Ken's musings:

We continue through our Fall education months. The SNA Southern Plant Conference in Charleston was amazing and overwhelming. Two to three days with the top plants-people in the country each proclaiming the next great plant offered a wonderful look into our landscape future. And, they were great! I know now that we do not have a problem of plant diversity, we have a problem of marketing and education. There are so many special plants in breeder trials and collectors' gardens that if given the proper exposure, they would even inspire an engineer to get excited about gardening. The diversity of plants to grow and offer is also encouraging for possible niches for small nursery growers trying to find a place among the big boys within the market. Of course it will take serious knowlegeable plants-people who will study the plants and be able to mount their soap box at every garden or landscape meeting they can find to fill that niche. It is tough to get a new plant into the mainstream.

Just to give you a glimpse of the plant diversity that was presented, go to this link for new plants and look at the list of plants which brought tears to the eyes of many plant enthusiasts (sorry, no pictures, just names). It is great that the internet is not limited by length. This is not all the plants that were presented but it will give you an idea of what people think will be the next hot plants for the landscape if they can catch a moment of the buyers' attention. I am inspired.

The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:

ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE FIELD DAY

MONITORING CONTAINER SUBSTRATE FOR OPTIMUM GROWTH OF WILLOW OAK

LYSIMETERS MONITOR PINE BARK SUBSTRATE

SUBIRRIGATION SYSTEM AND ILEX GLABRA STEM CUTTINGS

HOW AUXIN AND HEAT AFFECT ROOTING OF WOODY PLANTS

BENZYLADENINE AND NANDINA

IRRIGATION OF POT-IN-POT MAGNOLIAS

CHILLING AND GINKGO BILOBA BUDBREAK

THE CHILLING OF HOSTA

PISTILL AND LAGERSTROEMIA X 'TUSCARORA'

JUNIOR MASTER GARDENING PROGRAM TRAINING

PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

UPCOMING EVENTS

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE FIELD DAY

The Ornamental Horticulture Field Day will be held on Tuesday, October 21, 2003 at the Ornamental Horticulture Research Center in Mobile. Registration will be at 8 a.m. and the presentations will begin at 9 a.m. There will be a sponsored lunch at noon.

AUSTIN HAGAN (Auburn University)
---Powdery Mildew Control on Dogwood and Hydrangea
---Daylily Rust Control
---Entomosporium Leafspot Control on Indian Hawthorn and Photinia
---Southern Blight Control on Aucuba

GARY KEEVER (Auburn University)
---Plant Growth Regulators (PGR) and Night-Interrupted Lighting for Perennial Plant Production
---PGRs on Woody Ornamentals
---Azalea Variety Test Update

MONTE NESBITT (Auburn University/Gulf Coast Research and Extension Center, Fairhope)
---Fertilizer Rates for Container Citrus Production

JOHN OLIVE (Ornamental Horticulture Research Center, Mobile)
---Use of Pre-emergent Herbicides for Cogongrass Control

JEFF SIBLEY (Auburn University)
---Use of Mobile River Dredge and Biosolids for Nursery and Landscape Plant Production

CHAZZ HESSELEIN (Ornamental Horticulture Research Center, Mobile)
---Scale Insect Control

DAVID BOYD (USDA/ARS, Poplarville, Mississippi)
---Fertilizer Rates and Crape Myrtle Varieties Affect on Susceptibility to Flea Beetles
---Leaf Beetle Control on Azalea

12:00 p.m. - Sponsored Lunch

The meeting is co-sponsored by the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station and the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. With questions or for more information please call John Olive at 251-342-2366 or email jolive@acesag.auburn.edu


MONITORING CONTAINER SUBSTRATE FOR OPTIMUM GROWTH OF WILLOW OAK

As the nursery industry continues to produce woody crops in ever larger containers, it is important to have an efficient method of monitoring the mineral nutrient levels in these pots. Growers need to know what the nutrient levels are so that they can compensate for any loss. The use of soilless media results in relatively low water-holding capacity and a resultant loss of mineral nutrients. Because of the size and weight of large containers lifting them up to gather run off is a daunting task. Instead of lifting heavy pots, the use of suction cup lysimeters seems to do this job well.

