Keeping you up to date on your Horticulture Department and University and
October Education Month
PRORATION AT AUBURN
The dust is starting to settle on all the proration problems that we have faced this past year at Auburn University. We will continue to struggle into next year but things were not as bad as we feared (no wood on this computer to "Knock On"). We are thankful that we did not have to let anyone go. I know you can identify with our setbacks. You occasionally experience bad business years, hurricanes, freezes, disease or pest outbreaks and other disasters. Like you, we assess the damage and do what we have to do to keep things running. We also try to concentrate on the good things happening at Auburn. Since we are hired through the land grant university system to partner with and serve you, I want you to know and understand our strengths and weaknesses. Partnering for our future is a key saying for Auburn University these days and we thank you for stepping forward to take a more active role as a partner.
RENOVATION OF HORTICULTURE GREENHOUSE COMPLEX
Many good things are happening at Auburn in spite of our proration. What some may consider bad news is good news to us. The University building inspectors condemned our 1940 vintage Horticulture Greenhouses because of potential danger to our students. Sixty-year-old greenhouses do not offer the best conditions for teaching current technology to our students or offer an atmosphere conducive to quality research. One million dollars is being allocated by the University for a five year temporary renovation project which will include much more than building 5 or 6 new greenhouses. The teaching lab space will be spruced up and brought up to safety specs; roads will be resurfaced and we will get a much-needed chemical storage and mixing station to meet EPA standards. If anyone should be setting a proper example for protecting the environment, it should be your University. I emphasized temporary renovation because the stated goal of the Department and the College is to build a new teaching/research and extension facility to meet the needs of one of the largest and best Horticulture programs in the country.
Our mission statement at Auburn stresses teaching as the highest priority and it is the shining star of what we do in Horticulture. We have over 240 students enrolled in our program and a faculty that is always asking how can they do a better job of preparing our students and infecting them with the enthusiasm about working and being a part of our great Green Industry. That number of students ranks 2nd or 3rd in the nation among horticulture departments according to best estimates at this time. With these numbers, we have been authorized to advertise for a new teaching position for landscape horticulture. Some of our classes are overflowing. We are very excited to have the students flocking to horticulture and that they are in great demand by industry. We are also excited to get some attention to our needs in horticulture. We thank the nursery industry for their support in helping to push for these improvements. The ANA and ALFA have been very supportive in raising issues of Auburn University and our Industry to legislators.
ANA SUPPORTS EXTENSION PROGRAM
I mentioned this special gift last month but it is part of the many good things happening at Auburn. So, I will say it again. It is worth repeating. The Alabama Nurserymen's Association also stepped in recently with $16,000 to support the nursery and greenhouse Extension program. This is a new commitment for ANA. The Board was very generous and kind in saying that they were happy to finally be in a position to help support the Extension efforts along with their Scholarship and Research support. Proration had cut all funding to Extension specialists. People were here to serve but without any travel funds or any funds to do the job. Operation money had been declining steadily over the past 5 years reaching zero support this year. A money saving proposal was presented by Auburn University recently to reduce all College of Agriculture faculty to 9-month appointments. A percentage of our salary (not determined yet) would be given to the faculty and each faculty member would be responsible for raising their own salary for the other three months through grants. The $16,000 support from ANA will pay about $2,000 each for travel expenses for Dr. Raymond Kessler and me and $6,000 each to help supplement our summer salaries. We have always been dedicated to providing educational service to the industry. We will continue with that goal. We are very thankful to the membership for coming to our rescue and excited about our increased partnership to serve the industry.
EXCEPTIONAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR OCTOBER
October is a bonanza of good educational stuff. You could be gone all October, if you had the money and time to be non-selective. Pick at least one or two of these activities to attend to pick up new ideas to help your business. Do not let excuses get in the way. It is extremely important to get away from the nursery from time to time to see what is happening at other nurseries.
ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE EXPERIMENT STATION (MOBILE)
October 9, 2001
Every two years the Ornamental Horticulture research station in Mobile holds a field day to share all the great container research being conducted in the Azalea Capital of the World. It is a morning affair with all the research being presented in the field by the researchers and graduate students. Research ranges from weed, insect and disease control to fertility, irrigation, plant growth regulators, plant evaluation and much more. It is topped off by a sponsored lunch. It is a great time to see your friends and get to know the researchers that are serving you. Call John Olive (Station Superintendent) or Chazz Hesselein (Area Horticulture Extension Specialist) at 334-342-2366 or just drop in at the station at 8 am in the morning for coffee and donuts.
I said October was the explosive month in education but let me sneak in a September 9-11 meeting and Trade Show sponsored by the Alabama Turfgrass Association (ATA) at the Mobile Conference Center. Since turfgrass is not in our Horticulture Department, I sometimes miss some of the great things this Association does for our Green Industry. They will offer 3 days packed with educational events covering, sod production, landscaping, golf course and athletic field management as well as a full compliment of trade show vendors. Contact the ATA at 866-246-4203 or fax 866-786-3644 for registration information.
SOUTHEAST CHRISTMAS TREE MEETING
On October 5-7, the Alabama Christmas Tree Association is combining with the Georgia Christmas Tree Association along with LA, TN, MS and FL to have a great regional Christmas Tree meeting at Cordele, GA. It will be held on the farm of Bill Murray, who has a lifetime of experience in Christmas tree production. Christmas trees left the forestry arena many years ago and fell under horticulture as an intensively managed crop. Nursery people could gain much knowledge in the pruning and shearing techniques used by Christmas tree growers. These techniques and the introduction of landscape trees have broken down the barriers between nurseries and Christmas trees to offer Christmas trees as a high quality landscape plant. Christmas tree growers are now growing many plants in above ground and in pot-in-pot containers. So, the difference between the nursery and Christmas tree industry is in name and target market only. Contact Bill Murray, 912-273-5748 or Ken Tilt 334-844-5484 for registration information.
CANR FIELD DAY AND THE SOUTHERN PLANT CONFERENCE
The Center for Applied Nursery Research (CANR) will be holding its annual field day on Wednesday, October 10 in Dearing, GA. followed by the SNA's Southern Plant Conference in Athens on the 11-13. What a great 4 days this will be! The cooperative relationship between the University of Georgia and the CANR offers a wonderful formula for good practical research. The information offered at this field day will provide a large amount of take home, useable information that is guaranteed to make a difference at your nursery. Auburn University will be represented at the field day presenting some of its research as well. This is a great research atmosphere in the middle of the nursery research center that is immaculately maintained by Kay Bowman and her staff. If I had to be that neat at home it would kill me, but for my research, I really appreciate the efforts by Kay and McCorkle's Nursery to provide the facilities and support for some good work. The field day was scheduled at this time so you could leave the nursery and run up the road to see one of SNA's greatest educational programs. It happens every two years. The best of the plant gurus from around the country will be featured to present the most exciting new plant introductions to the nursery industry. If you are a plant nut, bring your "Easy Boy Pills" and put a limit on your checking account. These new plants will bring tears to your eyes. I tried to get into the host hotel and it was already full so it looks like it is going to be a great event! For information on registration for the CANR Field Day, contact: Karen "Kay" Bowman, Phone: 706 597-8309, FAX: 706 595-9678, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. For information on the SNA Southern Plant Conference contact: www.sna.org or call the SNA office at 770-953-3311.
SOUTHERN REGION INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROPAGATOR'S MEETING
If there was ever a meeting that was a must attend every year, it is the SR-IPPS. It is a meeting for growers put on by growers and is the best educational meeting and tours that you will attend during the year. You gain more at the coffeepot and on the bus speaking to fellow nursery producers than you will get in the formal educational events. This is saying a lot because the formal educational sessions are overflowing with information that mean thousands of dollars to your bottom line. If your questions are not answered in the formal meeting, there is a question box at the end of the day where your concerns are presented to over 400 nursery professionals. The odds are you will get an answer. This year's event is in Houston, TX on October 18-21 at the Wyndham Greenspoint Hotel . For registration information contact Dr. David Morgan at 817-577-9272 or e-mail at email@example.com. Do yourself and your business a favor by making the time to attend this event.
