PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT - for October and November

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


This is the November/December issue of the newsletter. The months come around so fast that they sometimes get past me, like all those issues of American Nurserymen, Outlook, Nursery Manager and other piles of magazines stacked on the corner of my desk to read during some “Free Time”. We do the best we can! I had the great fortune to spend about a month traveling to the IPPS International Plant Propagator meetings in California and Florida.

Everyone picks up something from these meetings. They are the best programs the industry has for good practical information. In the spirit of the motto of IPPS “To Seek and Share”, I will share some of my musings from my “seekings” from October and November. I offer these thoughts in no particular order because, unfortunately, my mind was not equipped with a good “Sort” or “Organize” button. First, I offer an item appropriate for the season and a return to an idea that needs someone with some time, an interest in a new niche product, and a love of the Christmas Holiday: “The Holly Christmas Tree”.

A Christmas Holly, Nellie R. Stevens:
Ilex x ‘Nellie R. Stevens’ is probably the number one landscape holly used in the Southeast. It has recently found a new use as a lustrous green, beautiful Christmas tree. We are lucky to have this beautiful holly for our use in the garden. The holly was named after Nellie Robinson Stevens affectionately called “Miss Nellie”. Miss Nellie was a teacher and an avid gardener on Maryland’s Eastern Shore and lived in her home called Maplehurst. She gathered holly seed from one of her trips to the National Arboretum in 1900. It was later determined that the three seedlings that germinated were a result of a natural cross between Ilex cornuta (Chinese Holly) and Ilex aquifolium (English Holly). The holly inherited the best traits of both parents. The two other seedlings were named from the seedlings she grew in her garden, both male hollies - Maplehurst and Edward J. Stevens, named after their home and Miss Nellie’s father. Edward J. is a good pollinator for Nellie R. Edward J’s are hard to find in the trade but they match well with Nellie R. and fruit set is assured.

Auburn University Horticulture did a survey at Southern Homes and Gardens in Montgomery and at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens several years ago. We found that the public was very receptive to buying a live Holly Christmas tree in a container. However, we were informed that this was not a new idea. Many people in the south used hollies as Christmas trees in earlier years. So this is a tradition revived and an opportunity to develop a new niche for our nurseries. The hollies need to be grown with a Christmas tree producer's eye with good taper and a strong central leader. The hollies need to be allowed to re-flush before Christmas to give a soft natural texture. Nellie R’s have glossy leaves but if you buy a can or bottle of leaf gloss from the garden center and spray the leaves they will sparkle under the lights. The container can be placed in a plastic bag to prevent water from getting on the carpet and draped with a holiday decorative wrap/skirt. The container is the prefect height to allow presents to slide easily under the tree.

After the celebration is over, plant the holly in the yard and decorate for a few years or work it into the landscape. The photos below come from Pinetucket, the Norman’s home (the oldest home in Auburn). They used a holly several times as a centerpiece for their living room. They received so much praise from friends and family that the holly is now a tradition at Pinetucket. I think Miss Nellie would have approved and used her holly as a Christmas tree at Maplehurst.

Nellie R. Stevens Holly decorated as Christmas Tree at Pinetucket.
The holly came from Southern Growers in Montgomery.

Grafting idea:
Since the time I heard the late JC Raulston discuss the need for clonal root stocks for ornamentals, I have looked for opportunities to try various combinations for oaks, dogwoods or English holly on Cornuta or Nellie R. Stevens root stock or Acer palmatum on Acer elegantalum root stock. While touring California nurseries, I visited a nursery that developed a phytophthora root rot resistant root stock for avocados. Similar to pecans and oaks, avocadoes are not easy to root so they developed a method to graft them onto a nurse root in an elaborate sequence of grafts and rooting. They grow the avocado seed in a plastic bag until it reaches the appropriate size for grafting. They then graft the clonal root stock on the seedling and later place a rabbit ring below the graft and cover the graft to etiolate the clonal graft and slowly girdle the nurse root stock to force the clonal root stock to root while still attached to the plumbing of the nurse root. As soon as the clonal rootstock is large enough, another graft is used to get the desired cultivar on top of the disease resistant clonal rootstock. They receive $20-$25 for each of these clonal trees which have saved the industry. We have done some work at Auburn on pecan layering and rooting with limited success. This is a nice technique to consider for pecans and other difficult to root trees that could benefit from a select clonal root stock.

From seed to seedling to grafted disease resistant understock to grafted cultivar
on new understock to girdled seedling nurse root to rooted clonal understock
with desired cultivar on top.

Layering in the Nursery: One of the first forms of clonal propagation was layering. I have heard of a few nurseries that still practice this commercially. We saw a nursery on our trip that had a hard time propagating mahonia and were having good success with layering. There is more than one way to skin a cat if the demand is there!

Extreme Sanitation:
We visited a nursery that propagated liners for the Proven Winners program. Incredible lengths were taken to keep plants and cuttings free of disease and insects. Insect screens, negative air flow, shoe sterilization baths, suits and hair nets, dipping pruners between every plant, tracking all cuttings sources and immediate culling and testing of any plant that exhibited any disease symptoms. We were also visiting nurseries that were paying $60,000 to $80,000 per acre before an irrigation head was ever installed. It was a different world! We could learn from their sanitation measures, though, and possibly improve the quality of our plants.

Mist Controller:
In Florida I noted several nurseries using a photosensor for regulating the mist in their prop-houses. They said it took a little tinkering with the number of light “units” but they quickly got the hang of it and it worked well for them. I know that many nurseries, similar to my propagation areas at Auburn, do not have the time to monitor the misting cycles as they should. I set my timer and hope for the best (which is not the most professional protocol but with the constraints on my time, it is the only option I have). After I got back I called the company and they said they had some problems with lightning blowing out a number of boards so they discontinued the controller until they could work out a better grounding system. They said it would be ready early 2006. I will let you know how it works with a nursery prop-house that is ignored and neglected.

Blue Rose:
We visited Jackson and Perkins Roses and had a wonderful view of all their new and improved cultivars. They unveiled the first Blue Rose. I was excited about the technology to achieve this great First among the many horticultural quests we are pursuing. However, I probably would not give up prime space in my garden to have it. Of course, I like bamboo so my opinion is obviously suspect.

Making DO:
I have often commented that nurseries are masters of “Making Do”. They take low cost salvage or massed produced items and adapt them for their nursery. The latest example of this was at a nursery that designed all their benches and pot spacing based on the use of 10 lengths of inexpensive conduit. It worked well for them.

