October 2001

Ken has had some health problems this month but he is mending internally and doesn't look or seem the worst for wear. I will fill in this month with a short welcome.

It hasn't been the most productive month for me as my computer has been off my desk this entire week and I have had to borrow machines from people when they were away from their desks. And, of course, we are all still reeling from our national tragedy. We have had to, not only imagine, but face that which had been unimaginable. We hope that you have been able to get back to your work with an even more acute appreciation of our fine country.

Happy fall. Let us know if we can help you.

Bernice Fischman

The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:














DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


Immigration talks between the United States and Mexico appear to be off the table after the deadly terrorist attacks earlier this month. The countries had been negotiating an agreement that would allow tens of thousands of Mexican guest-workers into the U.S. New immigration measures will be part of an anti-terrorism legislative package that will be delivered to Congress. That package will focus mainly on tightening porous borders rather than on programs for guest-workers.


A great thing about our regional cooperation in Extension and the vanishing state lines and the internet is that once information from reliable sources has been posted to the web, it is easily found and available. Last month, I used an article supplied to me by Dr. Tom Yeager on water quality and removing residue from leaves using oxalic acid. Dr. Ted Bilderback and others at North Carolina State offer some other suggestions for iron problems under their web publication, Water Considerations for Container Production of Plants http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/hil-557.html. I have included a portion of that publication below. It may be helpful for those having these problems and it will be here for you should you need it again.

Harmful Organisms
Iron Fixing Bacteria in irrigation water can lead to many problems, including a bluish sheen on plant surfaces and brown stains on plants. The blue and brown deposits are two separate water quality problems both related to high iron content in irrigation water applied by overhead irrigation systems. The bluish bronze sheen is due to iron bacteria. They occur naturally in the soil and can be a problem in well and basin irrigation sources. In wells they often gum submersible pumps and cause them to need replacement. On basins, the oily sheen over the surface of the water is due to iron bacteria. They keep the iron in the water from settling out so when irrigation goes over plants so does the bluish iron deposit. In propagation houses you also can see a slimy yellowish mass that plugs nozzles. That is the iron bacteria.

The red-brown deposit is iron. Well water containing iron can be pumped into basins and some of the iron will settle out, but if you have iron bacteria it confounds the problem. One very important item to check is the irrigation intake. Growers have avoided or reduced the problem of iron deposits by making sure that their irrigation intakes are 18 to 30 inches below the surface of the water. They need to be at least 18 inches deep to prevent vortexing from the surface. Intakes too close to the bottom pull settled iron sediment off the bottom. Checking the location of the intake is difficult, but it is worth the effort.

If raising or adjusting the intake is not the answer, then the next choices become more expensive. The first step is to have the water analyzed at a laboratory such as NCDA (Agronomic Division N.C. Soil Testing Lab 4300 Reedy Creek Road, Raleigh, N.C. 27607; Phone 919.733.2655). Most labs need at least 16 ounces of water, so a clean plastic drink bottle sample will be fine. Water analysis at the NCDA lab costs $4.00. Although less than 0.5 ppm iron in water can stain risers and coat plants, 0.5 to 3 ppm is common in irrigation water in N.C. A foliar sample from coated plants would also be good to see how much deposit is ending up on the plants.

Employ the following methods to control iron and iron bacteria deposits:

1.If the iron content is high enough to cause problems as indicated by the irrigation water test, the first step might be to consider a basin aeration pump. This pump just keeps the water moving and the ripples help precipitate iron and also help reduce the iron as a food source for the iron bacteria. The wave action is what adds air to the water, so a big pump creating a high fountain is not necessary. The wave action also helps keep algae and iron bacteria pushed up into coves of basins so try to locate the aeration pump where it will give the most benefit in relation to the location of the irrigation intake.

