C O N T E N T S
of Something to Grow On,
the monthly on-line newsletter from Auburn University Landscape Horticulture
KEN'S MUSINGS
30th ANNUAL MEETING OF THE IPPS SOUTHERN REGION
LOUISIANA NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION UPDATE
PUSS CATERPILLAR (Flannel Moth larvae)
BAGWORMS AND LEYLAND CYPRESS
LANDSCAPE PLANT MATERIAL, SIZE, AND DESIGN SOPHISTICATION INCREASE PERCEIVED HOME VALUE
SUMAGIC (UNICONAZOLE) PROMOTES FLOWER BUD SET ON Camellia japonica
DOGWOODS, a Book Review
PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT
UPCOMING EVENTS

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


KEN'S MUSINGS

October means the International Plant Propagator Society Meeting. Every year I say this is in the top 2 or 3 meetings that every nursery producer should attend to learn and share ideas. It has a great balance of visits to nurseries, technical papers from your peers and university researchers, plant auctions of the newest plants and potential money-makers, and time to talk with other people who do the same thing as you. The motto is "To Seek and Share" so people who attend are very open to your questions. I have been attending these meetings for about 25 years and have always come home with something great to share with others to use in their businesses. Join us in Gainesville, FL. See the program below.

The Alabama Certified Landscape Professsional Program (ACLP) is sponsored by the Alabama Nursery and Landscape Association and the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. ACLP will be holding its certification exams on November 3 and 4 (Thursday and Friday), 2005 at the ALFA building (961 S. Donahue Drive, Auburn) beginning at 9 am on Thursday morning. The written exam will be first, followed by the landscape plan take-off exam. Please bring a calculator. The plant and pest ID will take place after lunch from 1 to 3 pm. Dr. Joe Eakes will be offering a review for landscape installation for the practical exam from 3 to 5 on Thursday, November 3. The ACLP practical exam will be held on Friday, November 4, 2005 beginning at 9 am. The practical exam will consist of pruning, landscape maintenance and design evaluation, landscape plan take-off, sod installation, equipment and pesticide safety and grading. See www.ag.auburn.edu/landscape and hit the ACLP button for more information about the program. If you have already had and passed the written exam and do not want to review the landscape plan take-off with Dr. Eakes, you can come on November 4 and take the practical portion of the exam. This exam is for those who have registered and paid ALNLA to enter the program. Georgia participants are welcome.

VERY IMPORTANT: All registrants need to call ALNLA at 334-821-5148 to sign up for the test.

Thank you for your interest in raising the bar of good landcaping in Alabama. Study hard and good luck!

Ken


30th ANNUAL MEETING OF THE IPPS SOUTHERN REGION

The 30th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society Southern Region of North America Meeting will take place at the Hilton/University of Florida Conference Center in Gainesville, Florida. For registration and other information call Dr. David Morgan, 817-428-2296, email DavidLMorgan@sbcglobal.net Below is an abbreviated Schedule of Events of the meeting (for the entire schedule as a pdf file go to www.ipps.org/SouthernNA):

Saturday, October 22:
8-12:00 - Nursery Open House
1:00 - Registration Opens
3:00 - Early Bird Garden Tour around Gainesville
5:00 - Tour Kanapaha Botanical Gardens
6:00 - Mexican Fiesta at Kanapaha Gardens

Sunday, October 23:
9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. - Tours

Monday, October 24:
8:00 - New Plants for the South (Ted Stephens)
8:20 - Growing Quality Trees for Southeastern Landscapes (Michael Marshall)
8:40 - Grafted Deciduous Plants: Before and After Care (Brian Upchurch)
9:00 - Impact of Nitrogen Concentration on Stock Plant Yield Cutting Performance of Bougainvillea 'Purple Small-Leaf' and Raspberry Ice (Christopher Cerveny)
9:00 - Student Speakers
11:10 - A Look Down Memory Lane (Charlie Parkerson)
12:15 - 6:00 - Tours
6:15 - Reception, Banquet and Auction

Tuesday, October 25:
8:05 - Tropical Heat - New Coleus Introductions from the University of Florida (David Clark)
8:25 - A Propagator's Notebook (Charlotte LeBlanc)
8:45 - The China Connection - People, Plants and Plans of a Horticultural Giant (David Creech)
9:05 - Methods and Techniques of Improving Root Initials (Mark Crawford)
10:00 - Optimizing the Water Relations of Cuttings during Propagation (Fred Davies)
10:20 - Educating the Next Generation of Propagators (Occie Coor)
10:40 - Propagation Decisions in the Fluid Marketplace (Jim Berry)
11:30 - 6:30 - Nursery tours

