September 2002


Ken's musings

September is sprinting by us and Bernice and I need to get the September issue of the newsletter out before October greets us with another deadline. We have had a great month at Auburn. We had a wonderful inaugural nursery tour with ANA and an incredible few days celebrating the renovation of our new Greenhouses and nursery area at Auburn. Alumni and friends from AU Hort’s early, early days turned out to see some long overdue attention to our number 1 agriculture crop in the state that is supported by one of the top 5 horticulture departments in the country. With over 250 students and representing over half of the College of Agriculture's graduating seniors, the Horticulture Department is a shooting star at Auburn University. It was a great day at Auburn and the beginning of a bright future for your Horticulture Department.

We recently returned from a Cruising Tour with the Alabama Nurserymen’s Association to see a great cross section of our industry. We viewed greenhouses, nurseries, garden centers and a media or substrate plant (Fafard). Starting from the rear of the tour (because it fits my personality), our last stop was at Transplant Nursery in Lavonia, GA. I have been getting Jeff Beasley’s catalogue for years and drooling over his deciduous azaleas, rhododendrons and pieris. We had just come to the nursery from Stacey’s Greenhouse, which stretched out across the horizon with irrigation heads perfectly aligned like the lights at Atlanta International Airport. Plants were moving by themselves on conveyor belts towards a fleet of trucks in an incredibly choreographed tribute to modern mechanization and efficiency. Transplant Nursery was back to basics and within my capacity to comprehend and possibly afford. Jeff grew some beautiful plants and I picked up some great backyard nursery ideas that could help many small and medium sized nurseries. One of the first ideas that I had seen at a few other nurseries, but forget to mention to new nurseries, was his mini-water tower for filling his 100 gallon sprayer. How many times have you or your employees stood with a 5/8” hose watching the weeds grow and the insects leisurely suck the life from your plants while waiting for your tank to fill?

Jeff used a little seat-of-the-pants technology to put a 100 gallon tank atop a miniature railroad water tower structure fitted with a 2” pipe and hose at its base. If you are not at the web page and need a better visualization, please go to the pictures (www.ag.auburn.edu/landscape). The tank had an automatic float valve that quickly replenished the water after you filled up your spray tank. Gravity feed through a 2 inch pipe goes much faster than a 5/8 inch hose.

Close up of pipe and hose

Water tank technology

We had a Bouldin and Lawson representative on the tour bus that we enjoyed having with us to argue the value of manual potting vs. machine potting. All views were represented on the tour among the participants. Transplant Nursery had an automated variation of a gravity-fed media pot filler that gave us ammo to tease our Bouldin and Lawson rep. Jeff actually used an old Bouldin and Lawson conveyor belt to deliver the media to a round sheet metal bin that opened at the bottom on what appeared to be like an old whirly-gig that you used to see on playgrounds. It was a large circular merry-go-round type wheel with 1 or 3 gallon semi-circle cutouts on an upper wheel and a base for support of the containers on the lower wheel. A low-geared motor with a clutch turned the wheels and the containers were manually filled and rotated around to be planted and later placed on a wagon to go to the field. If the wheel got ahead of the potting, you could easily lean on the rotating wheel and it would stop to allow you to catch up. Being a mechanically challenged person, it was an impressive gadget to me. If you put some glossy paint and a company sticker on it, I would say you were ready to take it to the trade show. I never tire or cease to be amazed at seeing nurseries taking assorted junk, a little imagination, necessity and something that sticks stuff together to come up with something to make life easier. I think they enjoy it too.

The ingenuity of a nursery owner

Close-up

As I mentioned earlier, I was blown-away by Stacy’s Greenhouses & Nursery and I will pass on specifics of that tour later. I want to offer something from my visit to their nearby retail garden center. It is an older place, the start of it all, that has undergone a number of renovations over the years but maintains its quaint, small-town, welcoming atmosphere. I took a number of pictures to remind me of ideas that I have heard at meetings on how to make your small retail garden center work. I will list some of those ideas below and let the pictures do the talking.

Well landscaped parking lot

Colorful and clean

Inviting entrance

Clean, separate, well ventilated chemicals area

Hide the eyesores of trash, mulches and unpleasant views (rock samples displayed in small bins but are picked up in the back)

Great signage

Skylights to add to brightness of interior space and clean accessible restrooms

Three tiered plant displays - easy viewing and access

Ice cream and sandwich parlor - keep’um longer, keep’um happy and they buy more

Kids' play area (in the distance)

Exit check out

There are more but my time and your time are limited. Remember to take time to thank your employees and customers for keeping you in business.

By the way, did you happen to read the recent September 1, 2002 edition of American Nurseryman magazine where Dr. David Morgan highlighted Auburn University Horticulture Department? It is on page 10 and entitled "Planting the Seeds of Education" (excerpts follow below). Again, it is a good year for Auburn Horticulture.