Continuing to Make-Do – Color Markers
This nursery used colored thumb tacks to mark change of cultivars and another used colored swizzle sticks and olive forks to indicate an employee’s work. This is the same idea of taking something that is mass produced for something else other than our small market and adapting it for our uses. I wish I could think of these things!

Plant Vaccuum Cleaner:
How do you get the dead plugs out of the plug trays to replace them? This nursery uses a modified home shop vac connected to a 25 gallon drum to suck them out rather than trying to hand pull each one… and it worked great!

PVC Cut Flower Display Stand:
Are you a grower of a large collection of azaleas, iris, camellias, hydrangeas or other flowers and would like to have an inexpensive way to display them for your customers without having to go through all the greenhouses or beds? This nurseryman used a portable PVC stand to display his flowers.

Miscellaneous photos from my trips:

Yard Art? I love art in the garden or parks.

Camouflaged Cell Phone Towers? Only in California.

Using reinforced cardboard for disposable/non-return plant shipping crates.

Garden Center Display - worth the trip to the garden to see.

Enough...Enjoy your holiday season and thank you for your support of Auburn Horticulture and the Alabama Nursery and Landscape Association.



Below are listed the sessions for the 2006 Educational Seminars offered at the Gulf States Horticultural Expo on Thursday, February 2, 2006. All seminars will be held at the Outlaw Convention Center in Mobile, Alabama. It is always a wonderful time of the year to learn new things and appreciate the success of others in the industry.

Room 204 A, 9 a.m. - 5 p.m.

9 am
Landscape Cost Estimating and Job Bidding – An Educator’s Approach
DR. GARY WADE, Extension Landscape Specialist, University of Georgia, Athens, GA
Cost estimating and job bidding are among the most confusing and time-consuming tasks of landscape professionals. Dr. Wade will demonstrate a computerized cost estimator for landscape management services that he has developed and will discuss an allied program called HortScape that he is developing for landscape contractors.

10 am
Landscape Lessons Learned from the Birmingham Botanical Gardens
, Birmingham Botanical Gardens, Birmingham, AL
Fred Spicer offers the benefit of his experience as a plantsman and Director of the Birmingham Botanical Gardens. Plant combinations, unique plants and uses of plants and landscape ideas that work are just part of the experiences that he will share.

11 am
Chain Saw Safety and Small Engine Troubleshooting
, Extension Environmental and Safety Specialist, Alabama Cooperative Extension System and Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Chain saw accidents have packed emergency rooms during the aftermath of the siege of hurricanes for the past few years. Dr. LaPrade will discuss safety practices and will help you to diagnose small engine problems and maintenance.

1 pm
Top 10 Landscape Bed Weeds and Possible Solutions
, Department of Agronomy, LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA
Landscape weeds continue to be problematic in commercially maintained landscape beds. We are also seeing new weed species begin to emerge. Dr. Strahan will discuss management and control options for the “top ten” weeds in landscape beds – including some of your favorites!

2 pm
Warm Season Turf Species: Cultural Differences and New Varieties
, Department of Horticulture, LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA
Cultural practices vary for the recommended turfgrass lawn species that are used in the Gulf States. Over the last ten years we have also seen the introduction of new varieties of different warm season grasses. Dr. Lee will cover these cultural differences and provide an overview of new varieties and management options.

3 pm
Varmints in the Residential and Commercial Landscape
, Extension Wildlife Specialist, Alabama Cooperative Extension Service and Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Dr. Armstrong has been dealing with pesky critters encroaching into our urban environment for many years. He will sympathize with your frustrations and offer you the latest methods for control.

4 pm
Top 10 Turf Weeds in Commercial and Residential Landscapes
, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS
Many weed issues are prevalent in Gulf States turfgrass. Dr. Wells has a long history of doing weed work and will provide an overview of the major weed problems in commercial and residential lawns.

Room 204 B, 9 a.m. - 5 p.m.

9 am
Conifers for the South
, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA
Dr. John Ruter is one of the great plantsmen in the country and has done extensive evaluations of conifers and other plants for the south. He will be offering the results of his evaluations on conifers that have promise for the nursery and landscapes of the south.

10 am
Hydrangeas, Styrax and Clethras
, Research Geneticist, USDA – ARS, McMinnville, TN
Dr. Reed has been working on a number of plants to improve their ornamental and pest resistant qualities and make them available to expand our landscape pallet and bottom line. Sandra will share her successes and failures and offer a look to the future for the introduction of some wonderful new cultivars.

11 am
New Plants from Vietnam and the Orient
, Auburn University, Anniston, AL
Hayes is a regular speaker at our GSHE Educational Seminars because he has so much to share. Hayes has had the opportunity to travel the world looking for new and unique plants and has the eye and knowledge to see the diamond in the rough. See what the world has to offer this year.

1 pm
New Plants from Pack Trials
, Central Mississippi Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, Raymond, MS
Norman is the horticulture spokesperson for Southern Gardening in Mississippi. He annually attends the California pack trials and brings back exciting information on new plant materials for our Gulf States greenhouse growers, retailers, and landscapers. Norman will provide an overview of new herbaceous plants for 2006.

2 pm
New Plants and New Ideas
, PanAmerican Seed, Palmetto, FL
PanAmerican Seed is a world leader in the introduction of new herbaceous ornamental plant material. Terry is no stranger to us in the Gulf States. She annually supports our efforts at the Mid South Greenhouse Growers Conference. Terry will provide an overview of “what is new” from PanAmerican.

3 pm
Have Plants, Will Travel
, Natchez Trace Greenhouse, Kosciusko, MS
Natchez Trace Greenhouse in Kosciusko, MS is widely known for its great availability of new and interesting herbaceous plant material. They also travel to many shows and regional markets. Join Lori as she gives you a behind the scenes look at some unique aspects of their operation. Workshop facilitators are DR. KEN TILT, Extension Horticulturist and Professor at Auburn University and DR. VIRGINIA MORGAN, Extension Communications Co-leader at Auburn University. This workshop is sponsored by a grant from the Southern Region Risk Management Center.

4 pm
Bedding Plant, Daylily, Rose and Perennial Observations
, Allen Owings, Department of Horticulture, LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA
The LSU AgCenter has on-going herbaceous plant evaluation efforts. Current projects include annual bedding plants, daylily rust susceptibility studies, Earth Kind rose evaluations, Jackson and Perkins rose evaluations, and much more. Dr. Owings will provide an overview of recent findings.

