November 1998

Time Out! Take Time to Visit Others to See How You Can Improve Your Business.

It is November already. It's time (or past time) to check to be sure you have all you need for covering your plants for winter. I have been traveling a great deal over the past month to the Southern Region International Plant Propagator’s meeting, the Native Plant Conference, and on to Master Gardener and Nursery programs across the state. It was great to get out for a while. I was ready for some balance. What hit me, aside from the information I gleaned from the programs, was the “RE”-realization of the importance of planning and time management in the nursery. I have shared these thoughts at some recent nursery meetings.

I told the groups that I was like an alcoholic talking at an AA meeting. I am one of the world’s worst at taking time to plan. I am a crisis manager and I see that in many of the nurseries I visit. It is a constant struggle for me to plan and stay ahead of problems. When I take advantage of some of the tours, like I did last month, I see the difference in the nurseries that plan rather than react. They take time for time management and it shows. The little things are done that would not get done under my style of management. It is very important to keep a journal. Write down what you do every day. When do you see borers or other plant problems, record the events in your journal. When you think to yourself, I wish I had taken my cuttings earlier this year or I wish I would have ordered my plastic or fertilizer earlier, write it down and make a note on next year’s calendar. It sounds simple but not many of us do it. Next year, you can take your journal and plan 2 to 3 months ahead based on the things you did the previous years. After a few years, the surprises will not be as great. There are enough surprises in this business without getting surprised by the same problems every year. Take time for time management.

Another item that frustrates me is how our nursery businesses rarely practice what they preach by landscaping their offices. I can also say that our Horticulture department, as well as the Alabama Nurserymen’s Association, are guilty of this infraction as well. The few nurseries I saw that showed their pride in our industry and what we have to offer made a great impression on me. We tell our customers about the solid research that tells us that through good landscaping we will sell more burgers, rent more offices and apartments, get well faster in the hospital, and increase the value of our homes as well as our overall well being. I know when I see a well landscaped garden center or production nursery, I am more inclined to stop and have a better feeling about the quality of plants they sell. I know for our Department, as well as your nursery, it takes a commitment of time and money to make this vision a reality. It requires the planning discussed in the opening paragraph to make landscaping a priority in your business. We must allocate the resources from the marketing budget, designate who is responsible and when the design and maintenance activities will take place. Good landscaping is a great way to highlight new plants that you are trying to promote by having mature specimens in your landscape for customers to view. The landscape can also serve as a stock block during times of poor cutting or liner availability.

A final item that I noticed about the successful nurseries I visited was the priority and time they allocated to being more efficient with their labor. Nurseries are often cutting corners on fertilizer, container media or other materials when they are trying to cut costs. The major cost in the production of plants is labor, ranging from 20% to 40% of the total costs. This is the place to see how money can be saved without jeopardizing the quality of your plants. Moving of plants around the nursery is one of the big expenses. Draw a diagram of your nursery and the movement of plants throughout the production process. Is there a way to eliminate steps by direct sticking cuttings, move more plants at a time on flats or pallets, or utilize the physics of levers, rollers, gravity, or inclined planes to make the movement and work easier for the employees? Is there a way to rearrange the nursery so that plants move in a more direct line or in concentric circles from propagation, to liner area to production area to shipping?

Piecework was highly touted in some of the larger nurseries we visited. It takes some time to develop and monitor for quality control but managers and employees were much happier in this system and it was more productive. It also gives employees more input in the process. It is to their advantage to make suggestions for efficiency because they can make more money if they are more productive.

Try to never have to calculate a pesticide, rooting hormone, fertilizer rate or other measurement but once. When you have a task that you will be doing repeatedly, make the calculations then simplify the process for the future. Incorporating fertilizer into media can be weighed once for each media variation. Then, color-coded containers can be fashioned to apply the same amount each time. Just like good signage is imperative in a retail nursery, much time can be saved by clear and readily viewable signs in the production nursery. Another common thread at some of the productive nurseries was the use of salvage materials for the production site. Many items that become obsolete in other industries will do well at our nurseries. Use your imagination and visit some of the savage operations to find “deals” for your nursery such as cement mixers, rail cars, truck vans, old water tanks, used rebar and other things your imagination can invent.