Have a nice September.

Ken

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:

COLD HARDINESS OF Hydrangea macrophylla CULTIVARS

BUTTERFLY FEEDING PREFERENCES EXAMINED

WATER USE EFFICIENCY

ORNAMENTAL GRASSES AND PREEMERGENCE HERBICIDES

PLANTING THE SEEDS OF EDUCATION

THANKS AGAIN TO OUR SPONSORS, SUPPORTERS AND DONORS

PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

UPCOMING EVENTS


COLD HARDINESS OF Hydrangea macrophylla CULTIVARS

Hydrangea mycrophylla has again become an extremely popular plant in the American landscape. Hundreds of cultivars (due to extensive breeding in Europe and Japan) are available to the commercial grower. Many of the cultivars are listed as being hardy to USDA hardiness Zone 6 but their performance in the mid-and upper South has been inconsistent. This study evaluated cold hardiness at Zones 5b and 6b for 21 cultivars. None flowered reliably during the study. Even during mild winters damage was observed. The particular conditions that resulted in the most damage were early fall and late spring freezes. Authors of the study suggest that growers dig field-grown H. macrophylla plants in the fall prior to sale and store them in a protected area for the winter. These steps will allow growers to provide a quality color product for sale in early summer.

It is easy to understand the popularity of hydrangea in the landscape.

All of the cultivars tested appeared able to survive a Zone 5b winter. 'All Summer Beauty' and 'Nikko Blue' appeared to have the most reliable flowering ('Blauer Prinz', 'Blue Wave', 'Mariesii' and 'Todi' flowered poorly each year); but none of the tested cultivars flowered well all three years of the study nor did they re-flower.

There has been a lot of work on floral initiation and dormancy requirements for the greenhouse production of H. macrophylla, but not much is known about possible differences in floral initiation or dormancy chilling requirements of outdoor plants. The lack of reliable flowering from any of the cuitivars tested highlights the need to develop hydrangea cultivars that are better adapted to fluctuating fall and spring temperatures common throughout much of the United States.

(from "Flowering Performance of 21 Hydrangea macrophylla Cultivars" by S.M. Reed, published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture 20(3):155-160, 2002).

BUTTERFLY FEEDING PREFERENCES EXAMINED

Butterfly gardening has become a popular niche in horticulture. In response to popular demand many plants are marketed by the horticultural industry as butterfly attractants. Many cultivars of Pentas are available exhibiting different flower colors and growth habits. Research has shown butterflies can be highly selective in their choice of nectar plants, based on many factors, including color, nectar guides, and sugar concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate feeding preferences of one butterfly species, Agraulis vanillae (Gulf Fritillary) among Pentas lanceolata cultivars. Plant characteristics investigated in this study are flower color characteristics and morphology.

There have been few detailed studies conducted examining whether all cultivars or varieties of a certain plant species are equally effective for attracting butterflies. In these studies, visitation of the Gulf Fritillary butterfly to one Pentas cultivar ‘Lilac Mist’ was greater than visitation to the remaining cultivars in the tests. However, the various cultivar characteristics investigated did not reveal obvious correlations with the observed preference. Additional studies on the flowering characteristics of Pentas lanceolata cultivars evaluating nectar volume and nectar carbohydrate composition, along with other commonly used nectar sources, could provide information to the horticulture industry regarding which traits are most effective for butterfly attraction and which cultivars should be targeted for hybridization.

(from "Feeding Preferences of Agraulis vanillae (Gulf Fritillary) for Pentas lanceolata Cultivars" presented at SNA 2002 by L.L. Bruner, D.J. Eakes, G.J. Keever, J.W. Baier, C. Stuart-Whitman, P. R. Knight, and J.E. Altland, Auburn University, Department of Horticulture).

WATER USE EFFICIENCY

Pine bark substrates that are often used for container nursery crops have low moisture retention properties. For this reason, daily irrigation is a commonly recommended practice during the growing season. The current guidelines suggest that this irrigation take place before 10 a.m. to reduce the potential of wind blowing the irrigation water from targeted areas and to reduce evaporation of irrigation water.

Research indicates that multiple irrigation events during the day result in significantly more growth. This study evaluated the effects of irrigation timing on plant growth, photosynthesis, water utilization efficiency, and substrate temperature. Plants irrigated at noon, 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. significantly outperformed plants irrigated during the early morning. The decrease in plant growth appeared to be related to increases in water stress over the course of the growing season. Allowing the substrate to dry out during the day appears to be rather problemmatic. Growers may want to change their watering regimen to enhance growth of their plants.

(from "Timing of Low Pressure Irrigation Affects Plant Growth and Water Utilization Efficiency" by Stuart L. Warren and Ted E. Bilderback, published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture 20(3):184-188 September 2002).