CENTRAL SOUTH NATIVE PLANT CONFERENCE
Nationally known plant experts, naturalists and garden authors will present topics with wide appeal for homeowners, landscapers, nurserymen, educators and garden enthusiasts at the Central South Native Plant Conference "Return of the Natives" which returns to Birmingham, Alabama this fall on October 12 and 13. The educational forum is held at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens only once every three years to reacquaint or introduce people to the diversity or our native species. Some of the activities planned will be lectures, native plant sale, bird walk, garden tours. For more information contact Shelley Green at 205-980-1914 or Carol Carter at 205-933-1622.
I hope your summer has gone well. If you need me in October, I will have a sign on my door indicating that I am "Out of town for mind renovation". I hope to see you at some of these great educational opportunities.
The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:
MAFES HORTICULTURE FIELD DAY
REMOVING IRRIGATION WATER RESIDUES FROM ORNAMENTAL PLANT FOLIAGE
RAPID DETERMINATION OF NITROGEN STATUS IN BEDDING PLANTS
NIGHT-INTERRUPTED LIGHTING EFFECTS ON COLD HARDINESS OF Correopsis verticillata 'Moonbbeam'
LANDSCAPE PERFORMANCE OF ANNUALS GROWN WITH PAPER PELLET FILTERS IN THE BOTTOM OF CONTAINERS
A LOOK AT THE CRAPEMRYTLE TRIALS IN AUBURN
Pavonia braziliensis - A SEASONAL SURPRISE
WATCH FOR MORE DWARF CRAPEMYRTLE RELEASES
PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT
DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.
Extension Horticulturist, LSU
The LSU Agricultural Center has been actively pursuing landscape plant performance trials over the last several years. The primary concentration has been on annual bedding plants. While interest in marigolds among gardening consumers and commercial landscapers has decreased in recent years, there is still the potential to determine performance of many of the African marigold varieties for fall adaptability in the landscape.
African marigold varieties growing in jumbo cell packs were transplanted on September 20, 2000 and April 15, 2001 into raised landscape beds at Burden Center in Baton Rouge, LA. Bed material was aged pine bark amended with 10% sand (by volume). Plants were planted on 12-16 inch centers and arranged in a randomized complete block by varieties with 24 plants per variety. Plants were located in full sun and were irrigated as needed to prevent stress throughout the evaluation period. Fertilizer (StaGreen Nursery Special 12-6-6) was applied by broadcasting 1.0 lbs N/1000 square feet immediately after both planting dates. Series of marigold varieties evaluated included Discovery, Atlantis, Galore, Inca, Jubilee, Medallion, Perfection, Crush, and Antigua.
Visual quality ratings were determined October 15 and November 1 for the fall 2000 planted marigolds and May 1, May 15, and June 1 for the spring 2001 planted marigolds. The ratings were based on a scale from 1 to 5 with 1=worst, 5=best. Included in this evaluation was growth habit, foliage color/appeal, and flower quality. Ratings in the fall 2000 planting were terminated due to killing frost. Ratings in the spring 2001 planting were terminated due to plant decline caused by heavy rainfall in early June. Plants were also observed for petal spot, lodging (stem breakage), and spider mite infestation.
Visual quality ratings did not reveal significant differences between varieties. General trends indicated that the Antigua, Atlantis, Perfection, Inca, and Discovery series were slightly superior. The Crush and Galore series were comparable in performance. The Medallion series performed unsatisfactorily. Lodging (stem breakage/weakening) was observed in the fall 2000 planting. The Crush series and Guys and Dolls had no lodging on November 1. Slight lodging was evident on the Discovery series with moderate lodging on the Antigua, Galore, Atlantis, Perfection, and Inca series. Lodging was very significant on Double Eagle and Gold Coins Mix, along with the Medallion and Jubilee series. Lodging was also most evident on the Jubilee and Medallion series in the spring 2001 planting.
