October 1998

Happy October and bring on the fall color!

Georges (with a French accent) ushered us into October. As I type this introduction, Mobile is getting a major power washing. All summer most of Alabama has been looking for water. Be careful what you wish for! Our weather is being its typical, atypical self. This causes our nurseries major headaches each year. Like other farmers, we plan and take precautions for all we can anticipate and hope mother nature's "averages" do not go too far astray.

Politicians come around every few years and say the nursery industry is not agriculture and should not be privy to tax breaks given other farmers. Agriculture is defined as "The science, art, and business of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock; farming." We do produce crops and are subject to the same disasters that face other agronomic crops. We need the same water, fertilizer, sun, pesticides and marketing strategies to get our crops to the market. We walk, talk, act, and look like a duck. I think you can call us agriculture.

As some of our nurseries' containers bob up and down as they flow to the sea in the new rivers left by Georges, it is hard to think of water shortages or water quality problems in Alabama but tales of water regulation and shortages are becoming more and more frequent. The Georgia and Alabama vegetable industry is getting a boost as government water restrictions increase in Florida and operations move to areas with a better water climate. David Morgan, in his September introduction to Nursery Manager Pro, offers insights into "Texas Water Woes". David explains that due to the greater water demands by San Antonio, Mortellaro's Nursery will be denied the right to pump water in the year 2000 while water parks, car washes, and golf courses continue life as usual under governmental exemptions. We are not immune to this problem in Alabama. As you know, we are currently in a major battle with Georgia and Florida over water rights. No one will win this battle. Some will just lose worse than others.

All this preamble sets up the announcement of a nursery seminar on Best Management Practices in the Nursery which includes information and demonstrations in water conservation. The program will be held at Mid-Western Nurseries in Centre, Alabama on Wednesday, November 4, 1998. The program is outlined in the newsletter below. Try to break away from your business to join us for a great day with some good take-home information that can make a difference in your nursery. The price is right; the food will be great; the people will be ready to share some good stuff; and I know you will have a good time. If you need certified pesticide points or points for your certified nursery license, this program will satisfy those requirements.

I hope everyone survived Georges without too much damage. Call or e-mail us if we can help you from your University (that's Auburn). Have a good October.

Ken Tilt


DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.

THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES ARE FEATURED IN THIS MONTH'S SOMETHING TO GROW ON:

1. GRAFTING TABLE DESIGN: A GOOD IDEA

2. SECRET TO ROOTING MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA

3. THE INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROPAGATORS SOCIETY MEETING - A PREVIEW

4. WEB SITE OF INTEREST: USDA FOREST SERVICE - SOUTHERN REGION - STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY

5. BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR NURSERIES - 1998 AREA SHORT COURSE

6. NOTES FROM JACKIE MULLEN FROM THE PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LAB

7. NEW INSECTICIDE FOR RED FIRE ANTS WILL BE RELEASED SOON

8. UPCOMING EVENTS


1. GRAFTING TABLE DESIGN: A GOOD IDEA - by Ken Tilt

This title is an oxymoron or a rare event for me. I usually take other people’s ideas. But, laziness is the mother of invention (or something like that) and I could not find what I needed to make my life easier. If you are going to graft for long periods of time, it is nice and more efficient if you have a comfortable table and chair and they are designed for the task. Our usual method of grafting was to grab a rickity chair, put it under a pecan tree, flip over a 5 gallon paint or lard can and bring a worn-out cardboard box of assorted grafting stuff along with a cooler of scion wood. We took the one gallon understock and scattered it around the chairs and in true southern tradition, it was time to “have at it”. You can imagine the results.

I was always looking for where I put my knife down or the marking pens. Grafted plants always got mixed with the ungrafted plants. The chair was too tall for the bucket which also made it hard to hold the understock at the right angle to make the proper cuts. My back began to hurt after an hour, I kicked over my drink..... You get the picture. So, the frustrations resulted in the design of a grafting table pictured below along with a new industrial, adjustable chair or stool that cost two times as much as the table but my back feels better. The cost of the materials for the table was about $70. Let me know if you would like to have a copy of the design. It should be posted on the web site by next month.

