Hello everyone!

Ken is still traveling. I am anxious to hear about the International Plant Propagators pre-conference tour that began in San Antonio, Texas and ended in Mobile, Alabama, with many interesting detours. The International Plant Propagators' annual meeting in Mobile is just about over and Ken will no doubt be brimming with ideas and information when he returns to Auburn.

We welcome your comments and suggestions. Enjoy autumn - one of nature's gifts to us in the south. We are able to see leaves turn color and drop as well as enjoy shrubs and plants that are still thriving.

The best in all of your horticultural ventures,
Bernice Fischman

The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:








DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


Dr. Ken Tilt
Extension Horticulturist
Auburn University

If this is your first visit to our Nursery/Landscape/Greenhouse site, welcome. If you've been here before, welcome back. We are stocking it with usable information as fast as we can. I think it will be a good resource for you.

In the old days, Extension sent out monthly newsletters so that you could see what we were doing at the University each month. We had County Agents that made regular visits to the farms without being called. Alabama is down to less than half the agents it had at one time and we are covering more areas. Times have changed, money has been cut and we have had to change to be effective. Many of the changes are good. The only area I regret is the loss of the personal touch of frequent visits to the farms and nurseries. However, we can now reach you faster and with higher quality, more organized, information than we had before. We are also not limited to state boundaries.

Extension’s mission is to get research-based information out of the scientific journals and into the farms where it can make a difference. Our mission is also to be in touch with you to let us know how we can serve you better in our research and teaching missions. The web site does all this. At our web site we still offer you a monthly newsletter but we are not limited by size. We can publish all the information and not just the highlights. It is two way communication. With the touch of a button, you can respond to the information, ask questions, or request additional resources. With a digital camera, you can transmit pictures of plant problems. We are also setting up diagnostic centers across the state where we can do this for you and send the problem not only to Alabama scientists but to our counterparts around the world.

With old publications, we were limited to a few black and white pictures. Now we can provide you with unlimited color illustrations and even video of information that needs to be illustrated in that fashion. At one time every state specialist wrote similar versions of the same publication. Now if NC State offers something on field production that works in Alabama, there is no reason for me to duplicate their efforts. We just provide you a link to their information.

We are still building our site and will never be finished but we are beginning to have a storehouse of information and site referrals to get you the information you need. It is a challenge to keep it all organized and make it easy for you to find. Bernice Fischman is our Web Master (Mistress) and does a wonderful job. We have reached a point where she is ready to redesign the site to make it more convenient. From the beginning we have created key words to all our additions to the site so that you could search the archives for information. Our site offers our monthly newsletter which includes a monthly disease outlook section written by Dr. Jackie Mullen to tell you what’s “going around”. We have highlights of research articles. If you would like to have the whole article, email us and we will send you a copy. We have an events calendar to keep you up to date on most of the industry related meetings. We give you pictures of on-going research plant trials such as our Lagerstroemia or Rapheolepis trials. We have publications on various topics, such as pot-in-pot production, Phytophthora root rot, or links to other states' publications. Need a label or MSDS sheet? We link you to the Blue Book that allows you to search and read about most chemicals we use in the industry. Browse through and see what you find or what you have trouble finding. Let us know your problems and your needs. This is the future. It is now.

The old Extension is gone. We will still make visits and do demonstrations on the farms but visits to check on your needs are a thing of the past. We still care about serving you and this is the best way we can find to do it with the money we have available. I think you will find it an improvement over some of the ways we did things in the past. Visit our site and let us know what you think.


Congratulations to us! Ken Tilt, Dave Williams, Brenda Allen, David West and Bernice Fischman have recently been awarded a $10,000 grant from the Urban and Community Forestry Grant Program to develop a distance learning site on the Internet to provide a teaching module on selection and establishment of trees for the urban environment. The project is summarized below:

Almost every community in Alabama and throughout the country is investing in their street tree canopies. Many are throwing money away because of limited knowledge of site evaluation, tree selection and establishment. Arborists, horticulturists, and city workers need easily available answers and in-depth instruction to make the investments in their communities fruitful. These educational services are not readily available. This project will begin to correct this problem.