Petal blight was observed on the Medallion series in the fall 2000 planting. This was the only group with major petal blight incidence prior to the first killing frost. In the spring 2001 planting, the Medallion series also has a large infestation of spider mites.
Conducting landscape trials to evaluate performance of annual bedding plant varieties provides useful information for greenhouse crop producers, retail garden center personnel, landscapers, and the gardening consumer. African marigolds in Louisiana have potential use as a late summer/early fall warm season bedding plant. Good performance can be obtained at this time of year if heavy rainfall (which leads to petal blight and lodging) can be avoided. Dead-heading will be required maintenance. African marigold trials at the LSU Agricultural Center will continue through 2002.
(from Allen Owings (LSU), Ornamental and Turfgrass e-mail update, August 15, 2001).
Mississippi State University horticulturist Patricia Knight announces that the South Mississippi Branch Experiment Station in Poplarville will hold a herbaceous plant open house on October 5th from 2-6 pm. Also, their annual ornamental horticulture field day is scheduled for November 1st at 9:30 am. Contact Knight at 601/795-4525 for additional information.
MAFES HORTICULTURE FIELD DAYS
REMOVING IRRIGATION WATER RESIDUES FROM ORNAMENTAL PLANT FOLIAGE
George Fitzpatrick and Timothy Broschat, University of Florida
Dissolved mineral salts from irrigation water can build up over time on plant foliage causing significant discoloration. It is in the grower's best interest to use the best quality irrigation water available and to treat low quality irrigation water to control undesirable characteristics. If this is not possible the foliage can be treated to produce a high quality crop.
If iron is the cause of leaf discoloration (dirty brown color or leaf discoloration), the problem may effecively be treated by foliar sprays of dilute oxalic acid solutions. Oxalic acid is an organic acid, found commonly in some plants. You can purchase the practical or technical grade in pharmacies, larger paint stores, and scientic supply houses for about $10.00 per kilogram (2.2 pounds). More expensive grades are not more effective for this problem.
Optimum treatment level for foliar residue removal is a 5% solution made by dissolving 4 level tablespoons of oxalic acid crystals in one quart of water. Apply the solution in a fine mist from a hand-pump sprayer until all foliage is thoroughly wet. Fifty to sixty plants in 6-inch containers can normally be treated with one gallon of spray (take precautions to protect eye, nasal or throat irritation by using a respirator and goggles). After application rinse foliate thoroughly before the plants begin to dry to wash away the residues and reduce the chances of phytotoxicity.
Test spray on a small number of plants for a week before doing a large scale treatment. The effectiveness of the oxalic acid treatment can be improved by adding a surfactant or adjuvant to the tank mix.
Chemical treatment for removal of foliar residues from ornamental plants is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for good water quality management in the nursery. But where high quality irrigation water is not available, dilute foliar sprays of oxalic acid can allow production of high quality ornamental crops.
(from an Extension publication from the University of Florida).
RAPID DETERMINATION OF NITROGEN STATUS
IN BEDDING PLANTS
(NOTE: This is a summary of a paper presented at the SNA meeting in August 2001 in Atlanta. Primary author was J.E. Altland, a graduate student in Horticulture at Auburn University. He was awarded first place in the research division for graduate students).
Landscape professionals would be able to make informed decisions about plant fertility needs if they could easily monitor the nitrogen (N) levels in their plants. Currently that is done by submitting tissue samples to a lab for analysis. By closely monitoring N, landscape professionals could apply N fertilizers when needed. This would benefit the plants as well as cut down on the amount of N that leaches out and negatively affects ground water.
(note: This is preliminary work. More work will hopefully follow to expand this monitoring across a number of species and cultivars and make this a practical tool for landscape managers.)
Plants used in the experiment were Viola wittrokiana "Big Yellow" (pansies) and Catharanthus roseus "Pacific White" (vinca).
By using the Cardy hand held sap nitrate meter one can determine plant N status in the field. By determing the N status, landscape professionals can respond immediately to plant needs by precision fertilizer applications.