Room 203 A, 9 a.m. - 5 p.m.

9 am
Consumer Problems (and Solutions) in the Landscape
, Department of Horticulture, LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA
Dan Gill is “Mr. Consumer Horticulture” in Louisiana. He has over 25 years experience as a horticulturist at the LSU AgCenter. Dan will give an overview of some of the common consumer problems he sees in home landscaping and offer suggestions on how retailers can work with their customers on finding solutions.

10 am
Tough Times Don’t Last…Tough People Do
, Trainergy, Medford, OR
Dr. Larry Helms joins us for a return visit to the GSHE. His dynamic new seminar offers exposure to “the winner’s edge”, “why smart people fail”, “psychological strategies”, “the magic of believing”, and “overcoming f.e.a.r – false evidence appearing real”. This workshop will offer a logical and practical examination of skills and techniques that have worked in the past and will work in the future.

11 am
What Do Gardeners Think about Gardening?
, Department of Horticulture, Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Sometimes it is simply as it appears - an avid gardener loves the challenge and joys of gardening. But often there are unseen, unspoken, and subtle motives that drive someone's decision about what to have in their yard and why they want it. Those decisions can affect how the gardener shops and what they buy. What opportunities are there in understanding what gardeners think about gardening?

1 pm
Romancing the Customer
, Trainergy, Medford, OR
This session by Dr. Larry Helms is one practical and fast moving program that delivers more than it promises. The emphasis is on value added customer relations; that is, giving the customer more than what is expected. This is a truly dynamic, practical program that focuses on no-cost or low-cost things that any person can do to improve their customer services.

2 pm
Independent Garden Centers Can Still Succeed
, Hanna’s Garden Shop, Birmingham, AL
Steve Hanna has watched and adjusted as the “Big Boxes” have arrived in the Birmingham market. How can an independent garden center compete? Steve discusses what has worked for him.

3 pm
Consumer Products for Home Lawn and Landscape Weed Control
, Department of Agronomy, LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA
Many retail garden center professionals have recently requested information on consumer products for home lawn and landscape weed control. Dr. Strahan will deliver. He has also conducted studies with many of the home brand herbicide products. Good recommendations and advice will be available at this presentation.

4 pm
What Happens if You Don’t Have Location, Location, Location
, Petals from the Past, Jemison, AL
Jason Powell, a young nursery producer and Horizon Award Winner from ALNLA, started a nursery so far from the city that people had to really want “it” to come all the way to Jemison to get “it”. Jason will explain his secrets of success.

Room 203 B, 9 a.m. - 5 p.m.

9 am
Nursery Research News from Louisiana
, Department of Horticulture, LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA
The LSU AgCenter has an active nursery and landscape research program. Dr. Bush will give us an overview of current research findings that will be of practical benefit to the wholesale nursery grower.

10 am
Nursery Research at USDA
, Research Horticulturist, USDA-ARS, Poplarville, MS
The USDA facility in Poplarville, MS has expanded and is now working in the ornamental horticulture area. Dr. Fain, a graduate of Auburn and former faculty member at Mississippi State University, will provide an overview of current activities and nursery research efforts.

11 am
Practical Research That Can Make a Difference in Your Nursery
, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA
Dr. Ruter will share some of his research and jewels of success from other researchers that can offer help to your nursery operations and bottom line.

1 pm
Invasive Plant Species and the Green Industry
, Extension Landscape Specialist, University of Georgia, Athens, GA
Dr. Wade has been involved in the invasive plant movement in Georgia for a number of years and is helping the Georgia green industry develop a strategy for responsible action on this issue. He will share what the industry has done and is doing to be pro-active.

2 pm
Nursery Weeds: No Cure But Good Management Helps
, Department of Horticulture, Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Dr. Gilliam has spent his career dealing with weed control in nursery crops. He will offer you the latest in weed control management and answer your questions and concerns.

3 pm
Container Blow-Over Studies at the LSU AgCenter
, Hammond Research Station, LSU AgCenter, Hammond, LA
Dr. Parish has been working the past two years on a nursery container blow-over project. This research has been partially funded by the Louisiana Nursery and Landscape Association. An overview of research findings, practicality of different systems, and cost associated with implementation will be presented.

4 pm
Lotus and Peonies: Can China’s Treasured Ornamentals Become a Large Part of Our Nurseries and Landscape?
, Department of Horticulture, Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Dr. Ken Tilt will offer a view of these great flowers and their potential for production and use in our landscapes.

Room 201 A, 1 - 5 p.m.

MARC TEFFEAU, American Nursery and Landscape Association, Washington, D.C.
CHRIS ROWE, Bouldin and Lawson, McMinnville, TN
SCOTT LANGLOIS, Mississippi State University, Biloxi, MS
BEN POSADAS, Mississippi State University, Biloxi, MS
Mississippi State University is working with the United States Department of Labor - Employment and Training Administration on research to develop robotics and automated systems for the greenhouse and nursery industry. A recent national survey of commercial nursery/landscape operations listed labor shortage as the number one limitation facing the industry. The goal of this project is to develop and identify automated systems that can be adapted by the highly diverse greenhouse and nursery industry. Adoption of this technology will improve working conditions for greenhouse and nursery workers, increase worker retention, improve worker safety, increase worker productivity, improve skill levels, and create new jobs related to servicing the machinery and instrumentation.

Room 202 A, 9 a.m. - 5 p.m.

9 am
Pest and Cultural Problems in the Woody and Herbaceous Landscape
, Department of Horticulture, LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA
Dr. Owings, from the LSU AgCenter, will provide an overview of current disease observations from their landscape plant trials. He will also discuss some of the cultural problems existing in commercial and residential landscapes in the Gulf States.

10 am
Top 10 Turf Weeds in Commercial and Residential Landscapes
, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS
Many weed issues are prevalent in Gulf States turfgrass. Dr. Wells has a long history of doing weed work and will discuss the major weed problems in commercial and residential lawns.

11 am
Fire Ant Management in the Landscape
, Department of Entomology, LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA
Management of fire ants is an important issue in the urban landscape. Many new options are available for fire ant management. Dr. Pollet will provide information on recommended control options and discuss timely application to achieve the desired results.