An urban forestry distance learning web site will be developed cooperatively by faculty and Extension personnel at Auburn University with the help of urban forestry/horticulture professionals in the Southeast. The project is designed to provide the latest research-based information on selection and establishment of trees for the urban landscape. Current and regionally specific information will be delivered in the form of a teaching module through the Internet, making this information easily available to horticulture and urban forestry professionals, technical schools and high school students, community leaders, tree commissions, master gardeners and other interested individuals among the gardening public. This will be the first module of a long-term goal of a complete classroom curriculum in urban forestry designed and delivered as a cooperative effort between industry, community urban forestry personnel and university specialists.

Project personnel will develop a plant identification teaching module which will allow students to visually study leaf, bud, bark, flower, branch formation and other morphological characteristics to learn to identify the best trees as well as the undesirable trees for different sites in the urban landscape. Cultural care and maintenance characteristics will be in the text as well as visually demonstrated where appropriate. Trees will be shown in their urban settings to show the potential of each tree. Trees will be filmed to show specific cultural practices throughout the four seasons to capture the identification characteristics.


Just a note to let you know that we have placed a link to the Blue Book here http://www.bluebooktor.com/ and also in our Key Word Section for your convenience in the future. The link will take you to the Turf and Ornamental Reference page for Plant Protection Products where you can read labels and MSDSs.


Moving on to the Green Book site. This is also brought to us by the Chemical and Pharmaceutical Press. It is an updating service for Crop Protection Reference with labels and MSDSs. This site http://www.greenbook.net will also be at our Key Word Section for future reference.


Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) is a shrub or small tree that has been found to satisfy a number of landscape needs. Valued for its summer flowers, ex-foliating bark, and autumn color, crapemyrtles are widely used in the southern landscape. However, with so many cultivars available, making the best choice is difficult. Long-term studies that document flowering and growth are a valuable resource in cultivar selection.

In this study, among the white flowering cultivars, Natchez, Fantasy and Sara's Favorite were the larger plants with flowering duration of 85, 56, and 78 days, respectively. When rated for powdery mildew and cercospora leaf spot, Fantasy and Sara's Favorite were the only tall white cultivars with little or no disease problems over a three year evaluation. There were nine pink crapemyrtle cultivars in the tall category. Basham's Party Pink, Tuscarora, and Tuskegee were all vigorous growers with flowering duration of 94, 88, and 78 days, respectively. There was little or no disease problems with these three cultivars. Among the two lavender cultivars, Muskogee and Hardy Lavender, Muskogee was the more vigorous; flowering duration was similar, and both were susceptible to cercospora leaf spot. Carolina Beauty was the only red in this group. It was one of the smaller plants and had powdery mildew in 2 of 3 years and cercospora leaf spot each year.

While there are many crapemyrtle cultivars on the market, this study shows that superior cultivars are available for the landscape industry. Superior white cultivars are Natchez, Sarah's Favorite, and Fantasy; superior pink cultivars are Basham's Party Pink, Tuscarora, and Tuskegee. There is a need in the industry for improved lavender and red crapemyrtle cultivars.

(by G. Creech, C. Gilliam, G. Keever, A. Hagan, J. Graveman, R. Brantley, and D. Williams, Auburn University)


This Alabama Cooperative Extension site can be very useful for growers and others. There are archived newsletters, maps by county of endangered plant species, pesticide labels and almost two dozen commercial links that take you to companies where you can search by crop or product for performance data, stewardship details and labels. This is the Internet at its best - used as an information gathering medium. The URL is http://www.aces.edu/department/ent/



Phytophthora or Phytophthora & Pythium root rot problems seemed to be more abundant than usual with the following plants being involved: arbor-vitae, azalea, boxwood, Buddlea, Fatsia, Gardenia, Petunia, periwinkle. Some of these situations involved diagnosis by positive ELISA and culture results. Also, some plants were diagnosed on the basis of positive ELISA results and negative cultures. This type of 'mixed signal' results could develop if plants had been treated with fungicide or if roots were dead and the fungus had also died. A dead fungus will not grow out in a culture medium but it will give a positive result with an ELISA test. It would be best if plants submitted for diagnosis are dying but not completely dead. Tissues for culture work are usually taken from the edge of the decay area, where active pathogen activity is mostly likely to be present.