NIGHT-INTERRUPTED LIGHTING EFFECTS ON
COLD HARDINESS OF Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam'
(NOTE: This is a summary of a paper presented at the SNA meeting in August 2001 in Atlanta. Primary author was Darryl L. Rayburn, a graduate student in Horticulture at Auburn University).
Under greenhouse conditions, night interrupted lighting (NIL) can effectively induce flowering of herbaceous perennials. Recently NIL was used effectively outdoors in Mobile. This could potentially expand the marketing window of herbaceous perennials. However, nurserymen are concerned with the effects of NIL on the cold hardiness of these plants. This study addressed those concerns.
Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam' was used in this experiment. In October 2000, 400 rooted cuttings were planted in 4 inch pots. In February 2001, half of the plants were placed under NIL; the other half, the controls (CTL), received natural lighting. Plants were then subjected to low temperature exposure in a modified chest freezer.
Results indicated that the NIL treatment produced plants that were consistently taller than the controls. Plants were tested for cold hardiness. NIL plants suffered more extensive injury at higher temperatures than CTL plants. Below 32oF NIL plants suffered increasing injury, eventually reaching an unmarketable condition. The CTL plants, in contrast, maintained greater cold hardiness with respect to injury rating and marketability in temperatures as low as 18oF.
Growers can use NIL in an outdoor nursery setting to bring some herbaceous perennials into flower earlier to reach peak market demands but proper precautions should be taken during low temperatures to avoid injury to the plants.
LANDSCAPE PERFORMANCE OF ANNUALS GROWN WITH
PAPER PELLET FILTERS IN THE BOTTOM OF CONTAINERS
(NOTE: This is a summary of a paper presented at the SNA meeting in August 2001 in Atlanta. Primary author was Janna Glenn, a graduate student in Horticulture at Auburn University).
Non-point pollution in urban environments continues to be very problematic. Over-fertilization of plants has a direct impact on water quality. Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P) pollute surface waters in a significant way. Despite the evidence of nutrient leaching from urban landscapes, landscape maintenance professionals continue to over-fertilize newly transplanted ornamentals. This study evaluated the possibility of using recycled paper products in the bottom of nursery containers as nitrogen filters and a secondary source of nitrogen when plants are transplanted into the landscape.
Liners of vinca, begonia, ageratum, marigold and salvia were planted in gallon containers. Treatments were either recycled paper pellets or Osmocote in the bottom of the containers. Plants were eventually planted in landscape beds. Previous studies indicated greater reduction in Nitrogen. It is speculated that fresh bark, used in this study for container substrate, may have had an impact on the results.
Results indicated that paper in the bottom of containers may affect growth and/or quality of certain annual ornamental species. Of the annual species studied in this experiment, only ageratum responded positively.
Additional research is necessary to determine which annual species can tolerate paper filters in the bottom of containers. Based on our research, paper in the bottom of containers did not provide additional nutrition to transplanted annuals.
We traditionally photograph trees from the crapemyrtle trials in Auburn around July 4th as that is when we have observed optimal flowering. Below are some photos from the recent photo shoot - from the exquisite to some that have had better years.
A LOOK AT THE CRAPEMYRTLE TRIALS IN AUBURN
Potential plant for use in South: Pavonia braziliensis : MALVACEAE, (Brazilian Pavonia).
Pavonia braziliensis - A SEASONAL SURPRISE
About 4 years ago, someone gave me a plant from from his yard in Spanish Fort. He was moving to a total care facility and could not keep it but thought others might enjoy it. Over the past few years I have found that when it was in bloom and I was near it, it is very attractive. From a distance, it is not a plant that would cause you to slam on the brakes and run over to see what it was but it is a nice surprise plant for seasonal interest. The picture is below. You be the judge. It has thin arching canes which hold 2" pink to white flowers with red centers. Foliage is sparse when young, but eventually fills in nicely; evergreen at temperatures above 24°F. It is hardy here; may reseed. Zones 7b-11. It is pleasing enough that I think I will stick some cuttings. If you have an interest I am happy to share.