Wednesday, October 26:
8:05 - Growing Tropicals Out of Zone (Dr. Robert Bowden)
8:25 - Propagation of New Introductions (Mark Griffith)
8:45 - Overview of Next Year's IPPS Meeting in Charlotte, NC (David Threatt)
10:30 - A Water Quality Issue: Opportunity or Opponent (Tom Yeager)
11:15 - Propagation Techniques at Cherry Lake Nursery and TZL (David Ressler)


LOUISIANA NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION UPDATE

The following articles are from the Louisiana Nursery and Landscape Association Update and News from October 2nd. We think that the information regarding the recent hurricanes will be of interest to our readership. Our thanks to Allen Owings, Professor at LSU and Executive Secretary of LNLA and the Association for letting us reprint this information:

Property Insurance and Flood Insurance
As insurance adjusters are being granted access to damaged property locations affected by Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita, the need for information on filing claims takes on greater importance. Hortica Insurance, insurance specialists for the horticultural industry, has assembled a document outlining the core differences in property insurance vs. flood insurance, as well as answers to commonly asked questions regarding the disaster. This information is available at
http://www.anla.org/applications/Documents/Docs/Katrina_-_Property_Insurance_and_Flood_Insurance.pdf

Nursery Associations and Others Work For Hurricane Disaster Relief
LNLA is working with the Mississippi Nursery and Landscape Association, Alabama Nursery and Landscape Association, and the Florida Nursery, Landscape & Growers Association to secure meaningful disaster assistance for nurseries hit by Hurricane Katrina. We are also communicating with the Southern Nursery Association and American Nursery and Landscape Association on this issue. The Louisiana Farm Bureau Federation and their counterparts in Alabama have also been tremendously helpful in this effort.

We are seeking four objectives in a relief package:
1. Secure a nursery crop loss and clean-up package similar to last year's special Florida nursery hurricane relief
2. Broaden USDA's Emergency Conservation Program to recognize the clean-up and disposal of nursery, shade house, and greenhouse debris as eligible for cost-share assistance
3. Broaden USDA's Tree Assistance Program to recognize field-grown and container-grown trees as eligible crops and provide cost-share assistance
4. Ensure nursery crops are eligible under any general agriculture disaster package.

Current Hurricane Katrina Disaster Package for Horticulture Crops Being Considered in Washington
The abbreviated edition is what is now being considered and it will probably be combined with a Hurricane Rita package:

Nursery, strawberries, fall fruits, and vegetables -- losses greater than 35% will be covered and a single payment of $2,500 per acre for planted fruits and vegetables; in the case of losses greater than 25% for nursery crops, 75% of actual dollar amount of losses would be paid.

Citrus--per acre compensation for crop loss and associated tree damage in eligible groves shall be $9,023 per acre.

Overall, $34 million has been asked for to carry out Citrus Disaster Program, Nursery Crop and Christmas Tree Disaster Program, Strawberry, Horticultural Crops, Fall Fruits and Vegetables Program in disaster parishes due to Hurricane Katrina. In talking to a staff member in Senator Landreiu's office yesterday, the Katrina and Rita losses will probably be combined after the latter have been estimated.

Mississippi Green Industry Vows to Rebuild
The Mississippi Nursery and Landscape Association (MNLA) reports that the green industry incurred significant loss from Hurricane Katrina. Entire garden centers were blown away. Shade cloths were ripped off, greenhouse roofs collapsed, and a loss of power meant that irrigation systems were inoperable for several days. When asked what the plan for recovery would be, one grower/retail nursery owner replied, "Our first step is to get a travel trailer to live in. The second step would be to build an office so work can continue. After that, we will begin work on rebuilding our house and our greenhouses."

Initial estimates by Mississippi State University and MNLA show the state's nursery producers loss to be $17 to $19 million. Including losses from retail nurseries and landscape contractors, the total could reach $100 million. With almost $1 billion in industry sales, Mississippi depends on this revenue. When the president of the MNLA was asked how this would impact the state's green industry, Peggy Wallace replied, "We are a very strong group that pledges to help one another with the recovery process. As we plan for the future, we dedicate ourselves to help those who have lost the most. We are down, but we are not out. In the next few months, as everyone rebuilds, you will see a boom in our industry. Our growers and retail nurseries just have to hold on for the next few months. After that, this industry will grow like never before. We need help now so that we can be here when the boom arrives. Unfortunately some of the verbiage written to assist businesses in the eye of the storm was not worded to benefit our industry. At this moment, we need our senators to stand tall and make sure we are included."