1 pm
Bedding Plant Diseases in the Landscape
, Extension Plant Pathologist, Auburn University,Auburn, AL
Dr. Hagan has received the Southern Nursery Association’s prestigious Porter Henegar Award for his research on the diseases of landscape ornamentals. He will share his knowledge of bedding plant diseases and the value of his many years of work on helping the industry produce quality plants.

2 pm
Optimizing Pesticide Performance in Production and Landscape Systems
, Department of Entomology, LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA
We all should become more aware of the many factors that play a role in the efficiency of a pesticide application. Dr. Pollet will discuss the key points to achieve maximum results that will save you time and money.

3 pm
Integrated Pest Management in Ornamental Systems
, Hammond Research Station, LSU AgCenter, Hammond, LA
Integrated pest management is becoming more important and is being used more by nursery growers, greenhouse operators, and landscape professionals. Many IPM tools can be used in a total program. Dr. Chen will provide an overview of IPM techniques for the horticulture industry.

4 pm
Ornamental Horticulture Woody Plant Disease Overview
, Central Mississippi Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, Raymond, MS
We have many disease issues that are prevalent in the Gulf States. Dr. Henn will provide a good overview of current disease issues in the woody ornamental plant arena.

Room 202 B, 12 - 6 p.m. (includes lunch)

Theme: Is Your Operation Emergency-Ready? Continuity Planning in the Face of Disasters
2005 proved to be the worst hurricane season on record, and the southern green industry can attest to it. How did your facility fare? You may have been out of business for a day, a week, or several months. Were you prepared? This hands-on workshop will focus on helping you determine your needs under emergency conditions and to develop a plan that will allow you to continue or resume operations with as little loss as possible. You'll participate in a table top exercise, complete a risk aversion survey, hear lessons learned from peer producers, and learn what emergency personnel and insurance representatives need from you. In addition, you will be introduced to a Web-based planning tool for developing your disaster continuity plan. Workshop facilitators are DR. KEN TILT, Extension Horticulturist and Professor at Auburn University and DR. VIRGINIA MORGAN, Extension Communications Co-leader at Auburn University. This workshop is sponsored by a grant from the Southern Region Risk Management Education Center.


We will be conducting our rescheduled Alabama Certified Landscape Professional Exam (ACLP) at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens on January 19 and 20, 2006. The written portion, pest and plant ID will be on January 19 (Thursday) from 10 until 3. At 3pm, Dr. Joe Eakes will offer a training session on plan take-off for applicants and REA's in preparation for the Practical Exam on Friday, January 20. Friday's Practical Exam will begin at 9 AM at the gardens.

For more information about the program, read below or go to the AU Landscape Web Page,, and hit the ACLP button which is located below the banner on the right.

Testing Schedule
The written exam will be first, followed by the landscape plan take-off exam. Please bring a calculator.

The plant and pest ID will take place after lunch from 1 to 3 pm. The practical exam on Friday morning will consist of pruning, landscape maintenance and design evaluation, landscape plan take-off, sod installation, grading, and equipment and pesticide safety.

If you have already had and passed the written exam and do not want to review the landscape plan take-off with Dr. Eakes, you can come on Friday, January 20 and take the practical portion of the exam. This exam is for those who have registered and paid ALNLA to enter the program. Georgia participants are welcome.

A Review of the ACLP Program
The ACLP, based on the program developed in Georgia by the Georgia Green Industry Association and the University of Georgia, offers landscape professionals the opportunity to be recognized as the "best in their field" by mastering the Alabama Certified Landscape Professional test. Successfully used in Georgia since 1993, the program here is in its infancy. Marketing materials for those who pass the program are being developed to help announce your achievement to your client base.

All landscapers in the State of Alabama are required to have two licenses, the SLP, or Setting of Landscape Plants, and the OTPC, or Ornamental Turf and Pest Control. Successfully testing for these two licenses illustrates a basic proficiency in the field and the ACLP does not replace the requirement to have these two licenses. The ACLP is a VOLUNTARY testing program that acknowledges those in the landscape profession who are willing to test their skills at the next level: to show to themselves, their colleagues and their customers that they have a thorough knowledge and understanding of job skills required to be successful in the industry.

The test consists of four written components and nine outdoor hands-on components and requires two days to complete. Students who enroll to take the test are provided a 200+ page study manual, instructions on how to study and prepare for the exam, and access to a WEB Study Site developed by the University of Georgia.

The four written components of the test include:

  1. A multiple-choice test based on the study manual.

  2. A plan reading skill test that requires participants to read and interpret a landscape plan, to answer questions pertaining to the plan, and to make calculations, such as square foot areas, plant quantities per area, etc.

  3. A test on common insect, disease and environmental problems. Participants must identify 25 samples (photos or actual specimens).

  4. A plant identification test that requires participants to identify fifty plant samples from a list of over 270 provided. Actual samples of trees, shrubs, vines, ground covers, herbaceous perennials, annuals, weeds and turfgrasses will be placed on tables for ID. All plants and pests are available for your study on the AU Landscape Web Page.

The nine outdoor hands-on components include:
  1. Plan Lay-out: The participant will be given a planting plan and will be required to arrange containerized plants within a given are according to the plan.

  2. Tree Planting and Staking: The participant must plant a tree according to specifications provided and show how to install a staking system.

  3. Grading and Drainage: The participant must read a topographical map and demonstrate how to contour the grade of a site in a 10 ft. x 10 ft. sand box.

  4. Pruning: The participant will show where and how to make pruning cuts and how to prune selected trees and shrubs.

  5. Sod Installation: The participant must demonstrate the correct technique for laying sod in a given area.

  6. Job Evaluation - Installation: The participant will evaluate a recently installed landscape and identify five acceptable and five unacceptable conditions.

  7. Job Evaluation - Maintenance: The participant will evaluate a section of landscape and list five acceptable and five unacceptable practices previously performed by a maintenance crew.

  8. Pesticide Application: The participant will demonstrate how to mix and apply pesticides properly and will discuss appropriate clothing to wear during pesticide application. He/she must also be prepared to discuss handling and disposal techniques.

  9. Equipment Operation: The participant will discuss routine maintenance practices and proper operation of several power equipment items (mowers, weedeaters, edgers, etc.).

The written and hands-on portions of the exam are scored separately. Certification is based on a cumulative point score. Each component must be passed with a 70 percent score.

Written test: 100 points
Plant Take-Off and Plant Selection: 25 points
Pest and Problem ID: 25 points
Plant ID: 50 points
Hands-on Components: 10 points each

Many landscape professionals have expressed the desire for the state association to help “raise the bar” of professionalism in the industry. This certification is one way that your association and YOU can do so.