I have really enjoyed seeing the dwarf crapemyrtles being released. These plants have not even begun to reach their market potential. Below are a few pictures of one of the numbered selections being evaluated at Auburn, NA 63872, that I hope will be one of the next releases from the National Arboretum. Look at the pictures below to see if you agree that this is a winner. If you can go to Dearing, Georgia on October 10 to attend the Center for Applied Nursery Research (CANR) field day at McCorkle's Nursery, you will see many other selections that will bring tears to your eyes and visions of dollar signs racing through your head. The two that are out now, Pokomote and Chickasaw, are great but others to follow will make a niche for just collecting and growing the dwarf types.
WATCH FOR MORE DWARF CRAPEMYRTLE RELEASES
EXTENSION PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT
Auburn Plant Disease Report - June Jackie Mullen
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Auburn
Our July plant sample submissions were more numerous than in June (182 samples compared to 167 in June). This is unusual since June is normally our busiest month for plant samples. July was a relatively dry month in several sections of the state. We saw many of our common summer foliage and crown/root rot diseases, but many of our samples still seemed to involve trees and shrubs with suspect root damage, probably related to drought stress of last year. Overall, disease submissions seemed to be slightly reduced from our typical July plant sample disease numbers.
This summer as with last summer, we have seen ring nematode damage on some golf course bentgrass areas. The fungal wood/root rot diseases we saw are typically considered to be associated with stressed trees. Our drought conditions of last year would cause most of our trees to fall into the 'stressed' category. Cantaloupe and tomato samples were found to have virus problems typical for Alabama. Charcoal rot was found on corn. This find was not too surprising with the dry conditions present in some areas of the state in July.
Viruses detected in cantaloupe were cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV2). Symptoms typical of these viruses were present as an obvious mosaic on leaves with over-all stunted plant growth.
On squash, unusual diffuse yellow leaf spots were present. Fungal and bacterial pathogens were not evident. ELISA tests indicated the presence of CMV and possibly some other viruses. This was a strange sample as symptoms were not indicative of virus.
A tomato sample showed symptoms characteristic of the CMV, tomato spotted wilt (TSWV) and tobacco etch virus (TEV) detected previously in tomato. Plants showed stunting, leaf curl, and a slight mottle. ELISA testing confirmed the presence of CMV, TSWV, and TEV.
We saw one peanut sample with symptoms indicative of TSWV; however, ELISA testing did not confirm the presence of TSWV. It is possible that negative TSWV results relate to a sample that had been initially infected with the virus several weeks earlier and virus protein was no longer in normal condition. Or, possibly the symptoms of stunting, yellow ringspots, and mottle seen may have been caused by one of the other mosaic-like viruses of peanut. Over-all, thus far this summer, virus problems in the state have been low in occurrence, as judged by plant sample submissions to the lab.
The corn charcoal rot appeared as a gray decay at the lower stalk and root with an associated top dieback. When stalks were cut open, the gray coloration inside the lower stalk and roots was seen to be typical of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. The gray coloration is due to abundant production of tiny black sclerotia (hard, black overwintering bodies) throughout the decayed areas. Disease control involves sanitation and regular irrigation.
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery diseases.