2.The next step to consider after installing an aerifier is injection and probably filtration. Chlorine is often the material of choice as a disinfectant and oxidizing agent. Chlorine is injected into irrigation lines and usually requires some retrofitting of the irrigation system. To be effective the chlorine requires a one minute contact time in the irrigation water to kill iron bacteria or have an oxidizing effect to change Ferrous ( Fe++ ) to Ferric (Fe+++ ). Chlorination eliminates the food source for the iron bacteria and also eliminates both types of iron deposits on surfaces irrigated. Usually storage tanks, swirl chambers or extra loops in the irrigation lines are required for adequate contact time (a minimum of 0.5 ppm for about 1 minute). Chlorination is usually accomplished by gas or liquid injection. Gas chlorination is the most efficient and effective method but is also dangerous. Liquid chlorine injection is a safer alternative. Both systems are used at nurseries in North Carolina and there are commercial irrigation contractors who can install these systems. Chlorine gas is injected from cylinders and the greatest danger occurs when cylinders have to be changed, particularly if the cylinders are housed in a building. Liquid chlorine (16% Sodium hypochlorite) is usually purchased in 50 gallon drums and injected like other liquids but the injector usually needs to be a variable ratio injector because over time the 16% sodium hypochlorite loses strength and the injection rate must be increased. Free chlorine is checked using a swimming pool test kit at the end of the irrigation line or riser and if the sample turns slightly, pink indicating 1 to 3 ppm, the job is getting done. The chlorine kills iron bacteria. To reduce the amount of chlorine injected, removal of organic residue is recommended, which requires filtration. Usually sand media filters are installed and two media filters generally are recommended so one can be backflushed while the other filter operates during irrigation. The cost for a chlorination and filtration system will be around $5,000.

3. Other materials can also be injected. There are some products made for drip and micro-jet irrigation systems that contain sequestering agents, algaecides, bactericides, detergents and stabilizing agents. Filtration might not be necessary with these materials. By name, products such as Di-Solv, Aqua-Solv, and Nurserymen's Pride (Flo Tech Automation Associates, Inc., 2151 34th Way N, Largo Fl, 34641 Phone 727.531.8796) are sold for nursery and horticultural uses. Nurserymen's Pride was developed to clean and brighten foliage by removing dirt and chemical residues; Aqua-Solv sequesters ions in irrigation water. Like other materials, effective application depends upon equipment available and concentration of iron or other problem mineral content. Di-Solv prevents oxidation of the ferrous iron and reduces staining. Di-Solv claims that when used over time, it will clean up plants coated with iron. Citric acid and dish washer detergent will also clean plant foliage, but for large volumes of water these products will be more expensive than other materials mentioned.

An approximate rate is 1 cup of dish washer detergent (like Calgon) and 1/4 pound citric acid per 5 gallons of solution. Citric acid can be purchased from suppliers such as Worth Chemical, Durham, N.C. Phone 919.596.1386. The cost of 50 pounds of citric acid (50 pounds per 1000 gallons of cleaning solution) is about $50.00. W.A. Cleary Chemical Corporation (1049 Somerset St. Somerset N.J. 08873 Phone 201.247.8000) sells a Water Acidifier and Chelation Agent which is formulated with the dual purpose of neutralizing water alkalinity and chelating elements such as iron and magnesium, making them available for both foliar and root absorption. It is used with pesticide sprays which are more effective in slightly acid water and where alkaline waters reduce the effective half-life of a pesticide. The active ingredient of this Water Acidifier and Chelation Agent is citric acid.


by Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Timothy L. Grey, Glenn R. Wehtje, and Ken M. Tilt (Auburn University)

(NOTE: Glenn Fain is a doctoral student as Auburn University. He presented this paper at the SNA meeting in Atlanta)

The container nursery industry currently uses broadcast applications of spray or granular herbicide for preemergent weed control. This application method causes a significant amount of non-target loss. Growers make an average of three applications per year with losses of up to 80% per application. These losses vary depending on application equipment, container spacing and crop canopy. Material lost with current weed control practices represents a significant unproductive cost to the grower as well as potential contributors to surface and ground water contamination. The objective of this research was to evaluate new herbicide carriers and formulation techniques to determine their potential for use as an extended delivery herbicide. Such a product would be applied directly to each container once yearly at potting or in the field providing adequate control of weeds with no adverse effects to the plants. The goal of this formulation would be to eliminate non-target losses associated with current application techniques, and would improve nursery runoff water quality.

The commercially available cellulose complex carrier Biodac® (GranTek Inc., Granger, Indiana 46530) was chosen for laboratory evaluation. Herbicide-biodac formulations were placed into separatory funnels and 3ml of water were added daily to simulate irrigation events. The water was allowed to remain in the funnels for 30 minutes before leaching. Leachates were collected and analyzed for oryzalin concentration.