If you have any more questions, please email the association at


The Caroline Dean Wildflower Collection features images of wildflowers native to the Southeastern United States that are identified by both common and scientific names and are accompanied by a description. The majority of the images in this collection were photographed in the wild lands and along roadsides throughout Alabama. This collection has been created to share the beauty and knowledge of our most colorful of all natural resources, and to promote the appreciation, use, and conservation of native plants. It has been made available to the Auburn Unviersity Libraries by Caroline R. Dean and Robert A. Dean of Opelika.

The URL is


Night-interrupted lighting (NIL) outdoors in a nursery setting promotes earlier flowering of long-day herbaceous perennials, but often results in excessive stem elongation. This study found that a single foliar application of B-Nine at the rate of 5000 ppm effectively controlled the height of Coreopsis grandiflora ‘Early Sunrise’ forced under NIL, resulting in quality, early-flowering plants. Previous research conducted in a greenhouse demonstrated that night-interrupted lighting (NIL) from incandescent lamps forced long-day herbaceous perennials into flower out-of-season, thus allowing the marketability of these plants during the four to six week peak retail sales period in spring. Unfortunately, the benefit of earlier flowering often came with the cost of excessive stem elongation. Research that applied the principles of NIL for earlier flowering to a nursery setting followed the same pattern: early flowering was achieved, but shoot elongation was excessive. The research objective was to determine if shoot elongation could be controlled with plant growth retardants outdoors under NIL.

This project was conducted at the Ornamental Horticulture Substation in Mobile, AL. Eighty ‘Early Sunrise’ coreopsis were transplanted in from 72-celled flats into trade gallons, placed pot-to-pot outdoors under overhead irrigation and a natural photoperiod and covered when freezing temperatures were predicted. An NIL area was established using 60-watt incandescent lamps from 10:00 p.m. to 2:00 a.m. Plants exposed to NIL flowered 7 days before those under natural photoperiod, however plants were taller and of lower quality. Higher concentrations of B-Nine reduced plant height and improved plant quality, but delayed flowering, the primary benefit of NIL. However, plants under NIL treated with 5000 ppm B-Nine flowered earlier than those under a natural photoperiod and were of comparable height and quality. Similar to B-Nine alone, B-Nine + Cycocel combinations reduced plant height and improved plant quality, but delayed flowering. A single application of B-Nine at a rate of 5000 ppm effectively reduces height of Coreopsis grandiflora ‘Early Sunrise’ forced under NIL outdoors in nursery conditions without sacrificing plant quality or the benefit of earlier flowering.

(From a paper by Amanda S. Holland, Gary J. Keever, J. Raymond Kessler, Jr., and James C. Stephenson, presented at SNA in August 2005).


from Chazz Hesselein, Extension Specialist

Whew! Who knew how time consuming and tedious it is getting information up on the web. My hat’s off to Bernice Fischman for the great job she does on this website. There is now a home webpage for the Mobile Ornamental Horticulture Research Center’s Poinsettia Cultivar Trials information. This updated information includes both the 2003 and 2004 trials. Keep checking back for updates from the current, 2005, trial. The address for this webpage is:

Please send comments and suggestions to Chazz Hesselein,


Bayer Environmental Science is pleased to announce that OHP, Inc. formerly Olympic Horticultural Products, became the Marketing Partner for Chipco Ronstar® and Chipco Aliette™ in the Professional Greenhouse and Nursery markets. Ronstar and Aliette will be represented and serviced by OHP in the Nursery and Greenhouse markets. As of December 1, 2005 OHP assumes all responsibilities for Aliette. Although Ronstar will be represented and serviced by OHP, it will continue to be sold to Bayer Authorized Distributors by Bayer Environmental Science. If you have any questions you can contact Michael Daly, Director of Marketing - Green Bayer Environmental Science at 201-802-4070 or Dan Stahl, VP-Marketing & Business Development at 919-327-5466.
NOTE: As this is a two-month issue we wanted to include both
the September and October Plant Pathology reports for your information.


Jackie Mullen, Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Auburn
Jim Jacobi, Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Birmingham
Charles Ray, Research Fellow IV-Auburn

Auburn Plant Disease Report-September 2005 (J. Mullen)
In September, we saw 117 plant samples for diagnosis. These samples consisted of field crops, fruit/nuts, vegetables, ornamentals, and turf samples. Some of the diseases seen included a variety of fungal leaf spots, caused by Colletotrichum, Corynespora, Cercospora, and Septoria; Phytophthora and Pythium crown and root rots; bacterial spots, wilt, and bacterial scorch diseases; and Botryosphaeria cankers.

Early fall is a time of year when we see an abundance of fungal leaf spots on pre-senescing foliage. Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum, was especially common in September. We saw anthracnose and other common leaf spot fungi on trees, shrubs, field crops, and turf. Some of the anthracnose diseases seen on shrubs were identified on nursery plants sent to our lab by State Department of Agriculture Inspectors as part of a national survey for Sudden Oak Death caused by Phytophthora ramorum. None of these nursery plants submitted in September were infected with foliage Phytophthora disease.

Botryosphaeria cankers were found on azalea, and oak. This fungus often causes canker diseases on trees or shrubs that have been previously stressed. Typically, the control of fungal canker disease is pruning. Make cuts 3-4 inches beyond the edge of the canker lesion. Dip shears into alcohol or a 10% bleach solution between cuts.

Bacterial scorch, caused by the bacteria Xylella fastidiosa, was diagnosed on sycamore in Montgomery County. This bacterial disease is transmitted from diseased to healthy trees by leaf hoppers. The bacteria invade the xylem water conducting vessels and cause plugging and blockage of the vessels, resulting in a wilt disease. Tree decline and death will progress slowly or rapidly, depending upon the size and health of the tree. Tree removal is the only control method.

Phytophthora root and crown rot diseases were identified on azalea and English laurel. Pythium crown and root rot was diagnosed on English ivy and veronica (Pythium). Both of these fungi require abundant soil water for disease development. Crown and root tissues become infected and rotted. Control involves plant removal and improved water relations. If appropriate, drainage in the area should be improved and/or irrigation should be reduced. It may be helpful to replace some root-associated soil to help remove fungal spores from the area. The use of disease resistant plants, if available, in the area is helpful. Good soil drainage in the landscape is very important in control of these two fungal diseases. Protective fungicide drenches are used in some nursery situations.