July Plant Diseases Received at the Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab PLANT DISEASE COUNTY Azalea Sclerotinia Blossom Blight Mobile Bentgrass (High) Ring Nematode Damage (Criconemoides) Jefferson Bermuda Dollar Spot (Sclerotinia) Baldwin Centipede Suspect Stress, Take-all Patch (Gaeumannomyces) Covington Chestnut Phytophthora Root Rot Lee Chrysanthemum Pythium Root Rot * Coreopsis Bacterial Leaf Spot Mobile Daylily Pythium & Phytophthora Crown Rot Baldwin Daylily Rhizoctonia Crown Rot Baldwin Dogwood Powdery Mildew Pike Daylily Spot Anthracnose (Elsinoe) Lawrence, Montgomery, Pike Eastern Red Cedar Heteronbasidium annosum Wood/ Root Rot Lee Fescue Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Pickens Fescue Dollar Spot (Sclerotinia) Pickens Gardenia Phytophthora Root Rot Mobile Hydrangea Cercospora Leaf Spot Lee Iris Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Lee Impatiens Rhizoctonia Stem/Crown Rot Tuscaloosa Magnolia, Saucer Hypoxylon Canker Montgomery Mahonia Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Jackson Maple, Red Phyllosticta Leaf Spot Tallapoosa Maple, Sugar Armillaria Root Rot Lee Oak Monochaetia Leaf Spot Cullman, Lauderdale Oak Oak Leaf Blister (Taphrina) Cullman Pear, Bradford Colletotrichum Leaf Spot Jackson, Randolph Pecan Scab (Cladosporium) Marengo Petunia Phytophthora Blight Cleburne, Cullman Rose Black Spot (Diplocarpon rosa) Lee St. Augustine Take-all Patch
graminis var. graminis)
Autauga, Lee, Montgomery, Washington Walnut Cercospora Leaf Spot Barbour Zoysia Brown Patch (Rhizoctonia) Covington Zoysia Take-all Patch (Gaeumannomyces) Covington, Elmore
Birmingham Plant Disease Report-July
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Birmingham
We received 104 samples for the month of July. As we enter August, the hot, dry weather in late July has promoted the occurrence of southern chinch bugs in St. Augustinegrass. Now is a good time to check lawns with this grass because the chinch bugs are probably there. Look for off-colored areas. Where chinch bugs are suspected, part the grass at the edge of the affected areas and examine the soil and base of the turf. Good cultural management can reduce the need for chemicals. Keep thatch to a minimum. Thatch provides protection for chinch bugs and chemically interferes with many insecticides. Be sure to observe proper mowing, fertilization, watering, and specific lawn care practices for St. Augustinegrass to minimize thatch. Compounds containing the following chemicals are good for homeowners: cyfluthrin (Lawn & Garden Multi-Insect Killer), diazinon, dursban, and acephate (Orthene). To make turf less attractive to chinch bugs in regularly infested areas, use organic, slow-release, nitrogen sources and reduce the rate of applied nitrogen.
Daylily rust was seen in the lab for the first time. The disease was found in a large collection of daylilies. Unlike most of the previous reports this sample came from a homeowner, whereas previous reports were from nurseries and garden centers. I suspect that there are more homeowners that unknowingly brought infected daylilies into their landscape over the last year. The last issue of the Kentucky Pest News also reported daylily rust. More information on the identification and control of daylily rust can be obtained in the Timely Information Sheet (#PP506) written by Austin Hagan.
Two new books are now available from APS Press: Shade Tree Wilt Diseases and Diseaes of Woody Ornamentals and Trees in Nurseries. More information on these books and ordering information is available at http://www.shopapspress.org.