In the spring, MNLA produces two Garden & Patio Shows that attract almost 20,000 retail shoppers. When Jan Winter, MNLA Executive Secretary/Treasurer was asked if these shows would go on she said that both shows will go on as planned even if they will need a change of venue.

For more information on MNLA or for details that could help hurricane victims in Mississippi, visit the MNLA Web site at http://www.msnla.org or call 866-919-8111.

Hurricane Rita - Impact on Louisiana's Green Industry
Louisiana’s nursery and landscape industry has incurred more losses due to the effect of Hurricane Rita which struck southwest Louisiana just east of the Louisiana/Texas state line on September 24. The most recently completed LSU AgCenter study of the annual contributions of Louisiana’s green industry to the economy shows $2.215 billion ($1.583 billion direct; $0.632 billion indirect) in gross sales and employment of 56,686 (49,484 direct; 7,202 indirect). Crop losses are believed to be $5-6 million. This does not include plant losses due to current or upcoming irrigation system failures; nor does it include structural damage, facility damage, container yard damage, irrigation system repairs, clean up cost, etc.

Typical annual wholesale production of nursery crops (woody ornamentals) in Louisiana is $90-100 million. The vast majority of the growers are woody ornamental nursery producers. About 10% of the growers are primarily bedding plant and similar herbaceous plant producers.

Landscape Contracting/Maintenance/Horticultural Services
There are 167 horticulture service providers and 283 landscape contractors residing or doing business in the twelve parish areas most impacted by Hurricane Rita. This represents 16.5% and 17.1%, respectively, of the state total. There are 1015 horticulture service providers and 1651 landscape contractors licensed in Louisiana. Gross sales on landscape and horticultural services in Louisiana in 2001 (the most recent year for which data is available) was $266.1 million based on an LSU AgCenter study. “Related” horticulture activities had gross sales of over $600 million in 2001. This segment of the green industry employed 9,361 individuals in 2001.

Retail Garden Centers
The devastation to retail garden centers (including independents and mass merchandisers) is major in the affected areas. There are 1352 nursery stock dealers in Louisiana with 24.3% of Louisiana nursery stock dealers being located in the parishes most affected by Hurricane Rita (329 total). In 2001, retail garden center trade statewide was $511 million with employment of 14,905. There are 1,678,000 households in Louisiana.


PUSS CATERPILLAR (Flannel Moth larvae)

From an article by Jerry Cates of EntomoBiotics Inc.
The puss caterpillar (Megalopyge opercularis) is one of more than 50 types of caterpillars found in the U. S. capable of stinging (its sting is one of the most severe). The larval stage of this insect is a small, wooly, pussycat-appearing caterpillar covered with rows of long spines that look like fine, soft, cuddly hairs. Because they appear to be small, innocuous pieces of fluff, children and adults alike are led to pick them up and play with them, usually with immediate, extremely painful results. The spines, hidden among the hairs, are hollow, and release a toxin of unknown chemical composition that produces a skin lesion. The lesion usually begins as a halo of reddened skin surrounding the sting site. This is soon followed by the appearance of a number of small cysts that gradually develop into a matrix of blood-filled lesions where the mass of spines punctured the skin. This clinical presentation is characteristic enough, generally, to permit physicians to make a diagnosis of the cause even in the absence of the caterpillar.

Common names are puss caterpillar, wooly worms, wooly slugs, opossum bugs, tree asps, and, in Mexico, el perrito (little dog). The larvae pupate inside the skin of the caterpillar itself, and spend the winter attached to a tree limb, trunk, or brick/masonry post. When you see a "dead" puss caterpillar, you are probably looking at its pupa, which is still very much alive. The adult flannel moth emerges from the pupa in the spring, mates, lays its eggs on the foliage of a nearby shrub or tree, and dies. The larvae hatch from the eggs and voila! Your experience with puss caterpillars begins afresh.

Although M. opercularis is fairly common throughout the south central and southeastern U.S., it rarely is present in large enough numbers to present a serious risk to humans. Historical records show that large outbreaks occurred in San Antonio, Texas in 1923 and in Galveston, Texas in 1954. Judging from reports received in 2003, however, serious outbreaks are now more common than previously thought. Whether this is due to underreporting in past years, or to recent surges in infestations, remains to be determined.

I. vomitoria is a favorite host for this insect, but it will also feed on citrus, oak, elm, hackberry, sycamore, and several other plants. A thorough inspection of the site confirmed that several shrubs, all of the same species, were infested, but no other plants were being attacked. Using organic pesticides, the infestation was quickly brought under control. It is also interesting to note that the caterpillar does not have to be alive to "sting" you. The hollow spines, filled with toxin, will continue to cause painful stings hours after the insect has been killed.