The table was designed for 1 or 2 people to graft at a time. The four pockets or trays in the center of the table hold your knife, sharpening stone, bags, twist ties, budding rubbers, markers and tags. The trays can be removed when you are finished grafting and stored until next time. Your leather strap is attached to the table. The cut outs in the center are placed so you can get closer to your work. You can adjust the circle to your size (in my case it needed to be a little larger). The shelf underneath the table allows you to take a one gallon container and lean it against the table to give you a good 45 degree angle to make your cuts and wrapping easier. It also is a good place for your knife while you are wrapping the graft. Although it was not part of the design idea, the support board under the table was perfect for a foot rest.

The table is 42 inches high which allows you to stand up and comfortably work in this position. You can put 30 to 40 understock plants on one side. As you finish the grafts, you push them to the finished side. If you are grafting by yourself, there is a slide bar that pulls the hard-to-reach pots to you. After completing the 30 to 40 pots, you shift the completed grafts to a trailer and reload the understock. If you are fortunate enough to have some help, the other individual can keep the plants moved and restocked. It is a simple system that has worked well. If you do not have a good shade tree or air conditioned room, you may need to add a large umbrella to the design.

(by Ken Tilt, Auburn University)


2. SECRET TO ROOTING MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA

Shoot cutting propagation is the chosen method of southern magnolia growers as it is economical, reliable, and shorter in duration than other methods. The application of growth regulators, synthetic auxins, significantly improves rooting responses.

In October 1996 cuttings from 'Claudia Wannamaker', 'Little Gem', and 'Greenback' cultivars were dipped in various concentrations of IBA (indolebutyric acid), NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid), KNAA (potassium salt formulations) or water only (the control). Results indicate that a combination of 1% KNAA quick dip plus 0.8% IBA in talc is the most effective treatment.

(This is not southern magnolia but a pretty magnolia that deserves viewing).

However, the success in rooting appears to be cultivar dependent. 'Greenback' responded well to all treatments. Only the high concentration KNAA and combination treatments were effective with 'Little Gem' and 'Claudia Wannamaker'. Combining the quick dip with auxins plus the talc formation produced the greatest rooting and root quality among the three tested cultivars.

(from an article in Nursery Manager (September 1998) by Michael A. Dirr.)


3. THE INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROPAGATORS SOCIETY MEETING - A PREVIEW

Last month Ken mentioned how much he was looking forward to attending the IPPS meeting in October. For those of you who have not received a brochure the following is a brief summary of sessions that will be held in Tulsa, Oklahoma from October 18-21:
  • RPM System
  • Practical Propagation Tips
  • Disease-Resistant Crapemyrtles and Dogwoods for the Southeast
  • Seedling Propagation in Bottomless Bands
  • Chicagoland Grows Plant Introduction Program
  • Successful Japanese Maple Grafting: From the Apprentice of a Nurseryman and Master-Grafter
  • Does Container Drainage Hole Size Affect Your Water Quality?
  • Needleleaf Evergreen - Alternatives to Leyland Cypress
  • Indigenous and Exotic Plants for the Plains
  • Starting a Nursery Business
  • Should You Use Lime?
  • Southern Magnolia Propagation and Production
  • Multiple Uses of SpinOut in the Nursery and Landscape
  • Various nursery tours

Participants from Auburn University will be Charles Gilliam, Austin Hagan, and Ken Tilt.


4. WEB SITE OF INTEREST: USDA FOREST SERVICE - SOUTHERN REGION - STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY

A web site of interest is a page published by the USDA Forest Service - Southern Region. It deals primarily with the importance of urban forestry to our cities. The stated goal of Urban and Community Forestry is "to promote conservation and management of forests and related natural resources in cities, with a focus on obtaining the highest social, environmental, psychological and economic benefit."