(from "The Use of Suction Cup Lysimeters for Monitoring the Nutritional Status of Container Substrate for Optimum Growth of Willow Oak" by Mary Stanley, Roger Harris, Holly Scoggins and Robert Wright, published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture, September 2003).

LYSIMETERS MONITOR PINE BARK SUBSTRATE

As the above article explains, the lysimeter is used to test container substrate solutions in large pots so that the pots don't have to be lifted to check the runoff. With small plants when lifting them up is not an issue, the pour through method works well.

To insure success, growers must maintain optimal mineral nutrient levels to sustain and encourage plant growth. From the information obtained from the lysimeter we can infer the nutritional status of the plant and determine what is required for growth. 4.8 and a 2.2 cm lysimeters were tested. The larger 4.8 cm. suction cup lysimeter worked best on larger pots.

(from "Evaluation of Suction Cup Lysimeters for Obtaining Substrate Solution from a Pine Bark Substrate" by Mary Stanley, Roger Harris, Holly Scoggins, and Robert Wright, published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture, September 2003).

SUBIRRIGATION SYSTEM AND Ilex glabra STEM CUTTINGS

In this reseach, Ilex glabra was rooted by stem cuttings and propagated using two irrigation methods. The first, recirculating subirrigation, circulates heated and aerated water so that a constant water table is maintained. The second is the conventional overhead intermittent mist propagation system which can be problemmatic as it can leach mineral nutrients, increase pathogens and introduce too much variability. Rooting percentage, root number, length of the longest root and basal stem necrosis were all observed in Ilex glabra. In both systems water moves through perlite, the rooting medium.

Results of this study indicated that the hardwood stem cuttings of Ilex glabra had higher rooting percentages in the recirculating subirrigation system. The intermittent system cuttings had a greater number of roots, longer roots and less basal stem necrosis.

Use of auxin at 16 or 24 mM KIBA and a basal stem temperature of 66F worked best in both treatments.

(from "A Comparison of Irrigation System, Basal Temperature and Auxin Concentration on Rooting of Stem Cuttings of Ilex glabra L." by James S. Owen, Jr., William A. Johnson, and Brian K. Maynard, published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture, September 2003).

HOW AUXIN AND HEAT AFFECT ROOTING OF WOODY PLANTS

By studying the use of auxin and bottom heat on 4 woody plants ('Sparkleberry' holly,'Mariesii' viburnum, 'Shasta' viburnum, and Red Sunset maple) investigators observed how these variables effected rooting percentages of stem cuttings, enhanced root quality, and reduced propagation time. By using a recirculating subirrigation propagation system researchers could study factors pertaining to rooting information while maintaining a constant medium moisture content. When overhead irrigation is used research is sometimes compromised by variable environmental factors.

Three temperatures and three auxin concentrations were tested on the cuttings. The holly cultivar and two viburnum cultivars did best when treated with a 10:1 aqueous dilution of Dip-n-Grow at a medium temperature of 74F. The maple cultivar did best with the same solution of Dip-n-Grow but at 68F. Improved product quality and reduced production costs both seem reasons to consider recirculating subirrigation as a system. Future research should be able to help us understand optimal conditions for many species.

(from "Effects of Auxin Concentration and Medium Temperature on Four Woody Plant Taxa Propagaged by Stem Cuttings using Recirculating Subirrigation in a Growth Chamber" by James S. Owen, Jr., William A. Johnson, and Brian K. Maynard, published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture, September 2003).

BENZYLADENINE AND NANDINA

Nandina domestica, a popular southeastern landscape plant, forms new shoots very slowly which extends the time for propagation. The development of well-branched, compact plants, even with multiple prunings, is very slow. This research examined the use of foliar applications of benzyladenine (BA) as a means of increasing shoot formations.