ORNAMENTAL GRASSES AND PREEMERGENCE HERBICIDES

To meet the increasing needs for ornamental grasses (very popular landscape plants), nurseries are producing these grasses in containers. It is important to develop a plan for effective weed management. Premergence herbicides are usually used to control weeds in these landscape grass containers. This research was initiated to determine the tolerance of ornamental grasses to herbicides that are commonly used in the nursery industry.

Six ornamental grass species tolerated the preemergence herbicides Pendulum, Barricade, Treflan, Gallery, and OH2 at labeled rates. However, sprayed applications of Pennant and Surflan severely injured all species in that container study. In general the grasses tolerated the herbicides well. There was some stunting of growth and stand reduction which may indicate that delaying herbicide application until after transplanting could be beneficial. Of the grasses tested, their tolerance of the herbicides increased following the second application. Lower rates also improved crop tolerance.

(from "Tolerance of Ornamental Grasses to Preemergence Herbicides" by Jeffrey F. Derr, published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture 20(3):161-165 September 2002).


PLANTING THE SEEDS OF EDUCATION

by David L. Morgan

Excerpts from his recently published article in American Nurseryman:

"Several weeks ago, I spent a few days on the campus of Auburn University in Auburn, AL. While there, I shared some time with Dr. Harry Ponder, professor of horticulture and undergraduate program coordinator, as well as job placement and internship program coordinator for the Department of Horticulture. Ponder has been a member of the Auburn faculty for 22 years, and word around campus is he remembers every student who came through the department, as well as the names of their spouses, children and where they all ended up.

...students arriving for their first year at the university...don't know much about horticulture. Oh, some may think they do, but Ponder doesn't agree, and therein lies the Auburn philosophy of horticulture education.

Ponder gets first crack at the students, and he lays down the law, starting with involvement; students must get to know one another, their professors and people in the business world.

"You start networking the day you enter our program," Ponder explains, insisting students know their peers, collect business cards from recruiters and attend horticulture reuinons on campus. "By the time you graduate," he tells them, "you will have a network [developed]. It will be invaluable to you. You can call people across the country."

Auburn also teaches these future professionals what they came to learn. Because landscape horticulture commands 80% of the jobs in the green industry, Auburn has adjusted its teaching assignments accordingly. This summer, the department opened a new faculty position for Dr. Amy Wright, who recently completed her PhD dissertation on establishing plants in the landscape.

In addition, the department retains its talented faculty members and recognizes their hard work. (Dr. Jeff Sibley was recently appointed Alumni Professor at Auburn, a first in the university's College of Agriculture.)

Finally, the department takes care of its students until they depart successfully. "We don't feel like we're through with a student until he or she gets a job," says Ponder.

While some other horticulture programs nationwide are shrinking, Auburn's has steadily increased its enrollment since the 1980s. This month, 240 students are expected, and the department continues to have the largest enrollment in the university's College of Agriculture.

It makes you wonder if success in horticulture education, like growing good crops, has to do with planting seed in fertile soil."

(excerpted from "Planting the Seeds of Education" by David L. Morgan, published in American Nurseryman, September 1, 2002).


THANKS AGAIN TO OUR SPONSORS, SUPPORTERS AND DONORS

In case you weren't able to attend the Auburn University Horticulture on Display program last week and didn't get to see the boards recognizing our sponsors, supporters and donors, we would like to thank them again.

SPONSORS OF AU HORTICULTURE ON DISPLAY
  • Barton's Greenhouse & Nursery, Inc.
  • Beck's Turf Inc.
  • BWI Companies, Inc.
  • Cassco/Southern Growers
  • Colorburst
  • Dixie Green, Inc.
  • Environmental Care
  • Florikan Southeast
  • Greenway Plants Inc.
  • Harwell's Green Thumb Nursery
  • Meadows Branch Nursery
  • Landscape Services Inc.
  • Mitchell Ellis Products
  • Moore and Davis Nursery
  • Pate Landscape Co., Inc.
  • S&S Nurseries, Inc.
  • Sun-Gro Horticulture Distribution, Inc.
  • Wright's Nursery and Greenhouse Inc.