Take control of your business through planned planning sessions. Use your imagination and the talents of your employees to become more efficient. Get out as often as possible to see how other nurseries are solving the same problems you encounter. Take a picture of your business to see how others see you and ask yourself if you are portraying the image you want your customers to see.

Have a great month,
Ken Tilt

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.









by Dr. Ken Tilt

The following article comes from information I presented at the Southern Region International Plant Progagator’s Society meeting in Tulsa. Japanese maples are one of my favorite plants in the landscape. In the article, I am sharing information about propagating this plant. It was passed on to me in the true tradition of the IPPS motto “Seek and Share” by Harold Johnston. A design for a grafting table that we use and find very helpful is pictured at the end of the article.

Japanese maples are among the aristocrats in our landscapes. We often consider them as status symbols in our yards. When a plant reaches this level of celebrity, it allows nurseries to get a little added value for their efforts. Japanese maples seldom fall into the category of hollies, junipers or azaleas. These plants are often specified by the hundreds by landscape designers. Typically Japanese maples are specimen trees or shrubs with only one or two plants specified per landscape job. However, with some additional marketing and landscape demonstrations, mass planting of 'Tamukeyama' or 'Waterfall', a screen row of 'Moonfire' or a small border hedge of 'Shania' could be a possibility. Like many of our other plant groups, there is probably a Japanese maple with a form, texture, size, color and site tolerance to fit almost any landscape requirement. There are opportunities for imaginative, artistic nursery producers to create some unique plants by training limbs into artistic forms or using the vast array of cultivars to select plants to put on standards such as 'Shania' or 'Koto no hito'. Opportunities also exist to develop container gardens with Japanese maple cultivars as the center of attention for patios and business entrances. Production of bonsai plants is also a possible niche.

The toughness of Japanese maples belies its price. They are very drought tolerant when established with few insect and disease problems. Most Japanese maples do not do well in wet sites and many cultivars suffer in the South when planted on southern or southwest exposures. This paper is about propagation of these special plants with an emphasis on grafting.

This information is not my own success story but comes from my observations and view as an apprentice grafter. I have done 100's of grafts whereas the individual I worked with performs several 1000 grafts each year at his nursery and as a contract grafter for other nurseries. Harold Johnston of Johnnies Pleasure Plants, in Tallassee, AL has a small back yard mail order nursery with a collection of close to 300 cultivars including a recently patented cultivar he released under the name of 'Beni Shien' (Purple Smoke). It is true that there is an art and science to grafting. I have learned the science at school but I needed a professional grafter and repetition to begin to learn the art and "feel" of grafting. I am not sure if the "Art" is taught as much as it is absorbed through observation and practice.

The tools of the trade include a sharp grafting knife, sharpening stone, leather strap, 6" budding rubbers or grafting tape, hand pruning shears, bonsai 8" concave cutter, small cooler, 1 quart zip-lock 2 ml (2"x6" or 2"x8") plastic bags, twist ties or clothes pins, plant or pot tags, fine point Sharpie or water-proof marker, comfortable back supporting chair, work bench or grafting table and a shaded area or comfortable place to work.

A very sharp knife made of good metal that will hold an edge is crucial to get a smooth cut. Ragged cuts from dull knives can cause poor contact and graft failure. Not being a knife expert, I go to A.M. Leonard Tool catalogue (800-543-8955)

and buy one of their most expensive Tina 640T grafting/budding knives ($50). This reasoning has worked well for me. Some people use razor blades and exchange the blades as they become dull. The plastic bags along with the twist ties are used to form a mini-greenhouse to cover the scion and graft, and can be purchased from National Bag Company, Inc. (800-247-6000) or Consolidated Plastics Company, Inc (800-352-1000).

The bonsai concave cutter has been very helpful in removing the understock after the graft has "taken". It allows you to make a closer, more precise cut. This tool can be purchased from John Vermeulen and Son, Inc., Neshanic Station, NJ for $35 (800-824-2306). One tool that another individual, Robert Eiland, with thirty years grafting experience relies on is a micro visor (MFD Enterprises, Kerryville TX, 800-210-6662, $35). This is a big help if you wear reading glasses and have to constantly tilt your head back to see what you are doing. It also helps with the smaller scion wood. The other items are obvious or will become apparent as the description of the process progresses.