Weekly foliar applications of BA were increased from 0 to 5 - up to 5000 ppm and the resulting new shoot development on the following nandina cultivars was dramatic:
'Harbour Dwarf' - up to 305%
'Royal Princess' - up to 153%
'Firepower' - up to 36%
'Moyer's Red' (less than one new shoot per plant)
Phytotoxicity was minimal. Plant size was minimally affected.

Multiple weekly foliar applications of BA achieved the desired results of new shoot development which will enable growers to shorten the time required to produce well-branched, compact nandinas. It should be noted that BAP-10, the commercial source of BA used in this study, is not EPA registered. The cost of applying a single application of 2500 ppm to a 3.8 liter container is $0.02.

(from "Multiple Benzyladenine Applications Increase Shoot Formation in Nandina" by Gary J. Keever and Teresa A. Morrison , published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture, September 2003).

IRRIGATION OF POT-IN-POT MAGNOLIAS

Magnolia grandiflora, Southern magnolia, is a very popular nursery product. Growers would like to improve the quality of the roots in a rootball and reduce labor requirements. Magnolias grown in a pot-in-pot system and those grown in a copper hydroxide impregnated spun polyester bag, grew as fast as those grown in Root Control Bags when they were sufficiently irrigated. Tree height and trunk diameter inceased with cyclic irrigation compared to once daily. Trees in Root Control Bags did better than those in #25 container pot-in-pot systems. Growers working in sandy soil may want to consider cyclic irrigation for trees grown in in-ground Root Control Bags.

(from "Effect of Cyclic Irrigation on Growth of Magnolias Produced Using Five In-ground Systems" by R.C. Beeson Jr. and K. Keller, published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture, September 2003).

CHILLING AND Ginkgo biloba BUDBREAK

Ginkgo biloba is the only species within a single genus and is grown in USDA Hardiness Zones 3-9. Trees can grow to a height of 80 feet and width of 40 feet. This study determined that chilling is an important factor in foliar budbreak, with the optimal amount being in the 700-800 chill hour range. Trees grown in a greenhouse where temperatures can be controlled can accelerate the budbreak process. Tissue cultured plantlets and rooted cuttings may be produced at a faster rate by alternating cold stoage with greenhouse growing conditions. Seven hundred or more hours of chilling significantly impacts on the field production of ginkgo. Growers should keep this in mind.

(from "Chilling Affects Budbreak of Ginkgo biloba L." by Jeffrey C. Wilson, James E. Altland, Jeff L. Sibley, Ken M. Tilt, and Wheeler G. Foshee, III, published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture, September 2003).

THE CHILLING OF HOSTA

Hosta is present in many landscapes. It requires some chilling before leaves emerge. These hosta cultivars (Hosta plantaginea, H. ventricosa 'Aureo Marginata', 'Tokudama', 'Francee', 'Sum and Substance', 'Fragrant Bouquet, 'Frances Williams', and H. sieboldiana 'Elegans')were chilled in a walk-in cooler in two-week increments from 2 to 10 weeks at 39F. They were then placed in a heated greenhouse. Results indicated that days to shoot emergence and days to the first leaf unfurled decreased as chilling duration increased. There are significant differences in cultivars and no absolute chilling requirement across the board. The greatest benefits occurred between 0 and 6 weeks.

It is important for growers to know the specific minimum chilling requirements for each specific species and cultivar so they can select plants that will excel in their particular climate.

(from "Effects of Chilling Duration on Time to Shoot Emergence and Subsequent Growth of Hosta" by Jennifer Warr, Gary Keever, Jam Amling, Doug Findley, and Raymond Kessler, published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture, September 2003).

PISTILL AND Lagerstroemia x. 'Tuscarora'

Crapemyrtle is present im most southern landscapes and grows well in some parts of the western United States. Trees flower profusely, set heavy fruit and at that point vegetative growth ends for the season. Because of this characteristic it is difficult to prepare crapemyrtle to sell. If there is not a profusion of axillary shoots and plants don't get particularly dense, then they are less marketable. Flowers can be pruned manually (which is labor intensive and expensive) but that process doesn't seem to have much impact on encouraging vegetative growth.