A second experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of the Biodac®-oryzalin formulations in a nursery setting. Biodac was applied to 5" containers filled with a typical pinebark growing media. Other treatments included Surflan® and Rout® and an untreated control. Pots were overseeded with crabgrass and placed under overhead irrigation. Weeds were harvested and pots reseeded with crabgrass every thirty days throughout the experiment.

Results of these experiments indicate that Biodac may have potential as extended delivery carriers of oryzalin and perhaps other pre-emergent active herbicides. Slow release herbicides could be in our future. The research continues.


In order to help you find information easier through your research arm of the Southeast, we have included a direct link button to SNA Research Data base on our home page and right here. Click here and you will be taken directly to the keyword search engine. Type in your key word or words (Hydrangea, anti-transpirant, Talstar, mites, media, pH, water quality, Osmocote, or check out work done by a specific researcher, Gilliam, Yeager, Dirr, Windham.....) and hit enter. See what research has been done on your question. It is easy. It is fast. It is the way we get information today. Give it a try!


In recent years, Phytophthora shoot blight has been responsible for widespread and devastating stand losses in landscape plantings of annual vinca across Alabama. Protective fungicide treatments are among the options for preventing disease outbreaks in both the greenhouse and the landscape. Azoxystrobin (Heritage 50WTM), when applied on a 2-week schedule at a rate considerably above those on the product label, partially protected annual vinca from attack by P. parasitica.. However, the level of control of Phytophthora shoot blight provided by azoxystrobin was unacceptable for highly visible landscape plantings of annual vinca.

(from Impact of Application Rate, Treatment Interval, and Placement on the Control of Phytophthora Shoot Blight on Annual Vinca with Azoxystrobin by A.K. Hagan, J.R. Akridge, and M.E. Rivas-Davila, published in Journal of Environmental Horticulture 19(3):163-165. 2001.)


Historically, bare-root planting stock (1-year old) has been used in forest planting operations to regenerate baldcypress. Production of large containerized stock might provide a means to circumvent severe damage by deer and rabbits on some wetland regeneration sites. However, there is little published information concerning containerized baldcypress and its response to fertilization. Results of this research quantify the response of cypress to lime, incorporated controlled-release fertilizer (CRF), and soluble fertilizer (SF). Plants can be grown in composted pine bark amended with 4.8 kg/m3 (8 lbs/yd3) of CRF (19.0N-2.6P-8.8K; 8-9 month release). Lime is not needed.

(from Fertiliztion of Container-Grown Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) by L. Eric Hinesley, Scott A. Smith, and A.M. Wicker, Journal of Environmental Horticulture 19(3)L109-113. 2001)


Crapemyrtle is a vigorous grower in the southern United States; however, it blooms beginning in early summer directing plant energy into flowering and reducing vegetative growth. With some culitvars a proliferation of flowering followed by extensive fruit set reduces or eliminates additional vegetative growth for the remainder of the growing season. One option for growers to address this problem is removal of flowers by manual pruning. However, this is labor intensive and usually results in minimal vegetative re-growth followed by re-flowering. In this study the plant growth regulator Pistill applied at 1000 ppm resulted in 84.4% (1997), 64.4% (1998) and 84.2% (1999) flower abortion compared to 17.1%, 16.7% and 2.1% for the control, respectively. Applications of Pistill also caused an increase in the number of new shoots when compared to the non-treated control, although these shoots were not terminal and did not increase plant height. Atrimmec did not significantly affect flower abortion and only slightly reduced fruit set during the 1998 experiment. Applications of Pistill at full flower can be an effective tool to cause flower abortion resulting in reduced fruit set. While not directly studied in thse experiments, a potential benefit of Pistill reducing flowers and fruit is a reduction in plant breakage and blow over during production.

(from Response of Lagerstroemia x 'Tuscarora' to Pistill and Atrimmec by Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, and Gary J. Keever, published in Journal of Environmental Horticulture 19(3):149-152. 2001).