FIRST AID: If you are stung by this caterpillar, the untreated lesion will be acutely painful for several hours, and will likely cause mild to moderate discomfort for at least 4 to 5 days. The severity of the pain can be significantly reduced if you follow the following simple procedure: Spines are easily removed from the skin by gently pressing adhesive tape to the lesion and lifting it off the skin as soon as possible after the sting occurs (though immediate relief has been reported by those who waited as long as a day or two before using tape to remove the spines). NOTE: Anaphylaxis (shock) in sensitive individuals has been reported. Anyone known to be sensitive to insect stings who is stung by this caterpillar should be referred to a doctor immediately.


BAGWORMS AND LEYLAND CYPRESS

Bagworms (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis) are a common problem of landscape plants and are listed as one of the top ten pests of urban forests in the northeast and southern United States. They primarily defoliate evergreens but will also use deciduous trees as hosts.

The efficacy and costs were determined for the manual removal of bagworms from a single Leyland cypress (X Cupressocyparis leylandii) and estimated for a planting of 40 trees. Manual removal costs were compared to the estimated costs of spraying trees with the insect growth regulator tebufenozide. Handpicking provided 92% control and required 160 minutes for one tree and an estimated 6,400 minutes for 40 trees. Labor costs for manual removal were estimated at $44 for one tree and $1,764 for 40 trees. Estimated time required to spray a single tree was 71 minutes while 40 trees required an estimated 251 minutes. Estimated cost to spray one tree was about $28 and the cost for 40 trees was estimated to be $105 (a lot of time is spent preparing for and cleaning up from the application). The time spent and costs of control are similar for handpicking and spraying single trees. However, as the number of trees increases, time and costs associated with handpicking increase dramatically, while costs to spray increase only slightly. Hourly salaries used were $16.54 for laborers and $22 for spray technicians. In some environmentally sensitive landscapes (schools, for example) it may be preferable or mandated to use mechanical instead of chemical control.

(from "Efficacy and Costs Associated with the Manual Removal of Bagworms, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, from Leyland Cypress" by Hans D. Lemke, Michael J. Raupp, and Paula M. Shrewshury, published in the J. Environmental Horticulture, September 2005).

LANDSCAPE PLANT MATERIAL, SIZE, AND DESIGN SOPHISTICATION INCREASE PERCEIVED HOME VALUE

There is not much consumer research available to help landscape design and installation businesses develop service marketing strategies. This study examined the effect of three components of a landscape design on the perceived value of a home. 1,323 volunteers participated in seven states by viewing 16 photographs of landscapes using various levels of three attributes: plant material type, design sophistication, and plant size. Across all seven markets, study participants perceived that home value increased from 5% to 11 % for homes with a good landscape.

Participants in the study valued landscape sophistication most. Island beds and curved bed lines add to the perceived value of a home. Plant material was least important, followed by plant size. It is important to use the largest affordable plants. Surveys were administered in Delaware, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Texas. All states shared the same most preferred landscape: a sophisticated design incorporating large deciduous, evergreen, and annual color plants and colored hardscape. The sophisticated planting category consisted of a foundation planting with adjoining beds and two or three large island plantings, all incorporating curved bedlines. Results from this study show that a good landscape can add from 5% to 11% to the base value of the home. A good landscape not only adds to the value of a home but is a home improvement that will appreciate over time.

(from "Landscape Plant Material, Size, and Design Sophistication Increase Perceived Home Value" by B. Behe, J. Hardy, S. Barton, J. Brooker, T. Fernandez, C. Hall, J. Hicks, R. Hinson, P. Knight, R. McNiel, T. Page, B. Rowe, C. Safley, and R. Schutzki, published in the J. Environmental Horticulture, September 2005).


SUMAGIC (UNICONAZOLE) PROMOTES FLOWER BUD SET ON Camellia japonica

Camellia japonica is a much valued shrub because of its showy flowers which normally set in late summer and open the following winter to early spring. When container grown for transplanting into the landscape most cultivars begin to set flower buds within 2 to 3 years after propagation by cuttings and are then ready for sale. Cultivars that are slow to begin flowering require more time to be ready for market, thus increasing cost to the grower. This study investigated the use of growth regulators to increase flower bud set on those camellia cultivars that are slow to begin flowering. The Sumagic application also helped maintain compact growth without excessively reducing overall plant size. Plants used in the study were: Camellia japonica 'Grace Albritton', 'Paulette Goddard', and 'Sea Foam' .