One of the first steps in grafting Japanese maples is to get a source of understock. Harold either produces his from seed or purchases liners from Heritage Seedlings in Oregon. Seeds are collected in October just as wings begin to turn brown before the seed turns brown and dries out. Seeds are placed in hot water and soaked as water cools for about 48 hours. They are then placed in Zip Lock plastic bags, labeled with date and seed name and put in a cooler at temperatures between 33° and 40° F. Stratification continues for 100 to 130 days. Seed is broadcast and planted ¼ to ½ inch deep in 2.5 inch deep trays in February and placed under mist (6 seconds every 10 minutes) in the greenhouse. Media used has been pinebark or 1:1, peat:perlite. As seedlings germinate, they are fertilized with 150 to 200 ppm of Peter's 20-20-20, once or twice per week. Seedlings are ready for transplanting by mid April and are transplanted to 4 inch or 1 gallon containers and placed pot-to-pot under 50% shade. With fertilization and care, many of these seedlings are ready for grafting by August through February and March.

Harold has tried many different methods of grafting but has settled on a side or side veneer graft on one to four year old seedlings. He has used rooted cuttings as understock but has not noticed a clear advantage over seedlings. In a survey of several nurseries in England, France, and Italy, M. Studd (1997) reported successful field and container grafts using whip and tongue, shield, and side veneer grafts with graft wax. Vertrees (1992) reported successful grafts through chip budding, patch budding and T-budding. Some Oregon nurseries graft in the field using a stick bud with 2 to 3 nodes. As with many other nursery practices, there are numerous acceptable production methods to get to the same end. The method used depends on personal preference, the market, how it fits the nursery's production system and the climate and other site conditions at the nursery.

Depending on the cultivar, Harold has found that he can begin grafting as early as late July when scion wood matures to a semi-hardwood condition. Harold continues to graft through March by using understock kept in an unheated greenhouse. Scion wood for February and March grafting is collected and submersed in water. Excess water is shaken off and put in a labeled Zip Lock bag. Scion wood can last up to two months or more in storage. Harold will often go through his stock plants and collect a hundred or more scions, stuff them in his pocket and take them to the grafting bench for grafting. I need all the insurance I can get, so I go by the book and collect the scions, put them in bags with labels and then in a cooler to take to the grafting bench. Harold's method does show that you have a large margin for error in collecting scion wood. Harold grafts on 4 inch, 1 gallon and 3 gallon understock ranging from ¼ inch diameter to 5 to 6 feet trees. The larger trees are top worked with weeping cultivars or shrub cultivars to be used on a standard. As many as 8 to 10 grafts may be used on a large, branched understock to get a well branched, quick maturing, weeping plant. Harold also creates vertical specimens by grafting up and down the stem using the same or different color and texture cultivars.

Harold's grafting is similar to textbook side veneer instructions. He locates a long, straight, smooth internode (either high or low on the stem depending on the cultivar and the desired results) and makes a shallow (15° or less depending on the thickness of the stem) 1 to 1.5 inch cut with a SHARP knife. He angles in a little at the base of the cut to get greater tension on the scion when it is placed on the understock. The cut should be done with a single stroke. Try to avoid whittling. Harold keeps his resulting flap on the understock. I like to remove about 2/3rds of the flap so that I can better view the cambium layer and align my graft. After removing all but one or two leaves from the scion, the same shallow cut is made at the base of the scion wood with an additional cut of 45° made on the lower ¼ to ½ inch opposing side. This forms a wedge to fit under the flap at the base of the understock cut. Insert the short cut side of the scion under the flap on the understock and align the scion at the edge so that the cambium matches. On large understock, the cambium layer is further from the edge. On finer scions like 'Filagree Lace', be careful to move the scion closer to the edge and not pull it out of position when wrapping.