The site has links to the Urban Forestry Service Center, Assistance Cost Share Programs, Calendar of Events, Publications and Resource List, Cooperative Projects, and a Tree Ordinance Index. Visit the site at http://www.r8web.com/spf/urban.htm


5. BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR NURSERIES - 1998 AREA SHORT COURSE

The Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Alabama Nurserymen's Association, Mid-Western Nurseries of Alabama, and the Alabama Department of Environmental Management will hold a Nursery Short Course and Field Day November 4, 1998. The Short Course will provide basic nursery training on current applied research and Best Management Practices for the nursery. The program will be targeted at growers and nursery employees. Topics will include new information on water quality, weed control, liner production, propagation, disease control, fertility and other areas of interest. The information presented will be material you can take back to your nursery and use. A few good ideas can earn big dollars on your bottom line or provide higher quality plants for your customers.

Growers are encouraged to bring employees to the short course. This is an opportunity to share information and experiences with speakers, allied industry representatives, and other growers. For more information contact:

Linda Van Dyke, Executive Secretary
Alabama Nurserymen's Association
P.O. Box 9
Auburn, AL 36831-0009
Phone: (334) 821-5148

Ken Tilt
Department of Horticulture
101 Funchess Hall
Auburn University, AL 36849
Phone: (334) 844-5484

David Derrick
County Extension Agent, Cherokee County
Courthouse Annex - 3rd Floor, Room 303
Centre, AL 35960
Phone: (205) 927-3250 ext. 12

SEMINAR PROGRAM

9:30-10:30 Registration

10:00-10:30 A Practical Check List of BMP'S To Protect our Water Resources While Producing Quality Plants by GLENN FAIN, Auburn University

10:30-11:00 New Research For Weed Control In The Nursery by CHARLES GILLIAM, Auburn University

11:00-11:15 Break

11:15-11:45 Insect Control Update by FRANK HALE, University of Tennessee

11:45-1:00 Lunch

1:00-1:30 Accelerated Liner Production by DONNA FARE, University of Tennessee

1:30-2:00 What's New In Disease Control by AUSTIN HAGAN, Auburn University

2:00-2:30 Nursery Research Tidbits That Can Make A Difference In Your Nursery by KEN TILT, Auburn University

2:30-3:30 Nursery Tour

The Short Course will be held at Mid-Western Nurseries of Alabama (phone: 800-251-7264). From Gadsden, Alabama take Hwy 411 north to Centre, then left on Hwy 68. Registration fees are $25 per company (if less than 5 attendees - $5.00 per person).

Alabama Certified Nursery Professionals earn Recertification Credit.


6. NOTES FROM JACKIE MULLEN FROM THE PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LAB

Evidence of bacterial scorch disease may occur in September. Scorch disease, caused by the bacteria Xylella, causes leaf edge scorch and dieback of elm, oaks (red and black oaks including northern red, pin, scarlet, southern red, laurel, shingle, and water oaks), sycamore, mulberry, and red maple. Symptoms of scorch may first occur in mid-late June, but disease is often not noticed until late summer or early fall when symptoms are more pronounced. Generally, leaf symptoms progress from older to younger leaves, with leaves at branch tips often showing no symptoms. Scorched leaves curl upward and remain attached. Infected trees develop a progressive dieback and general (usually slow, over many years) decline. Scorch can be confirmed with an ELISA test.

SOME OF THE 1998 AUGUST PLANT DISEASES SEEN IN THE PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LAB:

PLANTDIAGNOSISCOUNTY
ColeusPhytophthora Crown RotJefferson
Ivy, EnglishColletotrichum Leaf SpotJefferson
Ivy, EnglishPhytophthora Root RotJefferson, Lee
OakOak Leaf Blister (Taphrina)Marengo
RoseAerial Blight (Rhizoctonia)Baldwin
RoseCercospora Leaf SpotBaldwin
RoseMosaic VirusLee
WisteriaPhomopsis Stem BlightMarshall


DISEASE DESCRIPTIONS AND BRIEF CONTROL COMMENTS ON SOME COMMON DISEASES OFTEN SEEN IN SEPTEMBER
APMH refers to the Alabama Pest Management Handbook