English ivy diseases were abnormally abundant last month. Stem cankers were associated with the fungi Colletotrichum (anthracnose) or Fusarium. Leaf spot diseases were caused by bacterial disease (Xanthomonas) or fungal (Colletotrichum). Early stages of these leaf spots may develop similar symptoms. Older spots were more easily distinguished by symptoms and microscopic signs. Bacterial leaf spots often develop a wet, dark green-black edge and spots are usually vein-bound and angular. Spot centers may dry and fall apart. Colletotrichum spots are dark and roughly circular. Orange or cream colored spore masses may develop in spots when weather conditions are wet or humid. Phytophthora root rot (or Phytophthora & Pythium root rots) has been noted at the Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab and at the Springhill Ornamental Horticulture Substation (J. Olive). Phytophthora decay has also been present in stem areas part way up the ivy vine. Damaged roots or vine plant parts should be removed. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook for protective fungicide use.

Hydrangea samples were diagnosed with powdery mildew and Cercospora leaf spot. The powdery mildew causes the leaves to develop a mottled green-light green color pattern. Upon close visual examination, the white powdery dusting typical of powdery mildew could be seen. For control, protective fungicide treatments are used. See the AL Pest Management Handbook. Cercospora leaf spot develops as reddish spots with gray centers about 5-10 mm in diameter. Sanitation and protective fungicide sprays are recommended for disease control. See the AL Pest Management Handbook. Hosta was observed with obvious yellow spots and ring spots, strange patches of line patterns, and ring spots of multiple ring patterns. ELISA tests gave positive results for impatiens necrotic spot virus. Disease control requires sanitation of infected plants and thrips control.

Poinsettia, chrysanthemum and rosemary plants were observed with root rots. Root cultures of all three plants produced Fusarium and Pythium. The Pythium development required wet soils for a prolonged period of time. Fusarium root rot develops during normal soil moisture. Both of these fungi may be primary or secondary disease agents. It is possible that these plants had been stressed prior to development of infection.

Crown gall was observed on weeping willow. The woody, irregular and spherical galls were present at the soil line. See Disease Note ANR-944 for more information.

John Olive at the Springhill Ornamental Horticulture Substation reported seeing Leyland Cypress with Cercospora blight, azalea with Cylindrocladium crown rot, and English ivy with Phytophthora root rot and stem decay.

Table 1. 1999 August Plant Diseases Seen In the Plant Diagnostic Lab.
Arbor-vitae Phytopthora Root Rot *
Azalea Phytophthora & Pythium Crown
and Root Rot
Boxwood Phytopthora Root Rot *
Boxwood Pythium Root Rot *
Buddlea Pythium and Phytopthora Root Rot Limestone
Chrysanthemum Fusarium & Pythium Root Rot *
Chrysanthemum Pythium Root Rot *
Fatsia Phytophthora Root RotHouston
Gardenia Phytophthora & Pythium Root Rot *
Hosta Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus Lee
Hydrangea Cercospora Leaf SpotRussell, *
Hydrangea Powdery Mildew *
Ivy Anthracnose Stem Rot
Ivy Bacterial Leaf Spot
Ivy Colletotrichum Leaf SpotCalhoun
Ivy Fusarium Stem RotCalhoun
Ivy Phytophthora & Pythium Root Rot*
Petunia Phytophthora Blight & Pythium Root Rot *
Poinsettia Fusarium & Pythium Root Rot *
Rosemary Fusarium & Pythium Root Rot *
Vinca Phytophthora Stem & Root Rot Montgomery
Willow, Weeping Crown Gall
(Agrobacterium tumfaciens)

Disease Possibilities For September

August has been very dry in most areas. Bacterial scorch disease may occur in September. Scorch disease, caused by the bacteria Xylella, causes leaf edge scorch and dieback of elm, oaks (red and black oaks including northern red, pin, scarlet, southern red, laurel, shingle, and water oaks), sycamore, mulberry, and red maple. Symptoms of scorch may first occur in mid-late June, but disease is often not noticed until late summer or early fall when symptoms are more pronounced. Generally, leaf symptoms progress from older to younger leaves, with leaves at branch tips often showing no symptoms. Scorched leaves curl upward and remain attached. Infected trees develop a progressive dieback and general (usually slow, over many years) decline. Scorch can be confirmed with an ELISA test.