Although grafting tapes can be used, Harold prefers budding rubbers because of the tension you can apply and the ease of removal. If you fail to remove the budding rubbers, they often rot with no damage to the graft. Everyone develops their own style of wrapping. Harold begins at the base of the graft and secures the end of the budding rubber by overlapping the end during the first 2 wraps. He then adjusts the scion and makes the next wrap at the top of the graft. This secures the scion in position. He continues to wrap down the stem with good tension until he reaches the base. I continue to wrap from the bottom to the top and adjust the scion as I go. The final tie is completed by wrapping the budding rubber over the tip of your fingernail of your index finger on the last wrap around the stem. As you complete the last wrap, wedge the budding rubber beneath your index finger and release the tension. Pull your index finger back along the stem rolling the wedged budding rubber under the portion on top of your finger. The budding rubber rolls off your fingernail and pinches the tailing end completing the tie. This is much easier done than said!

The graft is completed by taking a plastic bag, placing in over the scion and pulling it down over the graft. This is secured by a twist tie or a clothes pin. It is an extra step but pulling the bag over the scion is easier if you make a 1 to 1.5 inch slit at the bag opening. The finished grafts are placed back under the shade structure. Within 7 to 10 days it is possible to tell if the graft has taken. The wood at the graft union dries and turns brown to black if the union fails. Leave the bag on for 3 to 4 weeks. Gradually untie, then remove the bags over the next 2 weeks. If dormant, leave the understock above the graft intact to protect the graft from accidental breakage. As buds begin to swell, cut the understock with the bonsai cutter and shift the plants to a larger container. Harold, with help, can graft between 500 to 600 plants in a day and about half that number if he is shuttling all his plants and gathering his own scion wood.

Our usual method of grafting was to grab a rickity chair, put it under a pecan tree, flip over a 5 gallon paint or lard can and bring a worn-out cardboard box of assorted grafting supplies along with a cooler of scion wood. We scattered one gallon understock around the chairs to be grafted. This "system" was inefficient and hard on my back. I was always looking for where I put my knife or the marking pens. Grafted plants were mixed with the ungrafted plants. The chair was too tall for the bucket which made it hard to hold the understock at the right angle to make the proper cuts. Bad back, being inherently unorganized, and having a desire to make a day of grafting a comfortable and less frustrating experience, led to the design of a grafting table. The grafting table design is pictured below along with a new industrial, adjustable chair or stool (Global Equipment Co., Suanee, Ga., 800-645-1232, Model CG252375, $252). The cost of the materials for the table was about $70.

The table was designed for 1 or 2 people to graft at a time. The four pockets or trays in the center of the table hold your knife, sharpening stone, bags, twist ties, budding rubbers, markers and tags. The trays can be removed when you are finished grafting and stored until next time. Your leather strap is attached to the table. Cut outs in the center are placed so you can get closer to your work. The shelf underneath the table allows you to take a one gallon container and lean it against the table to give you a good 45° angle to make your cuts and wrapping easier. It also is a good place for your knife while you are wrapping the graft. Although it was not part of the design idea, the support board under the table was perfect for a footrest. The table is 42 inches high which allows you to stand up and comfortably work in this position. You can put 30 to 40, one gallon, understock plants on one side. As you finish the grafts, you push them to the finished side. If you are grafting by yourself, there is a slide bar that pulls the hard to reach pots to you. After completing the 30 to 40 pots, you shift the completed grafts to a trailer and reload the understock. If you are fortunate enough to have some help, the other individual can keep the plants moved and restocked. It is a simple system that has worked well. If you do not have a good shade tree or air conditioned room, you may need to add a large umbrella to the design.

Japanese maples are a special group of plants. With imagination, study, good marketing and grafting practice, a nice niche can be carved out for a family nursery business.

Conner, Scott. 1997. Made in Japan. Amer. Nurseryman. July 1.
Studd, M. 1997. Comparison of Japanese maple production in United Kingdom, France, and Italy. Comb. Proc. Intl. Plant Prop. Soc.47:197-199.
Vertrees, J.D. 1992. Japanese Maples. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.


If you are looking for a fun- and food-filled morning before the Auburn University Homecoming Football game, look no further than the parking lot adjacent to Comer Hall. This is the 18th year of Ag Roundup and Taste of Alabama Agriculture. The morning will be steeped in tradition with entertainment by the Agri-Opry, a group of local musicians from other bands in the area who come together once a year to perform at the College of Agriculture event. To bolster enthusiasm for the football game the Auburn pep band and cheerleaders will be there.