Plant growth regulators (PGR)s may be used to abort flowers and result in shoot formation. Seven day intervals of foliar applied 1000 ppm Pistill resulted in up to 96% flower abortion and considerable increase in axillary shoot formation. Plant size was not much affected but the desired result of enhancing the overall fullness of the crapemyrtle, making it more marketable, was achieved. Nursery production time was also shortened.

(from "Response of Lagerstroemia x 'Tuscarora' to Multiple Applications of Pistill" by Teresa A. Morrison, Gary J. Keever, and Charles H. Gilliam , published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture, September 2003).

JUNIOR MASTER GARDENER PROGRAM TRAINING

The Alabama Cooperative Extension System is offering two Junior Master Gardener training workshops for teachers, Master Gardeners, 4-H volunteers and Extension Agents. The first workshop will be October 29 at the C. Beaty Hanna Horticulture and Environmental Center in Birmingham and the second one will be Nov. 4 at the South Alabama Electric Cooperative in Troy.

Alabama is one of more than 40 states implementing the Junior Master Gardener (JMG) Program, an international 4-H youth gardening program. The program engages children in novel, hands-on group and individual learning experiences that promote a love of gardening, develop an appreciation for the environment, and cultivate the mind. Junior Master Gardeners also inspires youth to be of service to others through service learning and leadership development projects and rewards them with certification.

“Because of the success and popularity of the Junior Master Gardener program in Alabama’s 15 pilot counties, these workshops are open statewide to anyone interested in the program, especially prospective teachers and leaders who are interested in using the Junior Master Gardener program in their school or community,” said Shane Harris, Extension Junior Master Gardener coordinator. “Ideally, having representatives from many schools would be very effective and would allow us to reach more areas."

The training workshops are sponsored by Bonnie Plant Farm, a division of Alabama Farmers Cooperative., Inc. In addition to funding the workshops and providing snacks and lunches, Bonnie Plant Farm is furnishing 100 teachers and leaders with a set of the Level I JMG curriculum. The first 50 teachers who sign up at each location and send in their registration forms will receive a JMG Leader’s Guide and a Youth Handbook. Selection is on a first come, first served basis.

Deadline for registration is Oct. 24. Seating will be limited at each location. For more information about the training workshops or registration forms, visit http://www.aces.edu/jmg, or contact Shane Harris at aharris@aces.edu or (256) 825-1050.


PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

AUBURN PLANT DISEASE REPORT - AUGUST 2003
Jackie Mullen
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist

Most of our 202 plant samples received in August were lawn and landscape plants. This reduction in field crop samples seen in the lab in August and earlier this summer was not unique to our lab in Alabama. Most labs in the Southeast have reported seeing over-all fewer samples this summer and fewer field crops. This reduction in plant sample numbers may be a consequence of the excessive moisture we had earlier this season. As a result of the rains and flooding in some areas, homeowners and growers saw varying levels of plant damage early in the summer.

We have seen and had reports of Bradford Pear dieback and early leaf color change from varying sections of the state, including northern, southern, and east central sections. Some of the tree samples contain Botryosphaeria cankers. We suspect the trees have developed root stress damage from excessive moisture earlier this summer. Poor soil drainage would have caused increased damage to the roots. Botryosphaeria cankers are often a problem on stressed trees. There is not much that can be done to remedy tree root problems. Following good horticultural practices (fertilizing appropriately in the spring; watering when conditions are dry) is about all that can be done for the roots. Cankered and dieback areas should be pruned out making cuts three inches beyond the edge of the dead areas. Dip shears into alcohol or a 20% solution of bleach between cuts.

Phytophthora root rot was detected on boxwood, bald cypress, compacta holly, and oak. Pythium root rot was detected on Ivy, Jasmine, nandina, and periwinkle. Wet landscape conditions must have existed in order for Phytophthora or Pythium to be a problem. Plant removal and correcting the wet condition problem are the usual recommendations in a landscape. If large numbers of plants are involved, a protective fungicide drench program is sometimes involved. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook for fungicides labeled on specific plants.