Study results indicate that an application of Sumagic early in the growing season can promote a large increase in flower bud set on slow flowering Camellia japonica cultivars. The largest number of flowers occurred when Sumagic was applied in the spring just prior to the first growth flush or soon after growth started. A Sumagic spray of 45 ppm applied at these times resulted in a 250 to 500% increase in flower bud numbers but with a reduction in plant height of 10 to 30%. The height reduction produced more compact plants with increased flower visibility without the need for shearing.

(from "Sumagic (Uniconazole) Promotes Flower Bud Set on Camellia japonica" by Thomas J. Banko and Amelia L. Landon, published the J. Environmental Horticulture, September 2005).


DOGWOODS, a Book Review

Dogwoods by Paul Cappiello and Don Shadow
From a book review by Win Dunwell of the University of Kentucky

There is little debate that one of the most beautiful flowering trees in the world is Dogwood. This book contains a large number of images of Cornus species and cultivars. The descriptions and information on cultivars is incredible. The book is divided into six chapters: the Family Cornaceae,Cornus canadensis, Cornus alba, Cornus alternifolia, Cornus florida, and Cornus mas.The book is full of fun trivia, such as Mike Dirr preferring Snickers bars to the fruit of Cornus kousa var. chinensis. This discussion lead to numerous taste tests on the Cave Hill Cemetery tour of the 2005 Southern Plant Conference in Louisville. My favorite quote from Mike Dirr on edible fruit of ornamental species is on Cornus mas: although edible, one must be hungry . I started out reading this book in a cursory fashion to write a review, ie. not reading all; then I found myself reading large sections, addicted to the mention of the greats Ernest Wilson, Mike Dirr, Jim Cross, J. C. Raulston, Polly Hill, Gary Handy, Barry Yinger, Kentucky Higden, Gary Lanham, the now-Illinois Resident John Wachter, as well as the late Theodore Klein. The book is a hardcover of 224 pages with 261 color photos, 3 black and white illustrations and the USDA Hardiness Zone Map. It fits more to the hand for reading than most of this day and age at 7.38 x 10.38 inches. Timber Press, 2005.


PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT - AUGUST 2005

Jackie Mullen, Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Auburn
Jim Jacobi, Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Birmingham
Charles Ray, Research Fellow IV-Auburn

Auburn Plant Disease Report-August 2005 (J. Mullen)
August was busy with 229 plant samples received.

All 51 of our Phytophthora genus positive possible sudden oak death DNA samples (where ELISA showed the Phytophthora genus to be present) sent to Beltsville for PCR testing came back to us with negative results. So, thus far this year, we have not identified P. ramorum in any of the 239 landscape, and nursery plants tested. As temperatures drop this fall, the disease, if present, could become active so remember to watch for leaf spots and leaf edge scorches on rhododendrons, pieris, viburnums, camellias, mountain laurels, and lilac purchased during the past 3 years. Also, please be aware and notice bleeding cankers on oaks or other trees in the Fagaceae family such as beech, chestnut, and chinkapin. Sudden oak death (SOD) symptomatic plants should be sampled by State Department of Agriculture Inspectors who will bring or send them to our lab for ELISA testing.

Sclerotium rolfsii was seen as a crown rot on ageratum and vinca.. Chrysanthemum contained a variety of diseases. Abundant rainfall undoubtedly contributed to the increase in disease types seen. Xylella bacterial scorch was identified on oak and pin oak in August.

Also, please remember that early fall is the best time of year to check soils for nematode problems.

August Plant Diseases Seen in the Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab
PLANTPROBLEMCOUNTY
AgeratumSclerotium rolfsii Crown RotGeneva
AzaleaPhytophthora Root Rot & Crown Rot*(2)
BermudagrassBipolaris Leaf Spot*
BentgrassNematode-Ring (Criconemoides)*
BentgrassPythium Blight*(2)
BoxwoodMacrophoma BlightCalhoun
BoxwoodVolutella BlightCalhoun
CaladiumPseudomonas Leaf SpotBaldwin
CentipedegrassFairy RingHouston
CentipedegrassTake-All Patch (Gaeumannomyces)Montgomery
ChrysanthemumAscochyta Blight*
ChrysanthemumCurvularia Leaf Spots*
ChrysanthemumFusarium Stem Rot & Wilt*
ChrysanthemumPhytophthora Root Rot*
ChrysanthemumPythium Root Rot*
CottonwoodSeptoria Leaf SpotHouston
DogwoodCercospora Leaf SpotBaldwin
Holly, HelleriMacrophoma BlightBarbour
Holly, HelleriVolutella BlightBaldwin
HydrangeaPythium Root RotCalhoun
Ivy, EnglishAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Cullman, Lee
KudzuAsian Soybean RustBaldwin(2), Conecuh
MapleSuspect Septoria Leaf SpotBaldwin
NandinaAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Calhoun
NandinaSuspect VirusCalhoun
Oak, PinXylella Bacterial Scorch (Xylella fastidiosa)Calhoun
PhotiniaEntomosporium Leaf SpotLee
SpathiphyllumPythium Root RotLee
St. Augustinegrass Gray Leaf Spot (Piricularia grisea)Calhoun
St. AugustinegrassTake-All PatchCalhoun, Colbert, Elmore,
Mobile, Washington
VincaSclerotium rolfsii Crown RotGeneva
ZoysiaRust (Puccinia zoysia)Houston
ZoysiaTake-All PatchAutauga
*Counties are not reported for nursery, greenhouse, and golf course samples.