The Taste of Alabama Agriculture will feature food items grown or processed in the state, including pork, beef, catfish, chicken, seafood, collard greens, orange and blue (war eagle) french fries, satsuma oranges, apples, peanuts, ice cream and other delectable edibles. Along with music and food will be an antique tool show. For a taste of the future an interactive computer setup will address precision farming and environmental control. There will also be an auction by professional auctioneer Jimmy Collins and Commissioner of Agriculture Jack Thompson. Proceeds from the auction go to the College of Agriculture scholarship program. From Interim Dean of Agriculture Ron Shumack: "Taste of Alabama Agriculture has many functions. It gives our commodities an opportunity to show ag and non-ag audiences alike the benefits of their products; it brings the ag community together; it provides some insights into modern agriculture for those not directly involved in the industry; it provides needed scholarship money for the college; and it is just a fun event. A big party that everybody enjoys."

Come to Ag Hill (adjacent to Comer Hall on the campus of Auburn University) on Saturday, November 7 between 9 and noon. Cost of admission is $5.00 (for the scholarship program).


The nation's omnibus budget bill was approved last week by Congress and signed by President Clinton. ANLA and other industry groups lobbied hard for the passage of the bill that would fund much needed research. They emphasized the contribution that the horticulture industry makes to the general agriculture economy. $200,000 of the funds are slated to establish the Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center at Ohio State University. The remainder of the allocated money will be used to address research targeting the industry's most urgent needs. (from NMPRO newsletter compiled by David L. Morgan, 10/27/98)


A red fire ant infestation was reported in a residential area in New Castle County, Delaware, last month. The infestation may have begun as long as three years ago when fire ants appear to have hitchhiked into the state on a potted plant. The infestation appears to be small and quite localized but there is still concern that there were other hitchhikers on other plants. The USDA fire ant quarantine map is on the web at For more information call ANLA at 202-789-2900.

(from NMPRO newsletter compiled by David L. Morgan, 10/27/98)



October was dry and many landscape problems related to the drought of October and previous months. Biotic diseases seen included the following: Phomopsis canker and Phytophthora root rot on azalea; Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia carotovora blight on chrysanthemum; Phytophthora and Pythium root rot on coleus; Seiridium canker on Leyland cypress; crown gall on euonymous; Phytophthora and Pythium root rot on fatsia; Phytophthora and Pythium root rot on gardenia; Phyllosticta leaf spot and Glomerularia leaf mold on Ginkgo; Phytophthora and Pythium root rot on holly; Botryosphaeria canker, Curvularia leaf spot, powdery mildew on jade plant; Pythium crown rot on juniper; Phytophthora and Pythium root rot on Liriope; anthracnose and Pythium root rot on maple; Alternaria leaf spot on marigold; Stereum sp. wood rot on oak; Cercospora leaf spot and Phytophthora crown rot on pansy.

As is normally the case at this time of year, most of our plant samples (99 received in October) are landscape samples. And, most of our landscape samples are problems that appear to be caused by environmental stress. This fall many landscape shrubs and small trees are showing early leaf drop, leaf scorch, and dieback that probably is the result of drought stress this past summer and fall. Fungal, bacterial, or virus agents have not been associated with most of these landscape samples. Pruning out dead foliage and weekly irrigation during dry periods are the only suggestions we can make for these plants.

1998 October Plant Diseases Seen
in the Plant Diagnostic Lab

(NOTE: APMH = Alabama Pest Management Handbook)
AZALEAPhomopsis CankerAutauga
CHRYSANTHEMUMPseudomonas syringae & Erwinia carotovora
Stem Blight
COLEUSPhytophthora & Pythium Root RotLee
CYPRESS, LEYLANDSeiridium CankerJefferson
FATSIAPhytophthora & Pythium Root Rot.
GARDENIAPhytophthora & Pythium Root RotHouston
(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)
GINKGOPhyllosticta Leaf Spot
Glomerularia Leaf Mold
JUNIPERPythium Crown RotLowndes
JUNIPERSeiridium CankerAutauga
LIGUSTRUMPythium Crown & Root RotLowndes
LIRIOPEPhytophthora & Pythium Root RotHouston
LOQUATAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Baldwin
MAPLEPythium Root RotHouston
MARIGOLDAlternaria Leaf SpotLee
OAKPossible Armillaria Wood & Root Rot.
OAK Stereum sp. Wood RotBaldwin
PANSYCercospora Leaf Spot*
PANSYPhytophthora Crown RotLee
Locations are not reported for nursery and greenhouse samples.