Monarthropalpus flavus (Schrank)

Boxwoods are one of the most common woody plants found in landscapes. The boxwood leafminer, Monarthropalpus flavus, is a serious pest of boxwoods in landscapes and nurseries. The production and use of resistant cultivars can provide durable, inexpensive, and environmentally responsible management of insect pests. However, there have been few studies of resistance of boxwoods to leafminer. A field suvey of boxwoods revealed high levels of resistance in several varieties. By producing and marketing pest resistant cultivars such as Buxus sempervirens 'Handsworthiensis' and B. sempervirens 'Vardar Valley' growers should enjoy a marketing advantage to consumers intersted in developing sustainable landscapes.

(from Resistance of Boxwood Varieties to the Boxwood Leafminer, Monarthropalpus flavus (Shrank) by Gabriel d'Eustachio and Michel Raupp, published in Journal of Environmental Horticulture 19(3):153-157. 2001)


The redbud (Cercis species) is a popular landscape small tree or shrub that is grown for its early spring bloom and adaptability to a variety of environmental conditions. Despite its value to the nursery and landscape industries, large-scale production of redbud has been limited, due in part to the difficulty of propagating clonal (cultivar) material. Four growth regulator treatments were used on 11 Cercis taxa for the ability of stem cuttings to form adventitious roots. The clones that perfomed well will be used in a Cercis breeding program to develop superior redbud cultivars that propagate readily by stem cuttings, thus offering nursery growers a reliable alternative to seed-produced trees or difficult-to-propagate cultivars. Several taxa appeared to root well, including:
C. chingii (produced significantly more roots per cutting than any of the other taxa)
C. glabra
C. yunnanensis

(from the above named article by Margaret R. Pooler and Ruth L. Dix, published in Journal of Environmental Horticulture 19(3):137-139. 2001).


There is an increasing trend for using annual bedding plants to provide season-long color in commercial and residential landscapes. Pansies (Viola sp.) provide color throughout the fall, winter, and early spring, depending on local climate, and are among the most widely planted fall annuals. Weed control through use of preemergence herbicides is common among many landscape professionals. However, most research regarding bedding plant tolerance to preemergence herbicides has focused on summer annuals. Coral 2.68G, Treflan 5G, RegalKade 0.5G, Regal Star 1.2G, and Factor 65DG did not injure any of the container-grown pansies evaluated; while Rout 3G, Pendulum 60WDG, Surflan 4AS, Gallery 75DF, and Princep 4L caused severe injury or shoot dry weight reductions, and should not be used over pansies in the landscape. Pansy tolerance to other herbicides varied.

(from the above named article, written by James E. Altland, Charles H. Gilliam, J. Raymond Kessler Jr., Elizabeth M. Wallace, and Amy M. Riggs, published in Journal of Environmental Horticulture 19(3):123-127, 2001.)


The Crape Myrtle Society of America was formed this summer and more than 200 people attended its first meeting at the Texas A&M Research and Extension Center in Dallas. The society is designed for crape myrtle growers and enthusiasts. The Center, along with the City of McKinney, Texas, are attempting to collect and exhibit specimens of each cultivar available. McKinney plans to plant 50,000 crape myrtles in the next 10 years. http://www.neilsperry.com
(from NMPRO, September 4, 2001, Todd Davis, Editor).


Auburn Plant Disease Report - August
Jackie Mullen
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Auburn

August was decidedly wetter than July. Some sections of the state received frequent showers this past month. In most locations, August temperatures were lower than in July. In August we received 153 plant samples.

The most commonly seen disease in August was take-all patch on St. Augustine grass. Stolon and root dark decay lesions result in the characteristic yellowing and dieback of plants. Patch-like areas yellow and thin-out. This continues to be a difficult disease to control. Recent work done by Austin Hagan suggests that raising the mowing height to 2½ inches helps reduce stress and the severity of this disease. Fungicide tests will be conducted in Alabama and Texas. Hopefully, tests will provide some useful information. Some preliminary tests using Heritage in Texas did not provide good control of this disease.

Rhizoctonia diseases were also common last month. The slightly lower summer-time temperatures were favorable for this fungus which is most active when temperatures are in the 70-80s and moisture is moderate. We saw brown patch in all of our warm season turf grasses last month.

An unusual find was tomato spotted wilt virus in annual periwinkle. New growth appeared to be stunted with an irregular blotch pattern. This virus has not been commonly seen on periwinkle but it has been previously reported on this plant.