SUPPORTERS OF THE
AUBURN UNIVERSITY HORTICULTURE DEPARTMENT

  • Acuff Irrigation Co.
  • Hoyt and Fannie Adair
  • Advanced Mower
  • Alabama Fruit & Vegetable Growers Association
  • Alabama Nurserymen's Association
  • American Rhododendron Society
  • Azalea Trace Nursery
  • Ball Seed Company
  • Barton's Greenhouse & Nursery Inc.
  • BASF
  • Beck's Turf
  • Charles Bishop - Commissioner of the Alabama Dept. of Agriculture and Industries
  • Blackjack Gardens
  • Blooming Colors
  • Ken Buck
  • Byers Wholesale Nursery, Inc.
  • Carolina Nurseries, Inc.
  • CASSCO
  • Center for Applied Nursery Research
  • Condor Computing, Inc.
  • Cottage Hill Nursery, Inc.
  • Cottaquilla Growers
  • Davey Tree & Lawn Care Experts
  • Dennis Nursery & Greenhouse, Inc.
  • Dip N Grow, Astoria Pacific
  • Dixie Green Inc.
  • Dodd & Dodd Nursery
  • Dramm Corporation
  • Environmental Care, Inc.
  • Fafard, Inc.
  • Flowerwood Liners, Inc.
  • Flowerwood Nurseries
  • Greene Hill Nursery, Inc.
  • Greenway Plants, Inc.
  • Griffin LLC
  • Taylor Harper
  • HighGrove Partners
  • Hold Em, Inc
  • Grady Holt
  • Hunter Industries Incorporated
  • Johnny's Pleasure Plants
  • Arthur A. "Buck" Jones & Associates
  • Kenney Nursery
  • Lacebark, Inc., Publications & Research
  • Landscape Creations, Inc.
  • Little River Nursery
  • Live Oak Nursery
  • Martin's Nursery
  • McCorkle Nurseries, Inc.
  • A. McGill & Sons Nursery
  • Millbrook Nurseries
  • Minus Vinus Nursery
  • Mississippi Chemical Corporation
  • Montgomery, Chris
  • Moore and Davis Nursery
  • Morris & Sons Nursery, Inc.
  • Ronnie Murphey - Deputy Commissioner of the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries
  • John Neighbors
  • Nursery Supplies, Inc.
  • Oly-Ola Sales Inc.
  • Pate Landscaping
  • Pavestone Co.
  • PDSI - Plant Development Services, Inc.
  • Pike Family Nurseries
  • Plantation Tree Company
  • Pursell Technologies, Inc.
  • Rennerwood
  • Rootmaker Products Company
  • J. Frank Schmidt & Son Company
  • Art Sessions
  • Shore Acres Plant Farm
  • Southern Growers
  • Ron Sparks - Assistant Commissioner of the Alabama Dept. of Agriculture and Industries
  • The Buffalo Horticulture Sales Company
  • Tieco
  • Tom Dodd Nurseries, Inc.
  • TruGreen LandCare
  • Uniroyal Chemical Company
  • Valent Corporation
  • Van der Giessen Nursery
  • George Warden
  • White Oak Plantation
  • Steve Wilson
  • Wright's Nursery and Greenhouse

HENRY P. ORR ENDOWED FUND
FOR HORTICULTURAL EXCELLENCE

Donors as of 8/28/02

  • Alabama Farmers Federation
  • Alabama Nurserymen’s Association
  • Mr. Edgar G. Aldridge
  • Anderson Horticultural Concepts Inc.
  • Mr. Frank Barbaree
  • Dr. William E. Barrick
  • Mr. Ralph Richard Beauchamp
  • Mr. David Woodrow Bradford
  • Mr. William Lawrence Brown
  • Color Burst
  • Mr. James Stein Crockett
  • Dr. Fennechiena K. Dane
  • Dr. Thomas Henry Dodd, Jr.
  • Mr. Douglas Howard Dorough
  • Mr. Spencer George Douglass
  • Dow Agrosciences
  • Dr. W. Alfred Dozier, Jr.
  • Dr. Donald Joseph Eakes
  • Dr. Robert C. Ebel
  • Mr. Thomas M. Eden, Jr.
  • Mr. Christopher R. Eidman
  • Ms. Drucilla Esslinger
  • Mr. Steven R. Farrington
  • Mrs. Lorie Merrill Felton
  • Dr. John A. Floyd, Jr.
  • Mr. Daniel B. Franklin
  • Dr. Charles H. Gilliam
  • Dr. William Goff
  • Mr. B. James Harwell
  • Mr. Charles W. Harwell
  • The Heinselman Family Living Trust
  • Mr. Newton Jarrell Hogg
  • Mrs. Susan Schiffman Howard
  • Dr. Bryson L. James
  • Dr. Samuel B. Jones, Jr.
  • Dr. Gary Jean Keever
  • Dr. James Raymond Kessler, Jr.
  • Mr. Richard Benton Knowles
  • Landscape Service, Inc.
  • Live Oaks Landscape, Inc.
  • Mr. Thomas Rudd Lowder, III
  • Mrs. Mary D. Magnusson
  • Mr. Terril Arnold Nell
  • Mr. Billy Clifton Peters
  • Mr. Charles Rankin Sawyer, Jr.
  • Mr. John Elton Sewell
  • Mrs. Barbara Wilman Sheffer
  • Dr. Jeff Lynn Sibley
  • Southern Growers
  • Southern Progress Corporation
  • Mr. Buford James Walker, III
  • Mrs. Angela Watson Williams
  • Dr. Thomas Henry Yeager

