May 1998

"A man has made at least a start on discovering the meaning of human life when he plants shade trees under which he knows full well he will never sit."
J. Elton Trueblood

Hello everyone!

April has certainly been cool this year. In past springs it seems that the air conditioner had been humming away at home for most of the month and garments with sleeves had been packed away for fall. But this year we are still donning fleecewear and wearing socks!

This is a very busy time for academics at Auburn as there are many changes taking place in the entire scheme of things with the anticipated change from the quarter to semester system. Meetings and reports are clogging the schedules of faculty members. I will leave any comments about horticulture at large to them - when the dust has settled somewhat.

This month we have information on ivy cultivars, new fungicides to control southern blight on aucuba, information on the NCTA national meeting, and other miscellaneous items of interest. Hope you have a wonderful month,


Disclaimer: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


1. From Parking Lot to Resort
2. National Christmas Tree Association Meeting
3. Web Site Review:
4. From Clueless to Web-mistress in Twelve Short/Long Months
5. Performance of Ivy Cultivars Under Tennessee Landscape Conditions
6. Plant Patent Expiration Information
7. Aid to Retailers
8. New Fungicides for the Control of Southern Blight on Aucuba
9. Three Internet Sites of Interest
10. Upcoming Events


Landscapers for the new Ballagio resort in Las Vegas spent a year trying to locate and purchase 30 Japanese privet trees because they are evergreen and can tolerate desert heat. They finally found them in a city parking lot. City officials were happy to see the trees leave as the fruit from the 20 year old trees made a mess in the parking lot and caused the pavement to crack. Interesting how someone's menace can be someone else's treasure.

(from David Morgan's weekly NMPRO industry e-mail, 4/14/98)


The National Christmas Tree Association Meeting will be held this year in Asheville, North Carolina in association with the North Carolina Christmas Tree Association between August 5th and 8th, 1998. The agenda for the meeting is as follows:

Retailers Meeting
Major Growers Meeting

National Tree and Wreath Contest
Golf Tournament
State Executive Secretaries Session
Exhibit Hall Open
Reception: "Goodness Grows in North Carolina"

Keynote Address by Steve Drake, Chief Executive Officer, National Christmas Tree Association:
"Baseball, Popcorn and Trees: A Game Plan for the Industry"
Mr. Drake will outline key findings from an analysis of NCTA programs, discuss new marketing and promotion opportunities and unveil the 1998 Real Tree Campaign as developed at the 1998 Christmas Tree Industry's Strategic Marketing Forum.

"History of the North Carolina Christmas Tree Industry" by Mr. Tommy Beutell, Wolf Creek Farms, Tuckasegee, North Carolina.
Mr. Beutell's leadership has had a significant impact on the State's Christmas tree industry. He was one of the first in North Carolina to market trees outside of the State, and has been an active member of the North Carolina Christmas Tree Association since its early days.

"History and Ecology of Fraser Fir" by Dr. J. Dan Pattillo, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina.
Dr. Pattillo is a recognized expert on the flora and vegetational history of the southern Appalachian Mountains. He also has a special interest in endangered and threatened plants.

"Do Fertilizers Really Work?" by Mr. Thom McEvoy, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont.
Mr. McEvoy serves as Extension forester for the University of Vermont. In 1992 he authored "Using Fertilizers in the Culture of Christmas Trees," which has sold more than 2,000 copies since its publication.

"Controlling Insect Pests of Firs" by Ms. Rayanne Lehman, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
As Entomologist with the Department of Agriculture, Ms. Lehman works closely with Pennsylvania growers to identify, prevent, and control pests of Christmas trees. For the past four years, she has been responsible for a pest scouring hot-line which is available on a state-wide basis.

"Impact of Christmas Trees on Water Quality" by Dr. Greg Jennings, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Dr. Jennings serves as Watershed Management Specialist for the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. He recently coordinated a three-year project relative to water quality in one of the state's largest Christmas tree- producing areas.

"Marketing in the Year 2000 and Beyond" by Steve VanderWeide, Dutchman Tree Farm, Manton, Michigan.
Mr. VanderWeide is a major grower who ships trees into every state east of the Rocky Mountains. He currently serves as a NCTA National Director.