Monthly Plant Problem Report From The Birmingham Lab (J. Jacobi)
We received 109 samples in August. Some of the problem diseases last month included southern blight on begonia, web blight on rosemary, Phytophthora crown rot on daphne, and various leaf spot diseases on a wide range of woody shrubs and trees especially ornamental cherry and hydrangea. Although the water mold fungi Pythium and Phytophthora, are typically more common problems on begonia, southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) can also cause a crown and root rot of this plant. Sclerotium initially attacks the root system or stem at the soil line. The rapid decay of the roots and stems causes wilting and death of the plant. This fungus forms yellow or tan pellets (sclerotia) that resemble mustard seeds. The sclerotia can survive in soil or plant debris for many years. Control of this disease usually requires a combination of cultural and chemical control measures. Remove and destroy infected plants and soil within 6 inches around them to reduce the number of overwintering sclerotia. Do not plant susceptible plants in landscape beds contaminated by this fungus. Products that contain flutolanil (Prostar and Contrast) or azoxystrobin (Heritage) are labeled for control of southern blight and provide good control under most conditions. Always make sure that the plant you intend to spray is listed on the label.

AUGUST 2005 Plant Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab
PLANTPROBLEMCOUNTY
AzaleaAzalea CaterpillarJefferson
AzaleaGall Midge (Clinodiplosis)Jefferson/Shelby
AzaleaPowdery MildewTuscaloosa
BegoniaSouthern Blight (Sclerotium)Jefferson
BentgrassAlgae*
BentgrassAnthracnose*(3)
BentgrassBlack Layer’*
BentgrassHeat Stress*(2)
BentgrassPythium Root Dysfunction*(3)
BermudagrassDollar Spot (Sclerotinia)Shelby
Boxwood, CommonMacrophoma BlightJefferson
BoxwoodWater StressJefferson
CherrylaurelShot HoleShelby
Crape MyrtleBlack LiceJefferson
Crape MyrtleCrape Myrtle AphidJefferson
Crape MyrtleSooty MoldJefferson
Cypress, LeylandCercosporidium Needle BlightJefferson
Cherry, FloweringCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson/Shelby
Cherry, FloweringCoccomyces Leaf SpotJefferson
Cherry, FloweringSan Jose ScaleShelby
DaphnePhytophthora Crown RotJefferson
ForsythiaPhomopsis GallJefferson
GinkgoMarginal Leaf ScorchJefferson
Hydrangea, BigleafCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
Hydrangea, BigleafCorynespora Leaf SpotJefferson
ImpatiensSpider Mite DamageJefferson
Indian HawthornEntomosporium Leaf SpotTuscaloosa
Ivy, EnglishPhytophthora Root RotJefferson
Juniper, Blue PacificPhytophthora Root RotJefferson
Juniper, Blue RugArmillaria Root RotShelby
Leucothoe, FloridaAmbrosia BeetleTuscaloosa
Maple, JapanesePhyllosticta Leaf SpotJefferson
Maple, RedMarginal Leaf ScorchJefferson
Maple, SugarArmillaria Root RotJefferson
Morning GloryRust (Coleosporium)Talladega
Oak, PinBacterial Leaf Scorch (Xylella)Jefferson
Oak, ShumardAnthracnoseJefferson
Oak, ShumardBacterial Leaf Scorch (Xanthomonas)Jefferson
PierisSouthern Red MiteJefferson
RosePythium Root RotJefferson
St. AugustineGray Leaf SpotJefferson(3)
ZoysiaFairy RingJefferson
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse, nursery, and golf course samples.