HOYT ADAIR MEMORIAL
HORTICULTURE ENDOWMENT

Donors as of 8/28/02

  • Alabama Farmers Federation
  • Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association
  • Mr. John P. Caspers
  • Mrs. Travis A. Clark
  • Classical Fruits & Fairfield Farms
  • Dr. W. Alfred Dozier, Jr.
  • Mr. David V. Goodlett
  • Mr. Brian Hardin
  • Mr. Clinton Hardin
  • Ms. Lillie B. Hogue
  • Mr. Mike Johnson
  • Mr. Tom Jones
  • Lawrence County Farmers Federation
  • Mr. Donie Neal Martin
  • Dr. James E. Martin
  • Mr. Sean Dale Masterson
  • Mr. Edward J. Miller
  • Ms. M. Gayle Murphree
  • Mr. Jerry A. Newby
  • Ms. Shirley J. Owens
  • Mr. Gene Pickens
  • Mr. James Edwin Pinion
  • Mr. Arthur W. Sanderson
  • Mr. G. S. Sanderson
  • Shoals Master Gardeners
  • Mr. Jerry Lynn Sibley
  • Mr. Art Slaton
  • Ms. LeRuth G. Slaton
  • Ms. Linda C. Smith
  • Mr. Joseph G. Stewart
  • Mr. Donald L. Swanner
  • Ms. Judy Tricoli
  • Mr. J. A. Tucker
  • Mr. August J. Wallmeyer


PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

AUBURN PLANT DISEASE REPORT - JUNE
Jackie Mullen
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist

July was seasonably warm with day temperatures in the 90EF range for most of the state. Moisture was variable across the state with parts of northern and southern Alabama receiving showers frequently and other parts of the state, such as the Auburn area, receiving very little rain. Our plant sample numbers at the Auburn lab were about normal for July with 181 plant samples received.

Helminthosporium-type (Bipolaris, Exserohilum, and Drechslera spp.) leaf spots/blights and crown rots of bermuda were the most commonly-seen problems in July, seen mostly on bermuda samples sent from the central and eastern sections of the state. This disease was also seen on a few zoysia samples and a St. Augustine grass sample. These leaf spots may vary in size and shape, depending upon the genus & species of the Helminthosporium-type fungus and the grass host involved. Weather conditions may also affect the leaf spot appearance. If weather conditions are favorable for disease development and spread (alternating periods of dry and wet conditions), leaf spots may coalesce and whole leaves and crown areas will become blighted. When crowns are infected, whole plants may die. Disease control involves appropriate fertilization. Potassium deficiencies have been shown to cause increased susceptibilities to some Helminthosporium diseases of turf grasses. See ANR-621 and the 2002 Alabama Pest Management Handbook for more information and current fungicide recommendations for this disease.

Pythium crown and root rots were seen in July on aster, Leyland cypress cuttings, Dianthus, Hosta, Liriope, pepper, and salvia. Pythium is well-known to cause root decay of herbaceous plants and sometimes feeder roots of woody plants when conditions are wet for a prolonged period of time. Pythium requires wet conditions in order for the fungus to develop and cause disease. Research has also shown that previously stressed or damaged roots are more susceptible to Pythium when wet conditions arrive. A drought stress or root injury from excess application of fertilizer has been shown to result in increased susceptibility and incidence of Pythium root rot disease when wet conditions follow the injury. Disease control typically involves removal of all damaged plants, reducing water levels in the soil or media, and possibly adjusting water drainage in the soil/media. Fungicide drenches are used in some nursery/greenhouse situations. See the 2002 edition of the Alabama Pest Management Handbook for the specific crop of interest.

Pestalotia needle blight and Phomopsis tip blight were seen on juniper. The Pestalotia needle blight is typically seen as a branch dieback or inner needle blight of lower foliage of juniper. The fruiting bodies of Pestalotia are typically present on the browning needles. These black bodies are often visible without any magnification. Diagnostic spores are usually present and can be detected with microscopic study at 100x. Disease control usually requires the elimination of stress factors. Cleary's 3336 will provide protection against new infections. Phomopsis tip blight is a fungal disease that may occur on healthy vigorous or weakened junipers, deodar cedar, arborvitae, or cypress. Typically twig and branch tips on lower sections of junipers will first show the brown tip symptoms. The browning will gradually spread down the twig. Black fruiting bodies of the fungus may be visible. The diagnostic spores are observed with magnification of 100x. Disease control requires removal of damaged limb sections and protective sprays of Cleary's 3336 or other labelled fungicides. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook and ANR-1173.

Daylily rust, caused by Puccinia hemerocallidis, was diagnosed on some greenhouse/nursery daylily samples. This disease is easily diagnosed if samples are taken as disease is in early stages of development. The yellow-orange (rusty) spore masses may be seen with a visual examination sometimes. The spore masses can be easily seen with a microscopic study if disease is collected as leaf spots are distinct with green leaf color surrounding the leaf spots. Once the leaves are dead, it may not be possible to diagnose the problem. Rust fungi are obligate parasites and so they cannot be cultured in the lab as an aid in diagnosis. Disease control involves sanitation (cutting off diseased plant foliage) or plant removal if disease is severe. The fungicides Banner Maxx or Heritage have given good disease control when applied according to label recommendations.