Entomosporium leaf spots on photinia may develop and spread if conditions are cool and wet. Pansy diseases (especially black root rot are often seen in November. Greenhouse poinsettias may develop disease problems. Phythium stem rot has been a problem in the past. Recently, powdery mildews have been diagnosed on Salvia and some other bedding plants. Our warm days, cooler nights and dry conditions have been favorable for this disease. The list below includes some common disease problems received in the lab during November of the past few years.

Disease Descriptions and Brief Control Comments
on Some Common Diseases Often Seen in November

ARBOR-VITAEPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown, decayed. When disease is active, roots are water-soaked.Sanitation; protective fungicide drenches. See APMH.
AZALEAPowdery Mildew
Whitish powdery dusting on leaves; some leaf deformity if infection occurs on new growth; infected leaves eventually become yellowed.See the APMH.
AZALEA (Cuttings, Liners)Aerial Web Blight (Rhizoctonia)Lower leaves become brown spotted or blighted; when conditions are humid, a delicate mycelial webbing may occur on infected leaves; eventually, infected, blighted leaves drop.See the APMH.
AZALEA (Cuttings, Liners)Phytophthora Root Rot
(See Arbor-vitae).
See Arbor-vitae comments..
AZALEA (Cutting)Rhizoctonia Cutting End RotCutting ends develop brown lesions which may completely encircle the stem. Plant death results.Sanitation.
CAMELLIAPhyllosticta Leaf SpotDark purple-brown circular-oval leaf spots.Sanitation in the fall. Protective fungicide sprays (Cleary's 3336) if disease appears early in the season.
CHRYSANTHEMUMPythium Root RotRoots brown and water-soaked. Foliage yellows and shows poor growth, dies.Sanitation; protective fungicide drench treatments; see APMH.
GERANIUMOedemaCorky brown spots (2-3 mm) on lower leaf surfaces. Corresponding upper leaf surfaces become yellow spotted.Reduce watering schedule when weather is cool and cloudy.
liners and containers
Black Root Rot
Roots develop black tips and black lesions and sections.Sanitation; see APMH.
liners and containers
Rhizoctonia Aerial BlightLower leaves become spotted and blighted. Leaf fall occurs.See APMH.
Phytophthora Root RotFeeder and major roots show a brown, wet decay. The outer cortex can be easily slipped off of the inner central root cylinder.See APMH; sanitation.
HOLLY, COMPACTA and HELLERI Collectotrichum Leaf SpotBrown-black circular spots.Sanitation. Cleary's 3336 may be used as a protective treatment.
Entomosporium Leaf SpotBlack spots with red borders develop on the foliage.Sanitation; protective fungicide sprays. See the APMH.
JUNIPERPhomopsis Tip BlightDieback.Sanitation; see the APMH.
JUNIPERPhytophthora Root RotSee Arbor-vitae.See Arbor-vitae comments.
Green or reddish-colored, slightly raised, usually circular or oval spots with wavy margins develop on upper leaf surfaces.Sanitation.
OAKGanoderma Wood/Root RotTree dieback. Conks developing on the trunks of infected trees are non-gilled, poroid, with or without a lateral stalk, with a distinctive reddish-brown or gray-brown varnish-like crust on the upper surface.Sanitation.
Small, cream-colored, circular spots with dark borders.Sanitation; see the APMH.
PANSYBlack Root Rot
Black root tips and black root lesions and areas.Cleary's 3336; see the APMH.
PANSYCercospora Leaf SpotGray-black round leaf spots about 1/4-1/2 cm.Sanitation. Daconil or Cleary's 3336 may be used for protective disease control..
PERIWINKLERhizoctonia Crown RotCrowns, roots become dried, brown, rotted.Sanitation. See the APMH.
PHLOXBlack Root Rot
See Pansy.See Pansy.
PHOTINIAEntomosporium Leaf SpotBlack spots with dark red borders; spot coalescence; leaf drop.Protective fungicide sprays; sanitation.
PINE, VIRGINIAPloioderma (Lophodermium)
Needle Cast
Older needles become yellow and then brown in spots; eventually whole needles turn brown and drop. Small black football shaped lesions (1-2 mm long) develop on brown needles.Protective fungicide sprays. See the APMH.
PINE, VIRGINIAFusarium Pitch CankerElongated cankers. Some resin flow.Sanitation. See comments in the APMH.
PINE, VIRGINIARhizosphaeria Needle CastNeedles turn brown. Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies) occur in a linear arrangement on browning needles.---
POINSETTIAPytophthora Root RotSee Pythium Root Rot.See Pythium Root Rot.
POINSETTIAPythium Stem and Root RotLower stem and roots become brown, soft, water-soaked, and rotted..See APMH; sanitation.
POINSETTIABotrytis BlightBracts and leaves develop gray lesions and areas. Elongated lesions may occur on stems. A gray web may develop on surface of lesions when conditions are humid.See APMH.
POINSETTIARhizoctonia Crown Rot and Root RotLower stems develop dry, medium-dark brown surface lesions; roots may become brown and dried.See APMH; sanitation.
ROSE, MiniatureCylindrocladium Root RotRoots show black lesions and rotted areas.Sanitation.