AUBURN ENTOMOLOGY REPORT - AUGUST 2005 (C. Ray)
COUNTY CROP CATEGORY SPECIMEN NAME
Jefferson Maple Ornamental Gloomy Scale
Montgomery Red Maple Ornamental Gloomy Scale
Shelby Oak Ornamental Orange-Striped Oak Worm
Escambia Water Oak Ornamental Bark Lice
Jefferson Crape Myrtle Ornamental Common Bark Lice
Jefferson Flowering Cherry Ornamental San Jose Scale
Marengo Cabbage Palm Ornamental Palmetto Scale
Mobile Hibiscus Ornamental Pink Hibiscus Mealybug*
Mobile Hibiscus Ornamental Pink Hibiscus Mealybug*
Lee Oak Ornamental Yellow Necked Caterprillar
Lee Oak Ornamental Green Fruitworm
Lee Oak Ornamental Imperial Moth Caterpillar
Lee Oak Ornamental Orange Striped Oakworm
Montgomery (5 samples) Oaks Ornamental Spider Mites, Yellow Mites,
Eriophyid mites(3), Tarsonemid Mites,
False Spider Mites
Tuscaloosa Cornus sericea Ornamental A Sawfly
Houston Cottonwood Ornamental Gloomy Scale
Clarke Ornamental Bahia Grass Ornamental An Armored Scale, Duplachionaspis divergens**
Clarke . Ornamental A Mealybug, Phenacoccus madeiriensis
Lee Dayflower Ornamental Six-Spotted Leaf Beetle Larvae

*First Record of Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (PHMB) in Alabama. Plants destroyed and eradication measures implemented by Alabama Department of Agriculture & Industries. PHMB feeds on more than 300 different plants including ornamentals, row crops and trees. Rapidly build up of large number on infested plants and often cause plant distortion because of phytotoxic saliva. If suspicious mealybugs are found, place in alcohol and immediately ship to Plant Diagnostic Lab.

**Exotic species discovered in Florida in 2002. New State Record.

Disease Possibilities For September
Seasonably cooler conditions are more favorable for powdery mildew and downy mildew. Both of these diseases cause yellow blotches on dicot leaves. With powdery mildew, blotches may be more diffuse and a white dusty layer may be visible on the upper and/or lower leaf surfaces. With downy mildew, yellow spots may begin as more definitive angular yellow spots. These spots may merge resulting in large yellow areas. On lower leaf surfaces when weather is wet, humid, and temperatures are 60-80 degrees F, a brown-gray-colored webbing may be present on lower leaf surfaces. These diseases are often confirmed in the lab by microscopic observation of characteristic spores.

Evidence of bacterial scorch disease may occur in September. Scorch disease, caused by the bacteria Xylella, causes leaf edge scorch and dieback of elm, oaks (red and black oaks including northern red, pin, scarlet, southern red, laurel, shingle, and water oaks), sycamore, mulberry, and red maple. Initial symptoms of scorch may first occur in mid-late June, but disease is often not noticed until late summer or early fall when symptoms are more pronounced. Generally, leaf symptoms progress from older to younger leaves, with leaves at branch tips often showing no symptoms. Scorched leaves curl upward and remain attached. Infected trees develop a progressive dieback and general (usually slow, over many years) decline. Scorch can be confirmed with an ELISA test. Disease symptoms may be confused with drought or root problems. In August of 2002, this disease was confirmed in a sycamore sample from Barbour County and in a plum sample from Mobile County. Bacterial scorch was recently diagnosed on sycamore in Montgomery County.

Many fungal leaf spot diseases will develop on pre-senescent shade tree foliage in September. Generally these spots are of no concern. It is, however, always a good idea to remove fallen spotted foliage from the area later this fall or winter. Stressed trees are more susceptible to these leaf spots.


UPCOMING EVENTS

October 23-26, 2005:
IPPS Southern Region of North America 30th Annual Meeting.
Gainesville, Florida.
For more information click on
http://www.ipps.org/SouthernNA/programs.html

November 3-5, 2005:
Holly Society of America, Inc. 2005 Conference.
Executive West, Louisville, KY.
Contact: Bob Hopkins, Great Rivers Chapter; e-mail, bob@tnz.us or see the Annual Meeting Announcement at: http://www.hollysocam.org/AMannouncement.pdf

November 6-8, 2005:
The Irrigation Association 26th Annual International Irrigation Show.
Phoenix Civic Plaza Convention Center, Phoenix, AZ.
Contact The Irrigation Association, 6540 Arlington Boulevard, Falls Church, VA 22042-6638; 703.536.7080; e-mail education@irrigation.org
URL: http://www.irrigation.org/

November 18-20, 2005:
Independent Plant Breeder's Conference.
Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
Contact: Dr. Rick Schoellhorn, PO Box 110670, Gainesville, FL 32611; 352.392.1831 ext. 364; Fax, 352.392.3870; e-mail rksch@ufl.edu
URL: http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/IPBC

January 5-6, 2006:
Mid-States Horticultural Expo.
Kentucky Fairgrounds, Louisville, Kentucky.
NOTE: Kentucky will host this new winter trade show. The event was created with cooperation from the Kentucky Nursery & Landscape Association, the Tennessee Nursery & Landscape Association, and the Southern Nursery Association. The Kentucky Fairgrounds is a 400-acre facility with more than 1 million square feet of indoor space.