Tomato spotted wilt virus was seen on tomato and peanut in July. This disease was fairly wide-spread on garden tomatoes and peanuts this past month. On tomato, the plants initially show black blotches and ringspots. Fruit may develop yellow ring patterns. Plants are stunted, wilt, and eventually die. Disease control is difficult. Plant removal as soon as symptoms are noticed and thrips control with insecticides may help slow the spread of the disease. But, insecticides are often not 100% effective, and thrips spread of the disease still occurs. Peanut symptoms develop as a yellow mottle and sometimes yellow ringspots on leaves. Infected plants do not grow well and the nut crop is reduced. Systemic insecticides may help slow the spread of this disease.

Sclerotium rolfsii was observed on tomato and Hosta in July. This is a common disease in Alabama in the summer when temperatures are warm and moisture is abundant. The fungus typically causes a crown rot at the soil-line. Visible white mold often develops around the soft decay of the lower stem or trunk of the plant. Small brown-black, round, mustard-seed-sized sclerotia (over-wintering bodies) often develop in the white mold. This crown rot disease often develops on herbaceous plants. Tomato and hosta are frequently damaged. But, this fungus has a very wide host range and woody plants, such as apple trees, may also be affected. Infected herbaceous plants usually show a wilt and collapse of the lower stem. Woody plants usually develop a dieback and wilt as the lower trunk decays. Disease control is difficult as is often the case with soil-borne fungal pathogens. Plant removal is required. Soil solarization may be effective. Prostar or Terraclor are labelled for some plants.

July 2002 Plant Diseases Seen In The Plant Diagnostic Lab at Auburn

PLANTDISEASECOUNTY
Aster Pythium Root Rot *
Azalea Colletotrichum Leaf Spot Lauderdale
Bentgrass Brown Patch (Rhizoctonia) Jefferson
Bentgrass Pythium Blight Jefferson
Bermuda Exserohilum Blight & Crown Rot Russell
Bermuda Exserohilum Leaf Spot Talladega
Bermuda Drechslera Crown Rot Pike
Bermuda Pythium Blight Cullman
Bermuda, Hybrid Bipolaris Crown Rot & Blight Elmore
Bermuda, Tifton Bipolaris Crown Rot & Blight Autauga
Bermuda, Tifton Brown Patch (Rhizoctonia) Autauga
Bougainvillea Anthracnose (Colletrotrichum) Limestone
Centipede Brown Patch (Rhizoctonia) Elmore, Monroe, Mobile
Centipede Take-All Patch (Gaeumannomyces) Mobile
Chrysanthemum Phoma Leaf Spot & Blight Lee
Corn Southern Corn Leaf Blight (Bipolaris maydis)Shelby
Cucumber Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne) Dallas
Cypress, Leyland Pythium Cutting End Rot *
Dianthus Fusarium Crown & Root Rot *
Dianthus Pythium Crown & Root Rot *
Daylily Anthracnose (Colletotrichum)*, Mobile
Daylily Cercospora Leaf Spot *
Daylily Kabatiella Streak *
Daylily Daylily Rust (Puccinia hemerocallidis) *
Fescue Brown Patch (Rhizoctonia) Cleburne
Gardenia Phytophthora Crown & Root Rot *
Hosta Pythium Root Rot *
Juniper Pestalotia Blight Lee
Juniper Phomopsis Blight Montgomery
Liriope Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Baldwin
Liriope Pythium & Fusarium Root Rot Baldwin
Maple Botryosphaeria Canker Montgomery
Maple, Japanese Phomopsis Canker Lee
Nectarine Brown Rot (Monilinia) Montgomery
Oak Hypoxylon Canker Colbert
Peach Brown Rot (Monilinia) Montgomery
Pear, Bradford Botryosphaeria Canker Houston
Pear, Bradford Fireblight (Erwinia amylovora Russell
Pecan Powdery Mildew Madison
Pepper Bacterial Leaf Spot (Xanthomonas) Dallas
Pepper Pythium Root Rot Geneva*
Pumpkin Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne) Escambia
Pumpkin Watermelon Mosaic Virus Cullman
Salvia Pythium Root Rot *
Soybean Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Dallas
Soybean Ascochyta Leaf Spot Dallas
Soybean Downy Mildew (Peronospora manshurica) Pickens
Soybean Phyllosticta Leaf Spot Pickens
Soybean Rhizoctonia Crown & Stem Rot Dallas
Soybean Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne) Washington
SoybeanTarget Spot (Corynespora) Pickens
St. Augustine Brown Patch (Rhizoctonia) Mobile & Monroe
St. Augustine Gray Leaf Spot (Piricularia) Elmore
St. Augustine Helminthosporium Leaf Spot Elmore
St. Augustine Take-All Patch (Gaeumannomyces) Mobile
Tomato Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas) Cullman?
Tomato Colletotrichum on Lower Stem Rot Blount
Tomato Early Blight (Alternaria alternata) Russell
Tomato Septoria Leaf Spot Franklin
Tomato Southern Blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) Colbert, Cullman
Tomato Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Lee
Zoysia Bipolaris Leaf Spot Colbert
Zoysia Brown Patch (Rhizoctonia) Montgomery
Zoysia Dollar Spot (Sclerotinia) Autauga
Zoysia Helminthosporium Leaf Spot *, Elmore
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery diseases.