Powdery mildew was detected on Japanese maple, tulip tree, and pumpkins. The availability of free moisture and humidity encourage and allow for the developments of downy mildew. High humidity is needed for powdery mildew. Downy mildew is often confirmed by the microscopic presence of downy mildew spores. Leaf spots develop as yellow irregular spots that eventually turn dark. Powdery mildews are often recognized by their typical white powdery fungal appearance on infected plant surfaces. As time passes, the white mold deteriorates and blight develops. Old powdery mildew infections are harder to identify by visual inspection.

AUGUST 2003 Plant Diseases Seen In The Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab
PLANTPROBLEMCOUNTY
BentgrassBipolaris Leaf SpotCullman
BentgrassPythium BlightCullman
Bermuda, CommonBipolaris cyanodontis Leaf Spot & BlightMonroe
BermudaBipolaris sp. Leaf Spot BlightButler
BermudaDollar Spot (Sclerotinia)Calhoun
BoxwoodPhytophthora Root RotCleburne
CentipedeBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Pike
CentipedeTake-All Patch (Gaeumannomyces)Montgomery
Cypress, BaldPhytophthora Root RotCalhoun
Holly, BurfordAnthracnose CankersDallas
Holly, CompactaPhytophthora Crown & Root RotCullman
HostaSlime MoldJackson
HydrangeaCercospora Leaf Spot*
HydrangeaPossible Bipolaris Leaf Spot*
Hydrangea, Oak LeafMyrothecium Leaf Spot*
Indian HawthornEntomosporium Leaf SpotPike
IvyPythium Root DecayMontgomery
Japanese MapleAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Lauderdale
Japanese MaplePowdery MildewElmore
JasminePythium Root RotMobile
Leyland CypressBotryosphaeria CankerLee
Leyland CypressCercosporella BlightLimestone
NandinaColletotrichum Leaf SpotLimestone
NandinaPythium Root RotTallapoosa
OakSlime MoldCovington
OakTrametes Wood RotMontgomery
Oak, CingapinPhytophthora Root RotBaldwin
Pear, BradfordAlternaria Leaf SpotCalhoun
Pear, BradfordEntomosporium Leaf SpotBarbour, Calhoun
Periwinkle, AnnualPhytophthora nicotiana Blight & Root RotHouston
PolarCristulariella Leaf SpotElmore
St. AugustineGray Leaf Spot (Piricularia)Etowah
St. AugustineTake-All Patch (Gaeumannomyces)Mobile
Tulip TreePowdery MildewMontgomery
VincaPythium Root RotButler
ZoysiaBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Montgomery
ZoysiaTake-All Patch (Gaeumannomyces)Lee, Montgomery
*Locations are not reported for nursery and greenhouse samples.

BIRMINGHAM PLANT DISEASE REPORT - AUGUST 2003
J. Jacobi
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist

The lab received 138 samples for the month of August. Some of the problems seen last month included: anthracnose on river birch, Guignardia blotch on buckeye, foliar nematode on hosta, Fusarium crown and root rot on Hibiscus, rust on fig and Hypericum, bacterial leaf scorch on oaks, and Cercospora leaf spots on willow and Zelcova.

Symptoms of black spot of elm begin with small white to gray spots, which become tar-like raised black spots later in the season. Often the leaves turn yellow and, if leaf spot is severe, may defoliate prematurely. Protective fungicide sprays can be used in the spring as leaves unfold to protect valuable specimens. Collect and dispose of fallen leaves.

Bacterial leaf scorch is caused by Xyllela fastidiosa. Frequent hosts of this disease include, include elm, red oaks, and sycamore. Because environmental stress, root injury, and other factors cause leaf scorch, laboratory diagnosis and serological or PCR tests are needed to confirm the presence of the bacterium. We confirmed bacterial leaf scorch on four trees in August. The heavy spring and summer rainfall and lack of stress conditions for the development of abiotic leaf scorch may make it easier to identify trees suffering from bacterial leaf scorch this fall. For more information on this disease and recommended control measures, refer to ANR-1050, Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Shade Trees (http://www.aces.edu/department/extcomm/publications/anr/anr-1050/anr-1050.htm).