September Plant Diseases Seen in the Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab
AzaleaBotryosphaeria Crown Rot**
AzaleaPhytophthora Crown Rot*
BegoniaAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Lee
BermudagrassRing Nematode (Criconemoides)*
BermudagrassSting Nematode (Belonolaimus)*
CamelliaAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)*
CentipedeBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Tuscaloosa
Crape MyrtlePhomopsis Leaf Spot*
DogwoodBotryodiplodia Leaf SpotRussell
English LaurelPhytophthora Root RotDeKalb
Ivy, EnglishCercospora Leaf SpotCoffee
Ivy, EnglishPythium Root RotCoffee
KudzuCercospora Leaf SpotTalladega
Magnolia, SouthernAnthracnose Colletotrichum)Chambers
Magnolia, SouthernBlack MildewChambers
MapleAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)*
OakAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Talladega
OakBotryosphaeria CankerMontgomery
OakOak Leaf Blister (Taphrina caerulescens)Baldwin
St. AugustineGray Leaf Spot (Piricularia grisea)Coffee, Covington,
Elmore, Jefferson
St. AugustineTake-All Patch (Gaeumannomyces graminis
var. graminis)
Coffee, Covington,
Dallas, Elmore,
Jefferson, Pickens
SycamoreBacterial Scorch (Xylella fastidiosa)Montgomery
Tea OliveAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)*
VeronicaFusarium Crown Rot*
VeronicaPythium Crown & Root Decay*
ViburnumAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)*
ZoysiaBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia solani)Pike
ZoysiaTake-All Patch (Gaeumannomyces graminis
var. graminis)
*Counties are not reported for nursery, greenhouse, and golf course samples.

Monthly Plant Problem Report From The Birmingham Lab (J. Jacobi)
September was abnormally hot and dry. Because both August and September were abnormally dry many of the problems seen last month were related to heat and water stress.

We received 101 samples for the month of September. Some of problems seen included: Armillaria root rot and Phomopsis dieback on azalea, black twig borer on common boxwood, white peach scale on cherrylaurel and forsythia, and marginal leaf scorch on Japanese maple.

One unusual problem was black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus) associated with dieback on common boxwood (Buxus sempervirens), euonymus, and bigleaf hydrangea. Several samples were seen on common boxwood during the last few weeks of September. Black twig borer has a large host range of over two hundred types of plants, but this was the first time we have detected it on boxwood or bigleaf hydrangea. For the past 3-4 years we have seen black twig borer damage on other plants; most commonly on southern magnolia. Symptoms on boxwood include scattered dieback of small pencil sized twigs. Leaves on affected branches remain attached and turn a bright straw color. Look for small entrance holes (0.8 mm) on affected twigs and branches. Adult beetles and larvae are contained within these twigs or branches. Although we have seen the beetles attack plants that are weak and growing poorly, they will also attack apparently healthy plants. Prune and destroy beetled infected branches. For more information on this pest, including control options, see the following web sites: and

SEPTEMBER 2005 Plant Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab
Almond, Dwarf FloweringPowdery MildewJefferson
AzaleaArmillaria Root RotJefferson
AzaleaAzalea Bark ScaleJefferson
AzaleaCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
AzaleaPhomopsis DiebackJefferson
AzaleaTip MidgeShelby
AzaleaTwo Spotted Spider MiteShelby
BermudagrassLeaf Spot (Bipolaris)Jefferson
Boxwood, CommonBlack Twig Borer (Xylosandrus)Jefferson (2), Shelby
Boxwood, CommonBoxwood MitesJefferson
Boxwood, CommonPythium Root RotJefferson
Boxwood, Dwarf EnglishPythium Crown and Root RotJefferson
CherrylaurelWhite Peach Scale (Pseudaulacaspis)Jefferson
DaylilyAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Madison
DaylilyLeaf StreakMadison
Dogwood, FloweringCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson (2)
EuonymusBlack Twig Borer (Xylosandrus)Jefferson
EuonymusEuonymus ScaleJefferson
Fig, CommonCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
ForsythiaWhite Peach Scale (Pseudaulacaspis)Jefferson
Ginger, SpiralPythium Root RotJefferson
GraviolaLong Soft Scale (Coccus)Jefferson
Holly, JapaneseTwo-Lined Spittlebug DamageJefferson
HollyhockHollyhock SawflyJefferson
HostaAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Jefferson
Hydrangea, BigleafBlack Twig Borer (Xylosandrus)Jefferson
Hydrangea, BigleafCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
Hydrangea, BigleafPowdery MildewJefferson
JatrophaLong Soft Scale (Coccus)Jefferson
KudzuBacterial Leaf SpotFayette
Maple, JapaneseMarginal Leaf ScorchJefferson (2)
RedbudFall WebwormJefferson
RoseSuspect Roundup InjuryJefferson
SedumCyanophyllum Scale (Abgrallaspis)Jefferson
St. AugustinegrassGray Leaf Spot (Pyricularia)Jefferson
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse, nursery, and golf course samples.

Auburn Ornamental Entomology Report - September 2005 (C. Ray)
Montgomery Chinese Elm Camphor Scale, Yellow Mites,
Stigmaeid Mites
Montgomery Sycamore Sycamore Lace Bug
Montgomery Shumard Oak Osborn Scale, Obscure Scale,
Tarsonemid Mites, Tydeidae Mites
Montgomery Sycamore Sycamore Lace Bug
Montgomery Shumard Oak Osborn Scale, Obscure Scale,
Tarsonemid Mites, Tydeidae Mites
Lee Azalea Azalea Caterpillar
Lee Japanese Maple Cottony Cushion Scale
Blount Crape Myrtle Predatory Stink Bug Nymph
Talladega Oak (3 samples) Oak Leaf Roller
Russell Azalea Azalea Lace Bug
Jefferson Jatropha Long Soft Scale
Jefferson Sedum Cyanophyllum Scale
Jefferson Graviola Long Soft Scale
Barbour Silver Maple Gloomy Scale
Mobile Chinkapin Orange-Striped Oak Worm
Montgomery Red Maple Gloomy Scale
Lee Paulownia
(prob. Tomentosa)
A Pyralid Caterpillar
Lee Periwinkle
(Vinca minor)
A Pyralid Caterpillar
Lee Aloe vera Brown Soft Scale
Lee Diffenbachia Brown Soft Scale
Lee Diffenbachia Phenacoccus Mealybug
Jefferson Boxwood Black Twig Borer
Lee Boxwood Boxwood Leaf Miner

**Exotic species discovered in Florida in 2002. New State Record.

Disease Possibilities For September
Many fungal leaf spot diseases will develop on pre-senescent shade tree foliage in September. Generally these spots are of no concern. It is, however, always a good idea to remove fallen spotted foliage from the area later this fall or winter. Stressed trees are more susceptible to these leaf spots.