BIRMINGHAM PLANT DISEASE REPORT - JUNE
J. Jacobi
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist

The lab received 128 samples during the month of July. Most of the disease and pest problems were typical for mid-summer. These included southern blight of cally lily and tomato, dollar spot on turfgrasses, and powdery mildew on various ornamentals. Daylily rust was seen in another large collection of daylilies.

2002 July Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab

PLANTDISEASECOUNTY
Apple Cedar Apple Rust Jefferson
Apple Frog Eye Leaf Spot Jefferson
Azalea Lacebugs(2) Jefferson (2)
Azalea Phomopsis Dieback Jefferson
Azalea Powdery Mildew Jefferson
Begonia Pythium Crown Rot Jefferson
Bentgrass Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) * (2)
Bentgrass Dollar Spot *
Bentgrass Pythium Root Rot * (2)
Bermudagrass Black Layer, Poor Drainage Jefferson (2)
Bermudagrass Chemical Damage Jefferson
Bermudagrass Dollar Spot Jefferson (4)
Bermudagrass Melting-out (Curvularia) Jefferson
Blueberry Phyllosticta Leaf Spot Shelby
Boxwood Volutella Blight Jefferson
Buckeye Leaf Blotch (Guignardia) Jefferson
Calla Lily Southern Blight (Sclerotium) Jefferson
Centipedegrass Brown Patch Blount
Centipedegrass Dollar Spot Coosa (2)
Centipedegrass Drought Jefferson (2)
Cleome Rhizoctonia Root Rot Jefferson
Crape Myrtle Cercospora Leaf Spot Jefferson
Crape Myrtle Flea Beetle (Altica Foliacca) Jefferson
Crape Myrtle Powdery Mildew Jefferson
Cypress, Leyland Cercospora Needle Blight Jefferson
Daylily Daylily Rust Jefferson
Dogwood Powdery Mildew Jefferson (2)
Dogwood Septoria Leaf Spot Jefferson (2)
Dogwood Spot Anthracnose Jefferson
Holly, Japanese Pythium Root Rot Jefferson
Honeydew Melon Powdery Mildew Shelby
Ivy, Algerian Phytophthora Root Rot Jefferson
Juniper Spider Mites Jefferson
Leucothoe, Florida Drought, Pestalotia Leaf Spot (secondary) Jefferson
Maple Marginal Leaf Scorch Jefferson
Maple Suspect Fungal Canker Jefferson
Mondograss Anthracnose Jefferson
Mondograss Web Blight (Rhizoctonia) Jefferson
Oak, Southern Red Monochetia Leaf Blotch Jefferson (2)
Peony Botrytis Blight Jefferson
Poplar (Populus) Marssonina Leaf Spot Jefferson
Sycamore Canker (Botrodiploidia) Jefferson
Tomato Early Blight Jefferson
Tomato Fusarium Wilt Jefferson
Tomato Spider Mites Jefferson (2)
Tomato Southern Blight Jefferson
Zoysiagrass Brown Patch Jefferson
Zoysiagrass Dollar Spot Jefferson
Zoysiagrass Leaf Rust Jefferson
Zoysiagrass Zoysia Mite Jefferson
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery samples

Lab Notes Remember that August-early October is the best time to sample for soil nematode analysis. The charge for nematode analysis is $10 per sample.


UPCOMING EVENTS

April to October, 2002:
Floriade 2002.
See the AmeriGarden (5,400 square feet), part of the world horticulture exhibition in the Netherlands.
For more information call 808-961-6660 or visit
http://www.floriade.nl/ or http://www.amerigarden2002.com/

September 3 - 5, 2002:
Auburn University Horticulture on Display.
Greenhouse renovation tour; golf tournament; clay events; Moore and Davis Nursery tour; reception and dinner; greenhouse educational program.
For information contact Ken Tilt at ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu; phone 334-844-5484

September 21, 2002:
Alabama Christmas Tree Association Meeting.
Tarrant, Alabama
For information contact Ken Tilt at 334-844-5484 or ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu

September 26, 2002:
Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station Nursery Crops Field Day.
Ornamentals field day at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station in Fletcher, North Carolina; 9-12
Email: Dick_Bir@ncsu.edu for more information.