"Working with Chain Stores: Do We Have What It Takes?" by Mr. Bob Schaefer, Noble Mountain Tree Farm, Salem, Oregon.
Mr. Schaefer has managed Noble Mountain Tree Farm for 22 years. Noble Mountain is one of the larger producers of Christmas trees in Oregon, with 90 percent of its sales to chain stores.

"Producing Value-Added Items" by Tom and Vicki Sawyer, Sawyer's Tree Farm and Miss Vicki's Holiday Fixins, Glenville, North Carolina.
The Sawyers provide a wide range of products for holiday consumers. Not only do they grow Fraser fir but also sell trees wholesale, retail and by mail order. Wreaths and garlands are produced for local sales as well as mail order.

"Using Exotics for Christmas Trees" by Dr. Mark Vodak, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
A native of North Carolina, Dr. Vodak is the State Extension Leader for Forest Management with Rutgers University. Dr. Vodak continues to be a leader in Christmas tree educational programs for the state of New Jersey.

Dinner and Social: "A Country Christmas"

"National Christmas Tree Association Report" by Dr. Dave Stenger, President, Oregon, Illinois.
A review and summary of the activities of the National Christmas Tree Association.

"Where is the Industry Going?" by Dr. Craig McKinley, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Dr. McKinley is Forestry Extension Leader and Christmas Tree Specialist for the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Sevice. He currently serves as an Associate Editor for the American Christmas Tree Journal.

"Role of Biotechnology in Christmas Trees" by Dr. Ron Newton, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina.
As a plant physiologist, Dr. Newton has been active in the use of biotechnology for the improvement of forest tree species. He developed the first marketable Christmas trees clonally-produced from seed tissue.

"Assuring We Will Have Customers for Real Trees" by Dr. Mel Koelling, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.
In his role as Forest Management Program leader for the Michigan Cooperative Extension Service, Dr. Koelling has worked with the Michigan Christmas tree industry for 23 years. He is currently conducting a research program directed at evaluating diverse fir species.

"Role of Mycorrhizae in Christmas Tree Production" by Dr. C.E. Cordell, Asheville, North Carolina.
After a distinguished career with the U.S. Forest Service, Dr. Cordell now serves as vice-president for Plant Health Care, Inc. This company provides mycorrhizae to a variety of customers including growers of Christmas trees.

"Integrated Pest Management for Fraser Fir" by Dr. Jill Sidebottom, North Carolina State University, Fletcher, North Carolina.
With the cooperation of North Carolina's Christmas tree growers, Dr. Sidebottom has developed one of the nation's outstanding Integrated Pest Management programs. This program involves the Fraser fir growing regions throughout western North Carolina.

"Growing and Marketing True Firs" by Dr.Gary Chastagner, Washington State University, Puyallup, Washington.
Dr. Chastagner has worked with Christmas tree growers throughout the world. As a research scientist, his efforts have been devoted to Christmas tree diseases and factors affecting post-harvest physiology.

"Developing a World Wide Web Site"
A panel discussion of the ways to develop a WWW presence so that it will be attractive, informative, and successful.

"Demographics of the Choose and Cut Customer" by Mr. Richard Kreh, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Critz, Virginia.
Mr. Kreh is Superintendent of the Reynolds Homestead Forest Resources Experiment Station. He also serves as University liaison to the Virginia Christmas Tree Growers Association.

"Creative Approaches to Choose and Cut Marketing" by Mr. Jack Scott, Merry Christmas Tree Farm, Tomgall, Texas.
As successful choose and cut growers, Mr. Scott and his wife Janie have developed a number of unique ways to market their trees. Among the more successful activities are the children's tours which involve about 5,000 children each year.

"Techniques of Producing Value-Added Products" by Lenna Brooks, Meadow Brook Tree Farm, Lansing, North Carolina; Martha Gimlin, Omni Farm, West Jefferson, NC; Mary Townsend, Townsend Tree Farm and Crafts, Fleetwood, NC.
Demonstrations producing wreaths and garlands and techniques that will enhance the value to the greenery produced on Christmas tree farms.


Farm tour and children's activities

Post Convention Area Tour - Biltmore Estate

Biltmore Estate Sunday Tour (3 hours) - Tour The Biltmore Estate, a working estate that produces more than 75,000 cases of wine each year. The house was built in 6 years with over 11 million bricks by 1,000 men for George Vanderbilt

A Country Christmas - barbecue and social with a country western band, demonstration dancing by the Blue Ridge Sidesteppers and open dancing.