July Plant Diseases Received at the Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab PLANT DISEASE COUNTY Aucuba Botryosphaeria Dieback and Phytophthora Root Rot Jefferson Azalea Azalea Lacebugs Jefferson(3) Azalaea Phomopsis Dieback Jefferson Bentgrass Black Layer Shelby(2) Bentgrass Curvularia Blight Jefferson Bentgrass Dollar Spot Jefferson Bentgrass Fairy Ring Jefferson Bentgrass Pythium Root Rot Jefferson Bentgrass Slime Mold Jefferson Bermudagrass Dollar Spot Jefferson Bermudagrass Helminthosporium Leaf Spot Shelby Boxwood, American Macrophoma Leaf Spot Jefferson Boxwood, American Volutella Blight Jefferson Boxwood, Dwarf English Phytophthora Root Rot Jefferson Boxwood, Dwarf English Pythium Root Rot * Butterfly Bush Spider Mites Walker Centipede Brown Patch Shelby, Walker Cherry Laurel Powdery Mildew, Shothole Jefferson Cherry, Yoshino Oriental Fruit Moth Walker Clematis, Evergreen Clematis Wilt Jefferson Crape Myrtle Cercospora Leaf Spot Jefferson(2) Daylily Daylily Rust * Dogwood, Flowering Cercospora Leaf Spot Jefferson Dogwood, Flowering Powdery Mildew Jefferson(3) Dogwood, Flowering Spot Anthracnose Walker Elm, American Powdery Mildew Jefferson Fescue Brown Patch Jefferson Ficus Pandurata Pythium Root Rot Jefferson Florida Jessamine Botryodiplodia Dieback Jefferson Holly Oedema Jefferson Holly, Chinese Scale Jefferson Holly, Japanese Botryosphaeria Canker Jefferson Hydrangea Cercospora Leaf Spot Jefferson Iris Cladosporium Leaf Spot Walker Ivy, English Anthracnose Jefferson Juniper Juniper Scale Jefferson Juniper Phomopsis Twig Blight Jefferson(2) Juniper Phytophthora Root Rot Jefferson, Shelby, St. Clair Maple, Japanese Anthracnose * Maple, Japanese Phomopsis Dieback *(2) Maple, Japanese Pythium Root Rot * Oak, Black Powdery Mildew Jefferson Oak, Southern Red Algal Leaf Spot Shelby Pecan Pecan Scab Jefferson Petunia Phytophthora Blight Walker St. Augustinegrass Brown Patch Jefferson St. Augustinegrass Gray Leaf Spot Jefferson St. Augustinegrass Take-all Root Rot Jefferson Vinca Phytophthora Blight Jefferson, Walker Zoysia Brown Patch Jefferson Zoysia Dollar Spot Jefferson, Shelby Zoysia Fairy Ring Jefferson Zoysia Take-all Root Rot Jefferson
Remember that August-early October is the best time to sample for soil nematode analysis. The charge for nematode analysis is $10 per sample.
Disease Possibilities for August
To look at diseases for a typical July please go to the Plant Pathology button on our home page and click on July. You will find brief comments on disease symptoms and control recommendations. For specific disease control recommendations, see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook or 2001 Sprays Guides. Also remember that sanitation is a necessary component of most disease control programs.
UPCOMING EVENTSSeptember 9 - 11, 2001
Alabama Turf Associaton Meeting and Trade Show
Mobile Conference Center
Contact ATA at 866-246-4203; fax 866-786-3644.
September 30 - October 3, 2001:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Lexington, KY. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
October 5, 2001:
Herbaceous Plant Open House
South Mississippi Branch Experiment Station
Poplarville, Mississippi; from 2-6 p.m.
Contact Patricia Knight at 601-795-4525 for additional information.
October 5-7, 2001:
Annual meeting of Alabama Christmas Tree Association combined with Georgia Christmas Tree Association.
Bill Murray's farm in Cordele, Georgia.
Contact Ken Tilt (334-844-5484) for more information.
October 10, 2002:
Center for Applied Nursery Research (CANR) Annual Field Day
For information call Kay Bowman at 706-597-8309; fax 706-595-9678; email email@example.com
October 11 - 13, 2001:
SNA's Southern Plant Conference
Call SNA at 770-953-3311; www.sna.org
October 12 - 13, 2001:
"Return o f the Natives"
Central South Native Plant Conference
Birmingham Botanical Gardens
For more information contact Shelley Green at 205-980-1914 or Carol Carter at 205-933-1622.
October 12-13, 2001:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna
October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: email@example.com
November 1, 2001:
Ornamental Horticulture Field Day
9:30 am. Contact Patricia Knight at 601/795-4525 for additional information.
November 30 - December 1, 2001:
The Great Southern Tree Conference.
Contact Heather Nedley at firstname.lastname@example.org; 1-800-375-3642.
October 11-12, 2002:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: email@example.com,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna
April to October, 2002:
See the AmeriGarden (5,400 square feet), part of the world horticulture exhibition in the Netherlands.
For more information call 808-961-6660 or visit http://www.floriade.nl/ or http://www.amerigarden2002.com/
Send horticultural questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Send questions and comments to email@example.com.
Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.