AUGUST 2003 Plant Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab
PLANTPROBLEMCOUNTY
AzaleaLacebugsJefferson (3)
BentgrassAnthracnose (Colletotrichum) *
BentgrassPythium Root Rot *
BentgrassRing Nematode *
BermudagrassBipolaris Leaf SpotChilton
Birch, RiverAnthracnose (Cryptocline)Shelby
Black GumSourgum Scurfy ScaleJefferson
Boxwood, CommonPhytophthora Root RotJefferson
Boxwood, CommonPythium Root RotJefferson
BuckeyeGuignardia BlotchJefferson
CentipedeDollarspot (Sclerotinia)Talladega
CentipedeTwo-lined SpittlebugTalladega
Cherry, OrnamentalCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson(2), Shelby
ChrysanthemumPythium Root RotCullman
Crape MyrtleAphidsJefferson
Crape MyrtleCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
Cypress, ItalianPestalotia Tip BlightJefferson
DogwoodCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson (4)
DogwoodPowdery MildewJefferson (3)
DogwoodSpot AnthracnoseJefferson (2)
Elm, AmericanBlack Spot (Stegophora)Jefferson
EuonymusEuonymus ScaleJefferson
ForsythiaPhytophthora Root RotCullman
Ginger, UprightPythium Root RotJefferson
HibiscusFusarium Root and Crown RotJefferson
Holly, ChineseCottony Camellia ScaleJefferson
Holly, FosterTwo-Lined Spittlebug DamageJefferson
HoneylocustCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson (2)
HostaFoliar Nematode (Aphelencoidies)Jefferson
Hydrangea, BigleafAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Cullman
Hydrangea, OakleafPythium Root RotJefferson
HypericumRust (Uromyces)Jefferson
Juniper, ShorePhytophthora Root RotJefferson
Maple, JapaneseAsian Ambrosia BeetleJefferson
Maple, RedPhyllosticta Leaf SpotJefferson
Maple, RedOystershell ScaleJefferson
Maple, RedZonate Leaf Spot (Cristulariella)Jefferson (4)
Oak, ChestnutSlime FluxJefferson
Oak, PinBacterial Leaf Scorch (Xylella)Jefferson
Oak, RedBacterial Leaf Scorch (Xylella)Jefferson (3)
PeonyCladosporium Leaf BlotchJefferson
PlumariaTwo-Spotted Spider MiteJefferson
RhododendronPhytophthora Root RotJefferson
RoseBlack SpotJefferson
RosemaryPhytophthora Root RotJefferson
St. AugustineGray Leaf Spot (Pyricularia)Jefferson
St. AugustineTwo-Lined SpittlebugJefferson
SweetgumCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
Willow, CurlyCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
Zelcova, JapaneseCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery samples.

DISEASE POSSIBILITIES FOR SEPTEMBER
In late August and early September, we have seen drier and hotter conditions with occasional rain in some sections of the state. Wet conditions with frequent rains have occurred in some sections especially southern areas.

Seasonably cooler conditions are more favorable for powdery mildew and downy mildew. Both of these diseases cause yellow blotches on dicot leaves. With powdery mildew, blotches may be more diffuse and a white dusty layer may be visible on the upper and/or lower leaf surfaces. With downy mildew, yellow spots may begin as more definitive angular yellow spots. These spots may merge resulting in large yellow areas. On lower leaf surfaces when weather is wet, humid and temperatures are 60-80EF, a brown-gray-colored webbing may be present on lower leaf surfaces. These diseases are often confirmed in the lab by microscopic observation of characteristic spores.