Many fungal leaf spot diseases will develop on pre-senescent shade tree foliage in September. Generally these spots are of no concern. It is, however, always a good idea to remove fallen spotted foliage from the area later this fall or winter.

Table 2. Disease Descriptions and Brief Control Comments
on Some Common Diseases Often Seen in September.

AUCUBALasiodiplodia CankerBlack sunken spots or sunken areas on aucuba stems. Dieback of foliage results.Cleary's 3336 or Domain protective sprays labelled for ornamentals; sanitation.
Crown and Root Rot
Lower stem near soil and roots become brown and water-soaked.Sanitation and proper soil or potting mix drainage are imporant. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Aerial Blight
Brown, irregular spots and lesions begin on lower leaves. Whole leaves may become blighted; leaf drop occurs.Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
BEGONIAPhytophthora Crown RotCrown tissues are dark and wet-rotted.Sanitation. Reduce watering.
BEGONIAPhytophthora and
Pythium Root Rot
Roots become brown and water-soaked, decayed.Sanitation. Reduce watering. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
BEGONIARhizoctonia Root RotBrown, dry, decayed roots.Sanitation. Banrot protective drenches.
BEGONIARoot-Knot Nematode
Galls on roots; plants stunted and wilted.Solarization.
BEGONIATomato Spotted Wilt VirusYellow mosaic and ring spots present. Sometimes brown spots also present.Thrips control. Sanitation.
BOXWOODPhytopthora Root RotBrown, water-soaked roots.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Pythium, Fusarium
Lower Stem Rot &
Root Rot
Roots brown and decayed.Sanitation. Reduce watering. Improve soil drainage.
CHERRYSeptoria Leaf SpotSmall (0.5 cm or less in diam), angular brown spots.Sanitation in the fall.
CLEYERAPhytophthora Root RotSee Boxwood.Sanitation; improve soil drainage.
DOGWOODBotryosphaeria CankerSlightly sunken lesion, sometimes with cracks along the margin.Sanitation.
DOGWOODCercospora Leaf SpotAngular-irregular tan-brown lesions (2-6 mm diam.) sometimes with a thin yellow halo.Usually sanitation is the only control measure needed.
DOGWOODSeptoria Leaf SpotAngular, brown spots, about 1 cm or less in diam; may be confused with Cercospora leaf spot.Collect and remove fallen leaves this fall.
DUSTY MILLERAlternaria Leaf SpotDark angular spots.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336.
ELEAGNUSPhytophthora Root RotBrown, wet root decay.Sanitation. Improve soil drainage.
Small brown spots (about 5 mm or smaller) on foliage.Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook for protective fungicide recommendations.
Gray-brown irregular blotches on fronds. Orange spore masses may be present in humid weather.Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook under leaf spot.
FERNRhizoctonia Aerial
Gray or brown irregular blotches on fronds; some 'shot-hole'.Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
GARDENIAPhytophthora Crown RotLower stem/trunk at the soil line develops wet decay.Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook under Root Rot for protective treatment).
HOLLY, Blue MaidBotryosphaeria CankerBrown or black sunken, cracked lesions (cankers) on branches.Sanitation. Protective sprays of Cleary's 3336, Domain or a WP benomyl labelled for ornamentals.
HOLLY, Blue MaidPhytophthora Root RotFeeder roots become water-soaked, decayed.Sanitation. Protective sprays of Cleary's 3336, Domain or a WP benomyl labelled for ornamentals.
IMPATIENSAlternaria Leaf SpotSmall circular or angular dark brown spots. Sanitation; a mancozeb product such as Duosan or Zyban.
IMPATIENSPhytophthora Root RotWet, water-soaked brown lesions on roots. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IRISBacterial Soft RotSoft, wet, watery rot of rhizome.Sanitation; control insect problems.
IRISFusarium Rhizome RotAreas of the rhizome exhibit a dry, brown rot.Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IVY, EnglishPhytophthora Crown
& Root Rot
Tissues dark and water-soaked.Sanitation; reduce irrigation or improve drainage.
JUNIPERPhomopsis DiebackJuniper branch tips become brown. Cankers develop on twigs and dieback continues down the twig.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
JUNIPERPhytophthora Root RotSee Holly.See Holly.
LIGUSTRUMCercospora Leaf SpotBrown irregular spots (about 1 cm diam.) on foliage; when leaf spot is severe, defoliation may result.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Brown irregular blotches on leaf blades; often, leaf tip areas are involved.Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Brown spots and blotches on foliage; enlarged spots may involve more than half of individual leaves.Sanitation.