September 29-October 2, 2002:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society NA and IPPS Southern Region NA Annual Meeting.
Hunt Valley (Baltimore), MD.
Contact Margot Bridgen at 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; 860-429-6818, E-mail: mbippser@neca.com or Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; ph. 817-577-9272; e-mail, dleemorgan@msn.com

October 1 - 3, 2002:
3rd Eastern Native Grass Symposium.
North Carolina Botanical Garden and Friday Center
Chapel Hill, NC
Contact Teresa Flora, NCBG, CB#3375, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
email: tflora@email.unc.edu
URL: http://www.unc.edu/depts/ncbg

October 2 - 5, 2002:
The International Maple Symposium.
Westonbirt Arboretum, Tetbury, Gloucestershire, GL8, 8QS, England
Phone: 44(0) 1666 880220; fax: 44(0) 1666 880559
Email: westonbirt@forestry.gsi.gov.uk
URL: http://www.westonbirtarboretum.com

October 4-5, 2002:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
URL: http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 6 - 9, 2002:
Composting in the Southeast Conference and Exposition.
Palm Harbor, FL
For information go to: http://www.asla.org

October 18 - 22, 2002:
American Society of Landscape Architects Meeting.
McEnery Convention Center, San Jose,California.
Contact ASLA, 636 Eye Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-3736; phone 202-898-2444; fax 202-898-1185; URL http://www.asla.org

October 30 - November 2, 2002:
IPPS Western Region 43rd Annual Conference.
Sheraton Mesa Hotel & Convention Center, Mesa, Arizona
Contact Dr. Sheila Bhattacharya, V&P Nurseries, Inc., PO Box 4221, Mesa, AZ 85211-4221; phone 480-917-9847; fax 480-917-2856; email sheila@vp-nurseries.com; URL http://www.ipps.org/WesternNA/wr2002/

January 7 - 9, 2003:
Kentucky Landscape Industries Winter Educational Conference and Trade Show.
The Kentucky International Convention Center, Louisville, KY
Contact Betsie Taylor, KNLA Exec. Dir., 350 Village Drive, Frankfort, KY 40601; phone 502-848-0055 or 800-735-9791; fax 502-848-0032; email knla@mis.net;
URL: http://www.knla.org

January 15 - 17, 2003:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact: Rand Baldwin at 847-526-2010, Fax 847-526-3993, e-mail mail@midam.org
URL: http://www.midam.org

January 18 - 20, 2003:
Tennessee Nursery and Landscape Association Trade Show and Conference.
Chattanooga Convention Center, Chattanooga, TN
Phone 931-473-3951; fax 931-473-5883; email tnurseryassn@blomand.net;
URL: http://www.tnla.com

Janury 19 - 22, 2003:
Southeast Greenhouse Conference and Trade Show.
Greenville, South Carolina
877-927-2775; www.sgcts.org

January 20 - 22, 2003:
Central Environmental Nursery Trade Show "CENTS".
Greater Columbus Convention Center, Columbus, Ohio
Contact Bill Stalter, ONLA at 800-825-5062; fax 800-860-1713; email onlagreen@aol.com;
URL: http://www.onla.org

January 30 - February 02, 2003:
ANLA Management Clinic.
Louisville, KY.
Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; Fax, 202-789-1893
URL: http://www.anla.org

February 1 - 3, 2003:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Meeting.
Mobile, AL. Contact Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656; phone 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; email psmeal@vt.edu;
URL: http://www.ashs.org

July 15 - 20, 2003:
ANLA Convention & Executive Learning Retreat.
Location TBA. Contact: ANLA, 202-789-2900; Fax, 202-789-1893.
URL: http://www.anla.org

July 30-August 2, 2003:
SNA 2003- Southern Nursery Association Researcher’s Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact SNA at 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636.
URL:http://www.sna.org

September 30 - October 4, 2003:
American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Meeting and 100th Anniversary.
Providence, RI.
Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024, E-mail: ashs@ashs.org
URL: http://www.ashs.org

October 3-4, 2003:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 5-8, 2003:
IPPS Southern Region NA.
San Antonio, TX.
Contact: Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; phone 817-577-9272; e-mail, dleemorgan@msn.com

October 22 - 25, 2003:
IPPS Eastern Region.
Portland, ME. Contact M. Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; email mbippser@neca.com

July 29 - 31, 2004:
SNA 2004 - Southern Nursery Association Researcher’s Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact: SNA 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636
URL: http://www.sna.org

October 1-2, 2004:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 3-6, 2004:
IPPS Southern Region NA
Greenville/Spartanburg, S.C.
Contact: Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; phone 817-577-9272; e-mail, dleemorgan@msn.com

Send horticultural questions and comments to ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu.

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.