Evidence of bacterial scorch disease may occur in September. Scorch disease, caused by the bacteria Xylella, causes leaf edge scorch and dieback of elm, oaks (red and black oaks including northern red, pin, scarlet, southern red, laurel, shingle, and water oaks), sycamore, mulberry, and red maple. Initial symptoms of scorch may first occur in mid-late June, but disease is often not noticed until late summer or early fall when symptoms are more pronounced. Generally, leaf symptoms progress from older to younger leaves, with leaves at branch tips often showing no symptoms. Scorched leaves curl upward and remain attached. Infected trees develop a progressive dieback and general (usually slow, over many years) decline. Scorch can be confirmed with an ELISA test. Disease symptoms may be confused with drought or root problems. In August of last year, this disease was confirmed in a sycamore sample from Barbour County and in a plum sample from Mobile County.

Many fungal leaf spot diseases will develop on pre-senescent shade tree foliage in September. Generally these spots are of no concern. It is, however, always a good idea to remove fallen spotted foliage from the area later this fall or winter. Stressed trees are more susceptible to these leaf spots.


UPCOMING EVENTS

October 3-4, 2003:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 5-8, 2003:
IPPS Southern Region NA.
San Antonio, TX.
Contact: Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; phone 817-577-9272; e-mail, dleemorgan@msn.com

October 8-11, 2003:
IPPS Western Region 44rd Annual Conference. Portland, OR.
Contact: Jim McConnell, Bailey Nurseries, Inc., 9855 NW Pike Road, Yamhill, OR 97148; 503-662-3244; e-mail, jim.mcconnell@baileynursery.com
URL: http://www.ipps.org/WesternNA

October 22 - 25, 2003:
IPPS Eastern Region.
Portland, ME. Contact M. Bridgen, Margot Bridgen, IPPS Executive Secretary/Treasurer, 1700 North Parish Dr., Southold, NY 11971; 631.765.9638; Fax 631.765.9648; e-mail ippser@earthlink.net

November 4, 2003:
The Landscape Design Short Course - Emphasis on Fine Gardening.
Houston County Farm Center (in the Extension Auditorium), 1699 Ross Clark Circle, Dothan AL.
For more information please contact Linda VanDyke at the Alabama Nurserymen's Association. Phone: 334-821-5148 or fax: 334-821-9111.

November 5, 2003:
AU Fall Landscape School.
Auburn University Hotel and Conference Center, Auburn, AL
Contact Dr. David Williams (334-844-3032) or Linda VanDyke (334-821-5148

November 6, 2003:
First Annual Henry P. Orr Memorial Golf Classic.
FarmLinks Golf Club, Fayetteville, Alabama
Deadline registration is October 23, 2003. For information contact Linda Van Dyke at 334-821-5148 or at alna@prodigy.net

January 29 - 31, 2004:
Gulf States Horticultural Expo
Mobile Convention Center, Mobile, AL
Educational program: January 29; Trade Show: January 30 - 31. For more information go to http://www.gshe.org; fax 334-502-7711; phone 334-502-7777.

July 29 - 31, 2004:
SNA 2004 - Southern Nursery Association Researcher’s Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact: SNA 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636
URL: http://www.sna.org

August 26-28, 2004:
The Farwest Show. Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com;
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

October 1-2, 2004:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
Contact Ann Halcomb, MTNA Exec. Secr., P.O. Box 822, McMinnville, TN 37111-0822; phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 3-6, 2004:
IPPS Southern Region NA
Greenville/Spartanburg, S.C.
Contact: Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; phone 817-577-9272; e-mail, dleemorgan@msn.com

August 25-27, 2005:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

September TBA, 2005:
The Southern Plant Conference.
Louisville, Kentucky.
Contact: Matt Gardiner, KY Coordinator, 502-245-0238: e-mail, matthew624@aol.com; or Betsie Taylor, KNLA Exec. Dir., 350 Village Drive, Frankfort, KY 40601; 502-848-0055 or 800-735-9791, Fax 502-848-0032 e-mail knla@mis.net
URL: http://www.knla.org
or Danny Summers at SNA, 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636; e-mail, danny@mail.sna.org;
URL: http://www.sna.org

September 30 - October 1, 2005:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

August 24-26, 2006:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

October 6-7, 2006:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

August 23-25, 2007:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401, 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503.682.5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

October 5-6, 2007:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

Send horticultural questions and comments to ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu.

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.