educational Conference and Trade Show.
The Lexington Center, Lexington, KY. Contact Debbie Cain, KNLA Exec. Dir. at 502-899-3622; fax 502-899-7922

January 19-21, 2000:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Don W. Sanford at 847-526-2010, fax 847-526-3993; e-mail midam@mc.net

January 29-February 2, 2000:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Lexington, KY. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

February 3-6, 2000:
The Management Clinic.
Galt House, Louisville, KT. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

June 1-3, 1999:
Mid-South Greenhouse Growers Conference.
Ramada Inn - Southwest Conference Center in Jackson, MS. More information will be available soon or you can contact Allen Owings, Extension Horticulturist at LSU.

July 8-12, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail ofa@ofa.org; web: http://www.ofa.org

July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

July 14-18, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail ofa@ofa.org; web: http://www.ofa.org

July 16-19, 2000:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference.
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail ashs@ashs.org

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

August 11-18, 2000:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference.
Baltimore, MD. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 15-16, 2000:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail tnurseryassn@blomand.net

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.