Wednesday Golf Tournament:
At the Reems Creek Golf Club - a par 72, 6,400 yard course with magnificent vistas.

Guest Tour #1 - Thursday - Dillsboro/Great Smoky Mountains Railway:
Visit historic small town America. Ride to Bryson City and lunch at the Jarrett House in Dillsboro. Visit the Historic Railway Museum.

Guest Tour #2 - Thursday - Chimney Rock
Located in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountain, 500 million year old Chimney Rock offers an exhilarating experience. On a clear day you can see as far as 75 miles away. Ride the elevator 26 stories inside the mountain to the Sky Lounge Gift Shop and then walk the last 40 steps to the top of the Chimney.

Guest Tour #3 - Friday - Arboretum/Folk Art Center
Tour the 428 acre North Carolina Arboretum; lunch on Black Mountain and spend some of the afternoon at the Southern Highland Craft Guild's Folk Art Center where some of the finest traditional mountain artisans sell and demonstrate their crafts.

Guest Tour #4 - Friday - Mt. Mitchell/Folk Art Center
Drive on the renowned Blue Ridge Parkway after a visit to the Folk Art Center (see above). Lunch will be served at Mt. Mitchell State Park and then hike to the observation tower on Mt. Mitchell, the highest point east of the Mississippi.

In addition to the above tours there are Pre-Convention Christmas Tree Farm Tours on Monday, August 3 and Tuesday, August 4 that will visit Ashe, Alleghany and Watauga counties in North Carolina and White Top, Virginia.

Children's programs are also available and are listed in the Registration Form that follows:


Co-hosted by the North Carolina Christmas Tree Association -
August 5-8, 1998
Asheville, NC Name________________________________________________________________
Daytime phone_________________________________________________________
Company Name______________________________ Fax______________________
Street Address______________________________________________________

Check One:
____NCTA or North Carolina CTA (Western or Eastern) member (1998 dues paid)
____Non-member of NCTA or North Carolina CTA
____Tree Industry Partnership (TIP) State (Non-ACTA member).
The qualified TIP States are CA, FL, GA, IL, IN, Inland Empire, IA, KS, LA/MS, ME, MD, MI, MN, MO, MT, NE, NH/VT, Western NC, Northwest (OR/WA), OH, Rocky Mountain, SC and TX.

Print names of additional members of family or company as you would like them to appear on name badges. Badges are necessary to attend sessions or enter exhibit hall.
_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
Family Members (over 12 and not participating in Children's programs)

Company Members note: These registrants must be bonafide employees of your firm
Please list number attending Tuesday Evening Retailers meeting ________
Please list number attending Tuesday Evening Major Growers meeting_______
We/I plan to: drive to Asheville______
Fly to Asheville______
Rental car______

REGISTRATION FEES: (First number listed is the Early Bird Rates which must be paid by June 15/second number is the rate when paid after June 15)

NCTA or NCCTA Member $139/$159 number___ total____
TIP State (Non-NCTA Member) $179/$199 number___ total___
Non-Member $265/$284 number ____ total____
(NCTA 1998 Dues=$125)
Children's Program Registration $10/$10

Fee for each family member (over 12 yrs.) $45/$65

Fee for each member of your company: $85/$105

SPECIAL EVENTS REGISRATION: All tours and programs available on first come, first served basis. Children's prices are same as adult unless otherwise specified (no early bird prices):

Golf Tournament, Wednesday $65 Handicap____Average score___

Guest Tours: Thursday: Dillsboro/Smoky Mt. Railway $55 number _____ totals_____

Thursday: Chimney Rock $38 number_____ total_____

Friday: Arboretum/Folk Art Center $28 number____ total____

Mt. Mitchell/Folk Art Center $32 number____ total____

Theme Night: Thursday - A Country Christmas
Adults $32 number_____ total_____ Children (12 and under) $16 number_____ total_____

Banquet and Awards Presentation: Friday $39 number____ total____

Farm Tours: Saturday $49
Mark 1st, 2nd and 3rd choice:
_____Avery County _____Jackson County _____Mitchell County

Catered lunch at Civic Center Exhibit Hall:
Thursday $8 number _____ total _____

Thursday: Train/Rafting Trip $69 number_____ total_____
Friday, Gem Mining $27.50 number_____ total_____
Friday night: Pizza Banquet $10 number _____ total_____
Activities at the Sunspree Hotel will be charged from the hotel

Package one - $85 number_____ total_____

Accomodations are available at the Holiday Inn Sunspree Resort (800-733-3211/704-254-3211)
Best Western Asheville Central (800-528-1234/704-253-1851)
Radisson Hotel (800-333-3333/704-252-8211)
Blocks of rooms will be held at the above hotels until early and mid July.