Auburn Plant Disease Report (J. Mullen)
In October, the Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab received 96 plant samples (19 of these samples were nursery samples taken by the Alabama State Department of Agriculture Inspectors as part of a national nursery survey for sudden Oak Death; 3 of these samples were landscape ornamentals taken by the Alabama State Department of Agriculture Inspectors as part of the state-wide landscape sampling survey of symptomatic plants for Sudden Oak Death; none of the samples tested from nurseries or landscapes were positive for the Sudden Oak Death fungus; 22 samples were soybeans and kudzu taken as part of the soybean rust state survey with Ed Sikora; 12 of these soybean and kudzu samples were positive for soybean rust.) Some of the diseases seen in October included; fungal leaf spots (caused by Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, Pestalotia, Cercospora, and Botryosphaeria) on a variety of landscape trees and shrubs; Phytophthora root rot on azalea, English ivy, and Pittosporium; Cercosporidium blight on Leyland cypress; Bipolaris blight and Rhizoctonia brown patch on zoysia grass, and Xylella bacterial scorch on sycamore. In addition, an unusual rust (not Asian soybean rust; PCR testing indicates the rust was not Asian soybean rust) was observed on kudzu. The exact identification of this rust has not been made as yet.

Fungal leaf spots are common at this time of year on many landscape plants as leaves become pre-senescent and senescent. The only control method needed for these plants is sanitation. Fallen leaves should be collected and removed from the area.

Xylella bacterial scorch (caused by Xylella fastidiosa) causes dieback and eventual tree death as a result of vascular plugging from bacteria. The bacteria are transmitted by insects, usually leaf hoppers. The only control for this disease is sanitation -- remove the dying trees. This disease may occur on sycamore, elm, oak, maple, and mulberry.

October Plant Diseases Seen in the Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab
AzaleaColletotrichum Leaf Spot *(2)
AzaleaPestalotia Leaf Spot *(2)
AzaleaPhomopsis Leaf SpotLee
AzaleaPhytophthora Root RotRussell, *
CamelliaColletotrichum Leaf Spot *
CamelliaPestalotia Leaf Spot *
DogwoodCercosporidium Leaf SpotMontgomery
Ivy, EnglishPhytophthora Root RotBullock
KudzuAsian Soybean RustBarbour, Bullock, Chambers,
Clay,Cherokee, DeKalb,
Etowah,Marshall, Randolph,
KudzuRust, Unidentified, Not Asian Soybean RustTalladega
LeucothoeBotryosphaeria Leaf Spot *
LeucothoeColletotrichum Leaf Spot *
Leyland CypressCercosporella BlightHouston, Lee
Magnolia, JapaneseBotryosphaeria Leaf Spot *
Magnolia, JapaneseColletotrichum Leaf Spot *
MapleColletotrichum Leaf Spot *
MaplePestalotia Leaf Spot *
PittosporumPhytophthora Root RotMontgomery
PomegranateAnthracnose Fruit Rot (Colletotrichum)Russell
SycamoreBacterial Scorch (Xylella fastidiosa)Tallapoosa
ViburnumColletotrichum Leaf Spot *
ViburnumPestalotia Leaf Spot *
ZoysiaBipolaris BlightTuscaloosa
ZoysiaBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Montgomery, Tuscaloosa
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse, nursery, or golf course samples.

Birmingham Plant Disease Report
(J. Jacobi)
We received 73 plant samples during October. Problems seen last month included Phomopsis dieback on azalea, anthracnose on fern, black twig borer on American beech and southern magnolia, Cercoporidium blight on Leyland cypress, and large patch on zoysiagrass.

Cercosporidium needle blight (Cercosporidium sequoiae) of Leyland cypress was seen in several samples from overhead irrigated landscapes last month. This disease typically starts in the lower canopy and causes needle blight and defoliation that progresses up the tree and out towards the branch tips. In severe cases, only the newest needles on the branch tips remain green. Repeated infections over several years may result in complete defoliation and tree death. Several fungicides, including Chlorothalonil (Daconil and other brand names) or Mancozeb provide good control, when applied on a 14 day interval from July-October. Pruning out severely damaged branches may help improve control of the disease. For more information on the identification and control of this disease see the following extension publication on-line (

Phomopsis dieback or twig blight was also seen last month. This is an important disease of established landscape azaleas. A common symptom is slight chlorosis of all the leaves on a twig or branch, followed by wilting of that branch. Frequently only a branch or two is affected, resembling a flag of dying leaves. A reddish-brown discoloration can be found under the bark extending into the woody tissue on dying branches. The discoloration frequently shows up on one side of the stem and often appears as a v-shaped browning from the bark towards the center of the twig. Phomopsis dieback is often worse following heat or drought stress like we have experienced this fall. The following tips will help manage this disease. 1.) Prune out dead and wilting portions of affected plants back 2-4 inches into green healthy growth. Sterilize pruning tools between cuts with rubbing alcohol or a bleach solution (1 part bleach, 9 parts water). 2.) Reduce future problems by maintaining good growing conditions for the azaleas. This includes irrigating during dry weather and fertilizing according to soil test results. 3.) Application of fungicides containing thiophanate-methyl (Cleary’s 3336, Fertilome Halt Systemic Fungicide and other brand names) may help reduce disease reoccurrence when used in conjunction with pruning and proper plant care.