MAPLEPhyllosticta Leaf SpotGray circular spots (1/4 inch diam., approx.) with dark brown or reddish brown borders.Sanitation.
MARIGOLDAlternaria Leaf SpotSmall (0.2-0.3 cm diam.) dark brown-black spots. Numerous spots cause death of plants.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook, under 'Leaf Spot'.
OAKPowdery Mildew(Microsphaera) White dusty coating on upper leaf surfaces. Some distortion of new leaves.Collect and remove fallen leaves this fall.
OAK, PinXylella Scorch Lower and oldest leaves show leaf edge scorch; problem progresses upward through the tree canopy. Dieback develops; eventual tree death.Remove dying trees.
Small, round, light brown, cream-colored spots.Sanitation. Cleary's 3336.
PANSYMyrothecium Crown Rot Dieback; decayed crowns.Sanitation.
PANSYPhyllosticta Leaf Spot Relatively small (2-3 mm diam.) medium brown, roughly circular spots. Spot centers may become gray.Sanitation. Protective sprays of Cleary's 3336, Domain, or a benomyl WP labelled for ornamentals.
PANSYPhytophthora Root Rot Roots become brown and water-soaked.Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PANSYThielaviopsis Root
Roots become covered with black spots/lesions.Sanitation. Cleary's, or Domain protective drenches.
PEAR, BradfordFabraea Leaf Spot Black circular spots (about 0.2-0.4 cm diam.).Sanitation of fallen leaves in the fall. Regular spray schedule may help.
PETUNIAPhytophthora Root RotRoots water-soaked, decayed.Sanitation.
PHOTINIAArmillaria Root RotPlant may decline slowly or suddenly; lower trunk under the bark and roots may be covered with closely appressed white fungal mat with black, threadlike structures.Sanitation.
PHOTINIAPhytophthora Root RotSee Azalea.See Azalea.
PINE, VIRGINIALophodermium
Needle Cast
Older needles turn brown and drop; very small (1-2 mm or 1/32 inch) football shaped, blackfruiting bodies develop on brown needles.Protective fungicides spray. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PINE, VIRGINIARhizosphaeria Needle CastNeedles become gray-brown. Twig blight may develop.Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
POINSETTIARhizoctonia Stem Rot
& Root Rot
Lower stems develop dry medium-dark brown surface lesions; roots may become brown and dried.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
POINSETTIAPythium Root RotRoots become medium brown, soft, water-soaked and rotted.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
POINSETTIARhizopus Stem RotStem sections become glassy and water-soaked; a delicate black mass of fungal threads and small black spherical structures may develop over the lesions.Sanitation.
POINSETTIABacterial (Erwinia)
Stem Rot
Black, water-soaked spots or lesions on stems. Lesions may girdle stems.Sanitation; pot-level irrigation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
RED CEDARPhomopsis Tip BlightTips of twigs become yellowed and browned. Dieback may spread down the twig-branch. Lower foliage is affected first.Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
ROSEPhytophthora Root RotDieback; active infections are wet-rotted; old infections are dried.Sanitation; reduce watering.
SCHIP LAURELBacterial Leaf Spot(Xanthomonas) Angular brown spots with water-soaked margins; shot-holes developing.Sanitation.
SESAMECercospora Leaf SpotBrown circular-angular spots.---
SNAPDRAGONCercospora Leaf SpotPale brown angular leaf spots of variable size.Cleary's 3336, Domain, or a benomyl labelled for ornamentals.
Circular black spots on foliage.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336.
Brown, irregular areas, blotches develop on leaves and stems.Sanitation. Protective sprays of Cleary's or Domain or a WP benomyl labelled on ornamentals may help.
VINCAPhytophthora Stem
Root and/or
Crown/Root Rot
Stems and/or lower stems near soil line and roots become browned and water-soaked.Sanitation; improve soil drainage.
VINCAPythium Root RotRoots become brown decayed and water-soaked.Sanitation. Reduce watering schedule. Rotate to different crop.
VINCARhizoctonia Aerial
Lower leaves become blighted; a thin mycelial webbing may develop.Sanitation. Cleary's Domain or a WP benomyl labelled on ornamentals may help.
VINCA MINORRhizoctonia Aerial BlightLeaves or stems become blighted, spotted.Sanitation; Cleary's or benomyl protective treatments.
WAX MYRTLEAnthracnose
Brown, irregular spots, blotches develop on leaves.Sanitation; if disease is severe, protective sprays on Cleary's 3336 or Domain or a WP benomyl may help.
WAX MYRTLEGummy Stem Blight
Black lesions/spots at leaf edges; elongate cracking on stem with amber-colored ooze.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.