Completed forms with checks payable to NCCTA are to be sent to
PO Box 1937
Boone, NC 28607

(If using credit card please call 800-449-1228)


The HORTWORLD site is brimming with useful information - the most striking characteristic being the national and international range. It is easy to navigate because of the clearly defined information on the left of the screen. Some of the scientific information is limited to plants grown in British Columbia, which may be of interest but not particularly practical for those in southern U.S. Zones. The calendar of events is very thorough with events from all regions of the United States.

For research purposes there is a large list of addresses divided into categories ranging from arborists to native plant societies to equipment, environment, chemicals, fertilizers and many others. There is am impressive list of plants with information about their diseases and disorders, symptoms and control. You can link to high resolution photos of plants and plant dictionaries.

There is a bookstore where you can order a variety of CD's on wide ranging topics from southern trees to systems within which you can generate photos of a client's property with all anticipated landscape features.

Quite a few wholesale dealers advertise on this page so it can function as a useful tool for finding sources for specific plants and trees. It is certainly worth your time to visit to see what is happening in the industry or to do a very specific search for information.

(Review by Bernice Fischman)


Ken has asked me to write a short piece about the process of designing and maintaining a web page. Below are a dozen do's and don'ts that should help you in the process:

1. Do look at lots of web sites to get an idea of what you want to incorporate as well what you want to avoid.

2. Do understand that learning HTML (hypertext mark-up language) while daunting at the beginning is eventually sort of fun, like learning a new simple language.

3. Do know that the computer will activate HTML code exactly as you write it but it is very particular and not at all forgiving.

4. Do make sure you know when something is 'case sensitive' because if it is and you aren't - you will soon be transported into the common computer-rage moment.

5. Do end everything that you begin - a simple concept but not necessarily easy in practice.

6. Do learn about tables as they are the backbone of most things other than totally straightforward text.

7. Don't expect your constructed page to look on other people's monitors exactly the way it looks on yours.

8. Do enjoy the ease with which photos and art work can be incorporated into a web page.

9. Do understand that you can see how other people constructed their pages simply by clicking on VIEW SOURCE when you are in a browser.

10. Do know that the web is largely unregulated and unexamined so do not expect every statement to be true.

11. Do pay very close attention to FTP (file transfer protocol) - know from where and to where you are transmitting pieces of your page.

12. Do spend some money on Adobe Photoshop (or a similar graphics program) and a scanner or two. You can use professional photographic service agencies to scan things for you but that can get rather expensive.

The web is not something that will go away any time soon. It is also not something that is done only by and for computer nerds. It is an amazing vehicle for sharing information from all corners of the earth. With some wisdom and discipline it will continue to be vibrant and useful. Just remember, people weren't so sure that typewriters were the wave of the future, either...

(Bernice Fischman)


Ivies are a common, important and potentially lovely part of many landscape designs. Because there are hundreds of ivy cultivars it would obviously be beneficial to have some information regarding landscape hardiness and performance. A study was begun in Tennessee in 1992 to ascertain which of 110 selected cultivars would thrive under those conditions. 184 cultivars were obtained from the Longwood Garden collection in Tennessee. They grew under greenhouse conditions until 1994 when 110 of the original 184 were planted outside under trellises so half of the vine set could grow in sunny conditions and half would grow in the shade.

Results indicated that the cultivars generally did better on the shady side which was anticipated. The 30 most successful cultivars covered 95% to 100% of their shady plot. 13 cultivars covered 95% or better of the allotted sunny spots and could certainly be considered as viable sun tolerant ground covers.