PLANTDISEASEDESCRIPTIONCONTROL
AUCUBALasiodiplodia CankerBlack, sunken spots or sunken areas on aucuba stems. Dieback of foliage results.Cleary's 3336, or Domain protective sprays labelled for ornamentals; sanitation.
AZALEAPhytophthora Crown and Root RotLower stem near soil and roots become brown and water-soaked. Sanitation and proper soil or potting mix drainage are important. See APMH and/or ANR-571.
AZALEARhizoctonia Aerial BlightBrown, irregular spots and lesions begin on lower leaves. Whole leaves may become blighted; leaf drop occurs.Sanitation; see APMH.
BEGONIAPhytophthora Crown RotCrown tissues are dark and wet-rotted.Sanitation. Reduce watering.
BEGONIAPhytophthora & Pythium Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked, decayed.Sanitation. Reduce watering. See APMH.
BEGONIARhizoctonia Root RotRoots become brown and dry rotted.See APMH.
BEGONIARoot-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne)Galls on roots; plants stunted and wilted.Solarization.
BEGONIATomato Spotted Wilt VirusYellow mosaic and ring spots present. Sometimes brown spots also present.Thrips control. Sanitation.
DOGWOODAnthracnose (Discula)Purple, brown, angular, spreading lesions on leaves.See APMH.
DOGWOODBotryosphaeria CankerSlightly sunken lesion, sometimes with cracks along the margin.Sanitation.
DOGWOODCercospora Leaf Spot Angular-irregular tan-brown lesions (2-6 mm diam.) sometimes with a thin yellow halo.Usually sanitation is the only control measure needed.
DOGWOODSeptoria Leaf Spot Angular, brown spots, about 1 cm or less in diam; may be confused with Cercospora leaf spot.Collect and remove fallen leaves this fall.
DUSTY MILLERAlternaria Leaf Spot Dark, angular spots.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336.
EUONYMUSAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Small, brown spots (about 5 mm or smaller) on foliage.Sanitation; see APMH for protective fungicide recommendations.
FERNAnthracnose (Collectotrichum)Gray-brown irregular blotches on fronds. Orange spore masses may be present in humid weather.Sanitation; see APMH under leaf spot.
FERNRhizoctonia Aerial BlightGray or brown irregular blotches on fronds; some 'shot-hole'.Sanitation; see APMH.
GARDENIAPhytophthora Crown RotLower stem/trunk at the soilline develops wet decay.Sanitation; see APHM under Root Rot for protective treatment.
HOLLY, BLUE MAIDPhytophthora Root RotFeeder roots become waer-soaked, decayed.See APMH.
HOLLY, BLUE MAIDBotryosphaeria CankerBrown or black sunken, cracked lesions (cankers) on branches.Sanitation. Protective sprays of Cleary's 3336, Domain or a WP benomyl labelled for ornamentals.
IMPATIENSAlternaria Leaf SpotBrown, small, angular spots. Sanitation.
IVY, ENGLISHPhytophthora Crown & Root RotTissues dark and water-soaked.Sanitation; reduce irrigation or improve drainage.
JUNIPERPhomopsis DiebackTips of twigs become brown.See the APMH.
JUNIPERPhytophthora Root RotSee Holly. .
LIGUSTRUMCercospora Leaf SpotBrown irregular spots (about 1 cm diam.) on foliage; when leaf spot is severe, defoliation may result.Sanitation; see the APMH.
LIRIOPEAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Brown, irregular blotches on leaf blades; often, leaf tip areas are involved.Sanitation; see APMH.
MAPLEAnthracnose
(Kabatiella)
Brown spots and blotches on foliage; enlarged spots may involve more than half of individual leaves.Sanitation; see APMH.
MAPLEPhyllosticta Leaf SpotGray circular spots (1/4 inch diam., approx.) with dark brown or reddish brown borders.Sanitation.