January 18-20, 2006:
Mid-AMTrade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL.
Contact: Rand Baldwin, 847.526.2010, Fax 847.526.3993; e- mail mail@midam.org
URL: http://www.midam.org

January 23-25, 2006:
CENTS - Central Environmental Nursery Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center, Columbus, Ohio.
Contact: Bill Stalter, ONLA, 800.825.5062; Fax > 800.860.1713; e-mail onlagreen@aol.com.
URL: http://www.onla.org

February 2-4, 2006:
Gulf States Horticultural Expo.
Mobile Convention Center, Mobile, Alabama.
For more information email: info@gshe.org
Voicemail: 334-502-7777
Fax: 334-502-7711

February 2-5, 2006:
International Trade Fair for Plants IPM 2006: The World Fair.
Essen, Germany.
Contact: USA Office, Essen at Trade Show c/o GACC, Karen Vogelsang, 12 East 49th Street, So. Skylobby, New York, NY 10017; 212.974.8457; e-mail karen@essentradeshows.com
URL: http://www.essentradeshows.com or http://www.ipm-

February 04-08, 2006:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science. Wyndam Orlando Resort, Orlando, Florida.
Contact: Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656; 540.552.4085; Fax: 540.953.0805; e-mail psmeal@vt.edu
URL: http://www/ashs.org

July 29 - August 2, 2006:
International Society for Arboriculture.
Minneapolis Convention Center, MN.
Contact: Jessica Marx, 888.472.8733; e-mail jmarx@isa-arbor.com
URL: http://www.isa-arbor.com/conference.asp

June 21-24, 2006:
South East Greenhouse Conference.
For more information go to www.sgcts.org.

August 3-5, 2006:
SNA2006 - Southern Nursery Association Research Conference and Trade Show. Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact: SNA; 770.953.3311; Fax, 770.953.4411; e-mail mail@mail.sna.org
URL: http://www.sna.org

August 24-26, 2006:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

October 6-7, 2006:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail mtna@blomand.net
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 7 - 10, 2006:
2006 ASLA Annual Meeting & EXPO! . Minneapolis, MN.
Contact American Society of Landscape Architects, 636 Eye Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-3736; 202.898.2444 Fax, 202.898.1185
URL: http://www.asla.org/nonmembers/meetings.html or Kentucky Chapter at http://www.kyasla.com

November 2-5, 2006:
Holly Society of America Annual Meeting.
Eastern Shore, Chestertown, Maryland.
Contact: Rondalyn Reeser, HSA Secretary, 309 Buck Street, P.O. Box 803, Millville, NJ 08332-0803; 856.825.4300; e-mail secretary@hollysocam.org
URL: http://www.hollysocam.org/meetings.htm

February 03-07, 2007:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science.
Mobile, Alabama.
Contact: Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656; 540.552.4085; Fax: 540.953.0805; e-mail psmeal@vt.edu
URL: http://www/ashs.org

July 28 - August 1, 2007:
International Society for Arboriculture.
Honolulu, HI.
Contact: Jessica Marx, 888.472.8733; e-mail jmarx@isa-arbor.com
URL: http://www.sna.org

August 23-25, 2007:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401, 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503.682.5099; e-mail info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

October 5-6, 2007:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail mtna@blomand.net
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 6 - 9, 2007:
2007 ASLA Annual Meeting & EXPO!
San Francisco, CA.
Contact American Society of Landscape Architects, 636 Eye Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-3736; 202.898.2444, Fax 202.898.1185
URL: http://www.asla.org/nonmembers/meetings.html or Kentucky Chapter at http://www.kyasla.com

November 1-4, 2007:
Holly Society of America Annual Meeting.
North Carolina Arboretum, Asheville, North Carolina.
Contact: Rondalyn Reeser, HSA Secretary, 309 Buck Street, P.O. Box 803, Millville, NJ 08332-0803; 856.825.4300; e-mail secretary@hollysocam.org
URL: http://www.hollysocam.org/meetings.htm


Send horticultural questions and comments to ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu.

Send questions and comments to fischbr@auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.