Daylily rust, caused by Puccinia hemerocallidis, was mentioned as a new disease in the U.S. in our report of April and A. Hagan sent out a timely information on this disease in July. The disease occurrence was confirmed in a homeowner location in Jefferson County in July, and in August, we confirmed its presence in a nursery/greenhouse situation. Leaf spots are small (2-4 mm diam) and develop orange coloration when the powdery spore masses are present. When spots are numerous, leaves will become yellow. Old spots are dark brown or black. When disease is severe, leaf drop may occur. See the timely information PP-506 by Austin Hagan for disease control. The alternate host for this rust is Patrina spp. but the fungus may spread from infected daylilies to healthy daylilies directly. Hosta may be another alternate host. Studies are in progress in Georgia to determine if Hosta is involved.

July Plant Diseases Received at the Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab
Arbor-vitaePhytophthora Root RotMontgomery
BahiaLeaf Smut (Ustilago)Lee
BentgrassPythium Root RotJefferson
BentgrassRing Nematode Damage (Criconemoides)Jefferson
BentgrassStunt Nematode (Tylenchorhynchus)Jefferson
BermudaBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Elmore
BermudaDollar Spot (Sclerotinia)Montgomery
BermudaRing Nematode Damage (Criconemoides)Elmore
Bermuda, CommonBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Autauga
Bermuda, CommonHelminthosporium Leaf SpotCovington
Bermuda, CommonRing Nematode Damage (Criconemoides)Autauga
Bermuda, TiftonRust (Puccinia)Clarke
Bermuda, TifwayDollar Spot (Sclerotinia)Autauga
CactusFusarium Crown RotLee
CentipedeBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Washington
CentipedeTake-all Patch-Suspect
Associated Stress (Gaeumannomyces)
CleyeraPythium Root Rot-Stress AssociatedMontgomery
CrabgrassPiricularia Leaf SpotBlount
Cypress, LeylandPythium Root RotMontgomery
DogwoodSeptoria Leaf SpotMadison
FescueAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Lauderdale
FescueBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Colbert
HydrangeaAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Tallapoosa
HydrangeaPythium Crown & Root RotTallapoosa
LantanaPythium Crown & Root RotAutauga
Magnolia, JapanesePestalotia Leaf SpotPike
MapleAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Russell
OakActinopelte Leaf SpotLee
OakMonochaetia Leaf SpotFranklin
OakPhoma Leaf BlotchCullman
OakPhyllosticta Leaf SpotMontgomery
OakPowdery MildewLee
PecanScab (Cladosporium)Geneva, Greene
Periwinkle, AnnualPhytophthora & Pythium Stem Blight and Root RotEscambia
Periwinkle, AnnualPythium Root Rot *
Periwinkle, AnnualTomato Spotted Wilt VirusEscambia
Pine SeedlingFusarium & Pythium Associated Root DecayEscambia
St. AugustineBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia solani)Autauga, Choctaw
St. AugustineGray Leaf Spot (Piricularia)Covington, Houston
St. AugustineTake-all Patch (Gaeumannomyces)Autauga, Baldwin, Butler, Choctaw, Covington, Houston, Washington
SweetgumPhyllosticta Leaf SpotMontgomery
SycamoreXylella Bacterial ScorchBarbour
Weeping MulberryAnthracnoseFayette
ZoysiaBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia solani)Coosa, Montgomery
ZoysiaRust (Puccinia)Montgomery
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery diseases.

Birmingham Plant Disease Report-August
Jim Jacobi
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Birmingham

A total of 87 plants were received during the month of August. Some of the more unusual diseases seen last month included: Pythium root and crown rot on begonia, daylily rust, dodder on English ivy, root knot on okra and Pythium root and crown rot on poinsettia. One continuing problem we have seen this summer is Pythium root rot in container-grown dwarf English boxwood. We typically do not see this disease in field-grown boxwoods.