OAKPowdery Mildew
(Microsphaera)
White dusty coating on upper leaf surfaces. Some distortion of new leaves.Collect and remove fallen leaves this fall.
OAK, PINXylella ScorchLower and oldest leaves show leaf edge scorch; problem progresses upward through the tree canopy. Dieback develops; eventual tree death.Remove dying trees.
PANSYAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Small, round, light brown, cream-colored spots.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336.
PANSYMyrothecium Crown RotDieback; decayed crowns.Sanitation; see A. Hagan.
PANSYPhyllosticta Leaf SpotRelatively small (2-3 mm diam.) medium brown, roughly circular spots. Spot centers may become gray.Sanitation. Protective sprays of Cleary's 3336, Domain, or a benomyl WP labelled for ornamentals.
PANSYPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked.Sanitation. See the APMH.
PANSYPythium Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked.Sanitation; see the APMH.
PANSYThielaviopsis Root RotRoots become covered with black spots/lesions.Sanitation; Cleary's, or Domain protective drenches.
PEAR, BRADFORDFabraea Leaf SpotBlack circular spots (about 0.2-0.4 cm diam.).Sanitation of fallen leaves in the fall. Regular spray schedule may help.
PETUNIAPhytophthora Root RotRoots water-soaked, decayed.Sanitation.
PINE, VIRGINIALophodermium (Ploioderma)
Needle Cast
Older needles turn brown and drop; very small (1-2 mm or 1/32 inch) football shaped, black fruiting bodies develop on brown needles.Protective fungicides spray. See APMH.
PINE, VIRGINIARhizosphaeria Needle CastNeedles become gray-brown. Twig blight may develop.Sanitation. See APMH.
PITTOSPORUMSouthern Blight
Sclerotium rolfsii)
Lower trunk becomes rotted and softened. White mycelial mats and tiny black spherical bodies (sclerotia) may be present on trunk at soil surface.Sanitation.
RED CEDARPhomopsis Tip BlightTips of twigs become yellowed and browned. Dieback may spread down the twig-branch. Lower foliage is affected first.Solarization.
SCHIP LAURELBacterial Leaf Spot
(Xanthomonas)
Angular brown spots with water-soaked margins; shot-holes develop.Sanitation.
VERBENAAnthracnose
Colletotrichum)
Circular black spots on foliage.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336.
VERBENAPythium Lower Stem RotBrown water-soaked lesions.Sanitation; reduce irrigation.
VINCA (PERIWINKLE)Anthracnose
Colletotrichum)
Brown, irregular areas, blotches develop on leaves and stems.Sanitation. Protective sprays of Cleary's or Domain or a WP benomyl labelled for ornamentals may help.
VINCA (PERIWINKLE)Phytophthora Stem Rot
and/or Crown/Root Rot
Stems and/or lower stems near soil line and roots become browned and water-soaked.Sanitation; improve soil drainage.
VINCA (PERIWINKLE)Phythium Root RotRoots become brown, decayed, and water-soaked.Sanitation; Reduce watering schedule. Rotate to different crop.
VINCA (PERIWINKLE)Rhizoctonia Aerial BlightLower leaves become blighted; a thin mycelial webbing may develop.Sanitation; Cleary's, Domain or a WP benomyl labelled for ornamentals may help.
WAX MYRTLEAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Brown, irregular spots, blotches develop on leaves.Sanitation; if disease is severe, protective sprays of Cleary's 3336 or Domain or a WP benomyl may help.
WAX MYRTLEGummy Stem Blight
(Mycosphaerella)
Black lesions/spots at leaf edges; elongate cracking on stem with amber-colored ooze.See APMH.