October 2005 Plant Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab
AzaleaAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Jefferson
AzaleaAzalea LacebugsJefferson (2)
AzaleaPhomopsis DiebackJefferson (2)
AzaleaTwo-Spotted Spider MiteJefferson
AzalaeaTip MidgeJefferson
Beech, AmericanBlack Twig Borer (Xylosandrus)Jefferson (2)
BentgrassPythium Root Dysfunction *
BermudagrassBipolaris Leaf SpotJefferson
Birch, RiverAnthracnose (Cylindrosporium)Tuscaloosa
Boxwood, CommonBlack Twig BorersJefferson (2)
Boxwood, Common Leaf MinersJefferson (2)
Boxwood, Common Macrophoma BlightJefferson
Boxwood, Common Pythium Root RotJefferson
Cherry, YoshinoCrown Gall SuspectedTuscaloosa
Cherry, Yoshino Shot Hole (Cercospora)Tuscaloosa
Crape MyrtleAphids/Sooty MoldJefferson
Crape Myrtle Powdery MildewJefferson
Cypress, LeylandCercosporidium BlightJefferson (3)
Fern, Shaggy ShieldAnthracnose (Colletotrichum) *
Fern, TasselAnthracnose (Colletotrichum) *
Holly, JapaneseBotryosphaeria CankerJefferson (2)
Hydrangea, BigleafCercospora Leaf SpotShelby (2)
Hydrangea, PanicleCercospora Leaf SpotShelby
Ivy, EnglishPhytophthora Root RotJefferson
LantanaLantana LacebugShelby
Magnolia, SouthernBlack Twig Borer (Xylosandrus)Jefferson
Maple, JapaneseBark Lice (Psocidae)Jefferson
Maple, Japanese Marginal Leaf ScorchJefferson, Shelby
Maple, Japanese Phyllosticta Leaf SpotJefferson
RoseBlack SpotShelby
Rose Powdery MildewJefferson
Smoke TreeCercospora Leaf SpotChilton
ZoysiagrassCurvularia BlightCullman
Zoysiagrass Large Patch (Rhizoctonia)Jefferson
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse, nursery, or golf course samples.

Auburn Ornamental Entomology Report - October 2005 (C. Ray)
Lee Leyland Cypress Maskell Scale
Montgomery Viburnum Greenhouse Thrips
Montgomery Pittosporum Cotton Cushion Scale
Jefferson Cupressus Head Capsule of Caterpillar
Lee Azalea Azalea Lace Bug
Mobile Citrus Citrus Blackfly*
Baldwin Yellow Iris Duplachionaspis divergens &
California Red Scale
Tallapoosa Sycamore Sycamore Lace Bug & Leaf Tier
Pike Snowball Bush False Spider Mites
*First Record of Citrus Blackfly in Alabama.

Disease Possibilities For November
Typically in November, we see Helminthosporium (Bipolaris, Drechslera, and Exserohilum) leaf spots on small grains and grasses. Rust may be seen on small grain crops. A variety of pansy diseases may be seen. Turnips and other related plants often develop Cercospora leaf spots. Greenhouse crops may develop Botrytis and a variety of other fungal and bacterial diseases.


January 5-6, 2006:
Mid-States Horticultural Expo.
Kentucky Fairgrounds, Louisville, Kentucky.
Kentucky Expo Center, South Wing C, 937 Phillips Lane, Louisville, KY 40209.
Phone: 770-953-3311; Fax: 770-953-4411; Email:; URL:
NOTE: Kentucky will host this new winter trade show. The event was created with cooperation from the Kentucky Nursery & Landscape Association, the Tennessee Nursery & Landscape Association, and the Southern Nursery Association. The Kentucky Fairgrounds is a 400-acre facility with more than 1 million square feet of indoor space.

January 18-20, 2006:
Mid-AMTrade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL.
Contact: Rand Baldwin, 847.526.2010, Fax 847.526.3993; e- mail

January 23-25, 2006:
CENTS - Central Environmental Nursery Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center, Columbus, Ohio.
Contact: Bill Stalter, ONLA, 800.825.5062; Fax > 800.860.1713; e-mail

January 25-28, 2006:
Georgia's Premier Horticultural Conference, WINTERgreen and WINTERschool.
The Classic Center, Athens, Georgia.
Call 706-632-0100 for a brochure.

February 2-4, 2006:
Gulf States Horticultural Expo.
Mobile Convention Center, Mobile, Alabama.
For more information email:
Voicemail: 334-502-7777
Fax: 334-502-7711

February 2-5, 2006:
International Trade Fair for Plants IPM 2006: The World Fair.
Essen, Germany.
Contact: USA Office, Essen at Trade Show c/o GACC, Karen Vogelsang, 12 East 49th Street, So. Skylobby, New York, NY 10017; 212.974.8457; e-mail
URL: or http://www.ipm-

February 04-08, 2006:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science. Wyndam Orlando Resort, Orlando, Florida.
Contact: Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656; 540.552.4085; Fax: 540.953.0805; e-mail
URL: http://www/

July 29 - August 2, 2006:
International Society for Arboriculture.
Minneapolis Convention Center, MN.
Contact: Jessica Marx, 888.472.8733; e-mail

June 21-24, 2006:
South East Greenhouse Conference.
For more information go to

August 3-5, 2006:
SNA2006 - Southern Nursery Association Research Conference and Trade Show. Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact: SNA; 770.953.3311; Fax, 770.953.4411; e-mail

August 24-26, 2006:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail

October 6-7, 2006:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail or

October 7 - 10, 2006:
2006 ASLA Annual Meeting & EXPO! . Minneapolis, MN.
Contact American Society of Landscape Architects, 636 Eye Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-3736; 202.898.2444 Fax, 202.898.1185
URL: or Kentucky Chapter at

November 2-5, 2006:
Holly Society of America Annual Meeting.
Eastern Shore, Chestertown, Maryland.
Contact: Rondalyn Reeser, HSA Secretary, 309 Buck Street, P.O. Box 803, Millville, NJ 08332-0803; 856.825.4300; e-mail

February 03-07, 2007:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science.
Mobile, Alabama.
Contact: Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656; 540.552.4085; Fax: 540.953.0805; e-mail
URL: http://www/

July 28 - August 1, 2007:
International Society for Arboriculture.
Honolulu, HI.
Contact: Jessica Marx, 888.472.8733; e-mail

August 23-25, 2007:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401, 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503.682.5099; e-mail

October 5-6, 2007:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail or

October 6 - 9, 2007:
2007 ASLA Annual Meeting & EXPO!
San Francisco, CA.
Contact American Society of Landscape Architects, 636 Eye Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-3736; 202.898.2444, Fax 202.898.1185
URL: or Kentucky Chapter at

November 1-4, 2007:
Holly Society of America Annual Meeting.
North Carolina Arboretum, Asheville, North Carolina.
Contact: Rondalyn Reeser, HSA Secretary, 309 Buck Street, P.O. Box 803, Millville, NJ 08332-0803; 856.825.4300; e-mail

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Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.