One of the most common problems that concerned homeowners was sooty mold on ornamentals. These common black molds are found on a wide variety of plants in the garden. These are caused by several fungi that grow on the sugary material left by aphids, mealybugs, scales, whiteflies and other insects that suck sap from the plant. The insects are unable to digest all the sugar in the sap and they excrete the excess fluid called honeydew, which drops onto the leaves below. The sooty mold fungi develop on the honeydew, causing the leaves to look black and dirty. Sooty molds are unsightly, but fairy harmless because they do not attack the leaves directly. Extremely heavy infestations prevent light from reaching the leaves and they may turn yellow. The presence of sooty mold indicates the plant or a nearby plant is infested with insects. We have seen a lot of sooty mold related to Asian woolly hackberry aphids on hackberry (Cletis spp.) recently. In some of these cases, every plant growing near the hackberry was covered in a thick layer of sooty mold. Sooty mold can be wiped off the leaves or rain will eventually wash if off. Prevent sooty mold by identifying and controlling the insect that is producing honeydew.

August Plant Diseases Received at the Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab
AzaleaAzalea LacebugsJefferson(3)
AzaleaPhomopsis DiebackJefferson
BegoniaPythium Root and Crown RotShelby
BentgrassPythium Root Rot
Curvularia Blight
Brown Patch
BermudagrassHelminthosporium Leaf SpotJefferson
Boxwood, AmericanPhytophthora Root RotJefferson
Boxwood, Dwarf EnglishPythium Root RotJefferson(2)
DaylilyRust (Puccinia hemerocallidis) *
Dogwood, FloweringPowdery MildewJefferson
EuonymusEuonymus ScaleJefferson
FoamflowerAnthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) *
Hydrangea, OakleafPhytophthora Root Rot *
Holly, JapaneseBotryosphaeria CankerJefferson
Holly, HybridPhytophthora Root RotJefferson
Ivy, EnglishDodder (Cuscuta sp.)Jefferson
Leyland CypressSeiridium CankerJefferson
Leyland CypressSpider MitesJefferson
Maple, JapaneseBotryosphaeria CankerJefferson
Maple, RedAnthracnoseJefferson(2)
Maple, SilverLeaf SpotJefferson
Oak, BlackOak Leaf BlisterJefferson
Oak, BlackHypoxylon CankerTalladega
Oak, RedOak Leaf BlisterJefferson
Pear, AsiaSooty MoldJefferson
PoinsettiaPythium Root & Crown Rot *
Smilax, GreenbrierCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
St. AugustinegrassChemical InjuryJefferson(2)
St. AugustinegrassChinch BugsJefferson(4)
St. AugustinegrassGray Leaf SpotJefferson

Disease Possibilities for August

To look at diseases for a typical October please go to the Plant Pathology button on our home page and click on October. You will find brief comments on disease symptoms and control recommendations. For specific disease control recommendations, see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook or 2001 Sprays Guides. Also remember that sanitation is a necessary component of most disease control programs.


October 5, 2001:
Herbaceous Plant Open House
South Mississippi Branch Experiment Station
Poplarville, Mississippi; from 2-6 p.m.
Contact Patricia Knight at 601-795-4525 for additional information.

October 5-7, 2001:
Annual meeting of Alabama Christmas Tree Association combined with Georgia Christmas Tree Association.
Bill Murray's farm in Cordele, Georgia.
Contact Ken Tilt (334-844-5484) for more information.

October 10, 2002:
Center for Applied Nursery Research (CANR) Annual Field Day
Dearing, Georgia
For information call Kay Bowman at 706-597-8309; fax 706-595-9678; email info@canr.ogr

October 11 - 13, 2001:
SNA's Southern Plant Conference
Athens, Georgia
Call SNA at 770-953-3311; www.sna.org

October 12 - 13, 2001:
"Return o f the Natives"
Central South Native Plant Conference

Birmingham Botanical Gardens
For more information contact Shelley Green at 205-980-1914 or Carol Carter at 205-933-1622.

October 12-13, 2001:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

November 1, 2001:
Ornamental Horticulture Field Day
Poplar, Mississippi
9:30 am. Contact Patricia Knight at 601/795-4525 for additional information.

November 30 - December 1, 2001:
The Great Southern Tree Conference.
Contact Heather Nedley at hnedley@fnga.org; 1-800-375-3642.

October 11-12, 2002:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

April to October, 2002:
Floriade 2002.
See the AmeriGarden (5,400 square feet), part of the world horticulture exhibition in the Netherlands.
For more information call 808-961-6660 or visit http://www.floriade.nl/ or http://www.amerigarden2002.com/

Send horticultural questions and comments to ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu.

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.