For you information we have listed the 30 most successful cultivars by species, cultivar name and AIS registration number:

H. helix 'Laubfrosch' 81-225
H. helix 'Manda Crested' 88-221
H. helix 'Maple Leaf' 84-11
H. helix 'Olive Rose' 81-141
H. helix 'Serenade' 81-205
H. helix 'Carolina Crinkle' 88-267
H. helix 'Ustler' 79-68
H. helix 'Spear Point' 88-060
H. helix 'Paper Doll' 88-229
H. helix 'Appaloosa' 99-193
H. helix 'Ralf' 88-234
H. helix 'Telecurl' 66-244
H. helix 'Hibernica' 88-55
H. helix 'Big Deal' 88-194
H. helix 'Plume D'Or' 79-84
H. helix 'Green Ripple' 88-213
H. helix 'Galaxy' 81-120
H. helix 'Harrison' 86-71
H. helix 'Jack Frost' 79-292
H. helix 'Cyrano De Bergerac' 88-151
H. helix 'Manda Fringette' 88-277
H. helix 'Star' 88-243
H. helix 'Asterisk' 80-80
H. helix 'Teardrop' 88-153
H. helix 'Albany' 80-40B
H. helix 'Needlepoint' 88-226
H. helix 'Stuttgart' 88-234
H. helix 'Ivalace' 88-215
H. helix 'Kolbold' 82-49
H. helix 'Dragon Claw' 88-198

To obtain specific cultivars the American Ivy Society (AIS) maintains a list of wholesale and retail commercial members. You can receive that list by writing to AIS, PO Box 2123, Naples, Florida 33939-2123.

The unhardy cultivars, those that covered less than 20% of their assigned plots are as follows:

H. canariensis 'Gloire de Marengo'
H. canariensis 'Margenia Maculata', 'Calico', 'Helena', 
'Henrietta', 'Kolibri', 'Mini Ester', 'Nice Guy', 'Perle', 
'Silver King', 'Yumin'
H. nepalensis 'Suzanne', 'Zebra' 
H. rhombea 'Variegata'.

The above listed successful ivies come in many different sized and shaped leaves from frilled, plated or curled to broad or fan shaped. Some are variegated, some with flecks and blotches.

(from research performed by Willard T. Witte, adapted from SNA Research Conference, Vol. 41-1996 - published in Tennessee Nurserymen's Association, Inc. Newsletter, March 1998)


A tongue twister and information that you may need to know. New information: plant patents used to be for 17 years from the date the PTO (US Patent and Trademark Office) issued the patent. That has been changed to 20 years as a result of international trade agreements. Plant patents filed on or after June 8, 1995 will be for 20 years. For patents already in force on June 8, 1995, or resulted from an application filed prior to that date, the patent term will be 20 years from the date of first filing, or 17 years from the date of issue, whichever is longer. ANLA has published a new 20-year Plant Patent Directory available to ANLA and National Association of Plant Patent Owner members for $75.00 plus $5.75 for shipping and handling. Non member price is $150.00. Contact ANLA Publications at 202-789-1893 by fax or by phone at 202-789-2900.

(from the Tennessee Nurserymen's Association, Inc. Newsletter, March 1998)


Southern Living Magazine will now make a new phone service available for retailers. A recorded message will detail upcoming features about plants, pottery, furniture and other hard goods featured in that month's issue so that retailers will be able to have plants on hand when frenzied magazine readers what to replicate what they've seen in the new issue of the magazine. Phone 205-414-8500 for recorded message.

(from the Tennessee Nurserymen's Association, Inc. Newsletter, March 1998)


During the last two years in Alabama southern blight has seriously damaged container and field grown butterfly bush, forsythia, hosta and Prague viburnum. Southern blight does its damage during times of hot, wet weather. It not only damages nursery stock but has also been seen on auculum and ajuga. The disease, caused by the fungus Scherotium rolfsii manifests itself by the sudden wilting of leaves and succulent roots and ultimately plant death. Clusters of tiny round, brown scletoria can be seen on the ground around the dying plant.

Terraclor (also Terrazole and Defend), until recently, has been the industry's standard solution for this problem. However, the effectiveness of these fungicides for the control of southern blight on trees and shrubs has never been tested. A three year study was conducted to compare new fungicides: Lynx 3.6F, Fluazinam 500F, ProStar 50W, Terraguard 50W and Curalan DF with Terraclor 75W for the control of southern blight on aucuba. One goal of the study was to determine the optimum application rate of these fungicides.

During the general screening trial conducted from 1992 through 1994, Fluazinam 500F and ProStar 50W, when applied as a drench prior to the onset of symptoms, provided better disease control than Terraclor 75W. Over the three year test period Fluazinam 500 F and ProStar 50W gave complete control of southern blight. Terraguard 50W and Curalan DF demonstrated little to no activity at the rates tested against southern blight.