November 4, 1998:
Best Management Practices for Nurseries - 1998 Area Short Course.
Presented by The Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Alabama Nurserymen's Association, Mid-Western Nurseries of Alabama and the Alabama Department of Environmental Management - in Centre, Alabama. Call Linda Van Dyke at 334-821-5148, Ken Tilt at 334-844-5484 or David Derrick at 205-927-3250 for more information. November 5-7, 1998:
Annual Meeting of The Holly Society of America Annual Meeting.
Colonial Williamsburg, VA; contact 757-363-3906.

November 7-8, 1998
Annual Meeting of the American Bamboo Society.
The Harry P. Leu Gardens and Disney World, Orlando, FL; contact Delores Holland, Registration Chariman, Yellow City Road, Amenia, NY 12501; tel and fax: 914-373-9020; e-mail:

November 20-22, 1998:
Meeting of the Middle Atlantic Chapter of the American Rhododendron Society.
Chamberlain Hotel, Hampton, VA; Contact 304-765-5551.

January 13-15, 1999:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Don W. Sanford at 847-526-2010; fax 847-526-3993; e-mail

January 28, 29, 30, 1999:
Alabama Nurserymen's Association Trade Show and Educational Program.
Mobile, Alabama. Call Linda Van Dyke at 344-821-5148 for details. See also

January 30-February 3, 1999:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Memphis, TN. Contact Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656; phone 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail

February 4-7, 1999:
The Management Clinic.
Galt House, Louisville, KY. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;

July 22-27, 1999:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Philadelphia, PA. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;

July 28-31, 1999:
96th American Society for Horticultural Science.
Minneapolis Convention Center, Minneapolis, MN. Contact ASHA: 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024; e-mail:

July 30-August 1, 1999:
SNA 99 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;

August 1-4, 1999:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference. Stamford, CT. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411;

September 10-11, 1999:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at 931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail

September 23-25, 1999:
6th Biennial Southern Plant Conference.
Richmond, VA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;

October 3-6, 1999:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Mobile, AL. Contact David Morgan: 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail

January 11-13, 2000:
Kentucky Landscape Industries Winter Educational Conference and Trade Show.
The Lexington Center, Lexington, KY. Contact Debbie Cain, KNLA Exec. Dir. at 502-899-3622; fax 502-899-7922

January 19-21, 2000:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Don W. Sanford at 847-526-2010, fax 847-526-3993; e-mail

January 29-February 2, 2000:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Lexington, KY. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail

February 3-6, 2000:
The Management Clinic.
Galt House, Louisville, KT. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;

July 8-12, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail; web:

July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;

July 14-18, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail; web:

July 16-19, 2000:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference.
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;

August 11-18, 2000:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference.
Baltimore, MD. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411;

September 15-16, 2000:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;

October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail:

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Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.