October 1, 1999:
Ornamental Horticulture Open House at the University of Georgia, Athens, GA
Tour will be 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. For more information phone 706-542-2861. Fee is $20 before 9/24 and $25 after 9/24.

October 3-6, 1999:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Mobile, AL. Contact David Morgan: 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

October 8 and 9, 1999:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticulture Trade Show.
Civic Center, McMinnville, Tennessee. For more information call Ann Halcomb, Exec. Sec., at 931-668-7322, fax 931-668-9601; e-mail: MTNA@blomand.net

October 28, 1999:
Professional Nurserymen/Landscapers Mini-Conference.
Quality Inn University Center, 1577 S. College St., Auburn, AL. For more information call Chuck Browne at 334-749-3353 or CBrowne@mail.acesag.auburn.edu or Ms. Mickie Jacob at 334-745-2569/877-745-0494 or jacobml@mail.auburn.edu.

November 4-6, 1999:
Gulf Coast Native Plant Conference.
Camp Beckwith, Fairhope, Alabama.
Featuring four habitats with guided field trips. For more information contact Thayer Dodd, Conference Coordinator, at 1-334-645-2222.

November 10-12, 1999:
1999 Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Growers Conference.
Holiday Inn South, Dothan, AL.
For more information e-mail: Joe Kemble (jkemble@acesag.auburn.edu) or Arlie Powell (apowell@acesag.auburn.edu).

November 13-16, 1999:
ALCA Landscape and Ground Maintenance Conference.
Baltimore, Maryland. Contact ALCA at 800-395-2522. http://www.alca.org

November 23, 1999:
3rd Annual Landscape and Turf Seminar.
Birmingham Botanical Gardens. For more information call Larry Quick at 205-879-6964. See the November Something to Grow On for a complete schedule of events.

January 19-21, 2000:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Don W. Sanford at 847-526-2010, fax 847-526-3993; e-mail midam@mc.net

January 29-February 2, 2000:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Lexington, KY. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

February 3-6, 2000:
The Management Clinic.
Galt House, Louisville, KT. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

March 18, 2000 - September 17, 2000:
Japan Flora 2000 'Communication Between Man and Nature'.
Awaji Island, Japan. See http://web.pref.hyogo.jp/jpnflora/english/index.htm or Meg VanSchoorl at MVANSCHOOR@agr.wa.gov

June 1-3, 1999:
Mid-South Greenhouse Growers Conference.
Ramada Inn - Southwest Conference Center in Jackson, MS. More information will be available soon or you can contact Allen Owings, Extension Horticulturist at LSU.

July 8-12, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail ofa@ofa.org; web: http://www.ofa.org

July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

July 16-19, 2000:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference.
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail ashs@ashs.org

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researchers' Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 15-16, 2000:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail tnurseryassn@blomand.net

October 1-4, 2000:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Hyatt Regency Oak Brook, Chicago, IL. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail mbippser@neca.com

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

January 27 - January 31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24065-5656; phone 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail: psmeal@vt.edu

August 2-5, 2001:
Southern Nursery Association Resarcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline: 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline: 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

September 30 - October 3, 2001:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Lexington, KY. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail mbippser@neca.com

October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.