Terraclor 75W, which was applied at twice the full label rate proved surprisingly ineffective against southern blight on aucuba. To summarize, ProStar 50W and Fluazinam 500F, at all rates tested, gave significantly better southern blight control than Terraclor 75W. Lynx 3.6F was as effective as ProStar 50W and Fluazinam 500F in controlling this disease only at the highest drench rate. At the rates tested, Terraguard 50W and Curalan DF failed to prevent the development of southern blight on aucuba.

(from A.K. Hagan and J.W. Olive, Department of Plant Pathology and Ornamental Horticulture Substation, Auburn University).


"Factsheet Database Search"
Search the Internet for information related to horticulture and crop science from 50 different colleges and universities. Over 13,000 pages of information to answer questions and educate.

"Ohio State and Virginia Tech Plant Dictionary"
A dictionary of 1,645 high quality images and horticultural descriptions for 385 unique species and numerous cultivars.

"The 1996 Georgia Pest Control Handbook"
This guide provides pest control recommendations, directions and comments for many horticultural crops, including a section on woody ornamentals. Only text.

(from the Tennessee Nurserymen's Association, Inc., March 1998).


June 17-21, 1998:
American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta 1998 Conference
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Contact AABGA at 610-925-2500, ext. 11 or

July 12-15, 1998:
95th American Society for Horticultural Science
Charlotte Convention Center, Charlotte, North Carolina.
Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; Fax: 703-836-2024; e-mail:

July 16-19, 1998:

International Herb Association Annual Conference "Herb Smart Day" open to the public, July 19, 1998. Contact International Herb Association at 847-949-4372; fax 847-949- 5896,

July 25-27, 1998:
International Lawn, Garden, and Power Equipment - Expo 98
Kentucky Exposition Center, Louisville, KY. Contact Sellers Expositions (Donna Lewis) at 800-558-8767, 502-562-1962; fax 502-562-1970, e-mail;

August 2-5, 1998:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference
Birmingham, England. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411 or

August 5-8, 1998:
National Christmas Tree Association Annual Meeting
Asheville, North Carolina
P.O. Box 1937, Boone, North Carolina 28607

August 5-9, 1998:
American Nursery and Landscape Association Annual Conference and Trade Show Georgia World Congress Center
Atlanta, GA.
Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; or ANLA at 202-789-2900;

September 11-12, 1998:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville TN. Contact TNA, 931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail

October 7-10, 1998:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting
Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; 860-429-6818; e-mail:

October 9-10, 1998:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Trade Show
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN. Contact MTNA, Ann Halcomb, Exec. Secr. 615-668-7322; Fax: 615-668-9601; e- mail: or

October 18-21, 1998:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators Society
Tulsa, OK. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101.

January 13-15, 1999:
Mid-AM Trade Show
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Donn W. Sanford at 847-526- 2010; fax 847-526-3993; e-mail

January 30-February 3, 1999:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention
Memphis, TN. Contact Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656; phone 540-552-4085; fax 540-953- 0805; e-mail

February 4-7, 1999:
The Management Clinic
Galt House, Louisville, KY. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;

July 22-27, 1999:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention
Philadelphia, PA. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;

July 28-31, 1999:
96th American Society for Horticultural Science
Minneapolis Convention Center, Minneapolis, MN. Contact ASHA: 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024; e-mail:

July 30-August 1, 1999:
SNA 99 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;

August 1-4, 1999:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference
Stamford, CT. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411;

September 10-11, 1999:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at 931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail

September 23-25, 1999:
6th Biennial Southern Plant Conference
Richmond, VA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;

October 3-6, 1999:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society
Mobile, AL. Contact David Morgan: 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail

January 19-21, 2000:
Mid-AM Trade Show
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Donn W. Sanford at 847-526- 2010, fax 847-526-3993; e-mail

January 29-February 2, 2000:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention
Lexington, KY. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail

February 3-6, 2000:
The Management Clinic
Galt House, Louisville, KT. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;

July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;

July 16-19:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;

August 11-18, 2000:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference
Baltimore, MD. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411;

September 15-16, 2000:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at 931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817- 882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e- mail

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;

Send questions and comments to

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.