For specific disease control recommendations contact your County Extension Agent.

(from Jackie Mullen at the Plant Diagnostic Lab at Auburn University).


7. NEW INSECTICIDE FOR RED FIRE ANTS WILL BE RELEASED SOON

Early next year, a new insecticide, Extinguish (the proposed name), will be on the market. An insect growth regulator, s-methoprene, is the active ingredient. Texas fire ant coordinator, Bart Drees, reports that research at Texas A&M found the insecticide to be effective on large plots. Additional research will concentrate on making the insecticide available at an economical price.
(from David Morgan's weekly NMPRO e-mail)


8. UPCOMING EVENTS

October 7-10, 1998:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; 860-429-6818; e-mail: mbippser@neca.com

October 9-10, 1998:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN. Contact MTNA, Ann Halcomb, Exec. Secr. 615-668-7322; Fax: 615-668-9601; e-mail: MTNA@juno.com or MTNA@blomand.net

October 18-21, 1998:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators Society.
Tulsa, OK. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101.

October 23-24, 1998:
Return of the Natives - Central South Native Plant Conference.
Levite Jewish Community Center and the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.
Call Mary Jo Modica, University of Alabama Arboretum, Tuscaloosa, AL at 1-888-349-1815.

November 4, 1998:
Best Management Practices for Nurseries - 1998 Area Short Course.
Presented by The Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Alabama Nurserymen's Association, Mid-Western Nurseries of Alabama and the Alabama Department of Environmental Management - in Centre, Alabama. Call Linda Van Dyke at 334-821-5148, Ken Tilt at 334-844-5484 or David Derrick at 205-927-3250 for more information. November 5-7, 1998:
Annual Meeting of The Holly Society of America Annual Meeting.
Colonial Williamsburg, VA; contact 757-363-3906.

November 7-8, 1998
Annual Meeting of the American Bamboo Society.
The Harry P. Leu Gardens and Disney World, Orlando, FL; contact Delores Holland, Registration Chariman, Yellow City Road, Amenia, NY 12501; tel and fax: 914-373-9020; e-mail: eastwest.connecton@worldnet.att.net
Website:
www.bamboo.org/aba/ABSNational1998.html

November 20-22, 1998:
Meeting of the Middle Atlantic Chapter of the American Rhododendron Society.
Chamberlain Hotel, Hampton, VA; Contact 304-765-5551.

January 13-15, 1999:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Don W. Sanford at 847-526-2010; fax 847-526-3993; e-mail midam@mc.net

January 28, 29, 30, 1999:
Alabama Nurserymen's Association Trade Show and Educational Program.
Mobile, Alabama. Call Linda Van Dyke at 344-821-5148 for details. See also http://www.ALNA.org

January 30-February 3, 1999:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Memphis, TN. Contact Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656; phone 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

February 4-7, 1999:
The Management Clinic.
Galt House, Louisville, KY. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;http://www.anla.org

July 22-27, 1999:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Philadelphia, PA. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

July 28-31, 1999:
96th American Society for Horticultural Science.
Minneapolis Convention Center, Minneapolis, MN. Contact ASHA: 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024; e-mail: ashs@ashs.org

July 30-August 1, 1999:
SNA 99 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

August 1-4, 1999:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference. Stamford, CT. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 10-11, 1999:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at 931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail nurseryassn@blomand.net

September 23-25, 1999:
6th Biennial Southern Plant Conference.
Richmond, VA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

October 3-6, 1999:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Mobile, AL. Contact David Morgan: 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

January 11-13, 2000:
Kentucky Landscape Industries Winter Educational Conference and Trade Show.
The Lexington Center, Lexington, KY. Contact Debbie Cain, KNLA Exec. Dir. at 502-899-3622; fax 502-899-7922

January 19-21, 2000:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Don W. Sanford at 847-526-2010, fax 847-526-3993; e-mail midam@mc.net

January 29-February 2, 2000:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Lexington, KY. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

February 3-6, 2000:
The Management Clinic.
Galt House, Louisville, KT. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

July 8-12, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail ofa@ofa.org; web: http://www.ofa.org

July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

July 14-18, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail ofa@ofa.org; web: http://www.ofa.org

July 16-19, 2000:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference.
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail ashs@ashs.org

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

August 11-18, 2000:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference.
Baltimore, MD. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 15-16, 2000:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail tnurseryassn@blomand.net

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.