Tilt's Tidbits and Ramblings March and April
This is the time of the year that nursery and greenhouse producers say kindly “unless my house is burning down or my children are hurt, please see me in May after things ease up.” This is a typical spring. The few nurseries I have visited are working as hard as they can to get the trucks loaded and out the door so they can pot up the new liners and get the jump on the growing season.
I would tell you the depth of the effect of proration on the Horticulture Department for the next two years but things are still tied up in court. Even the best case senario will still change the way we do business. Whatever happens, we are committed to our Auburn University and Horticulture Department mission of providing excellence in our undergraduate education program and maintaining our strong graduate program. Extension travel has been cut entirely but we are also committed to find a way to provide services to you. We will need your continued support. Other ramblings include, cost of starting a nursery, media requirements for various pot sizes and what is blooming in the teaching garden. What about the question of the day, SAND?
How much does it cost to start a nursery? When the industry is doing well, I have people each week looking at the nursery business as an opportunity. Of course I think it is a great business but, like you, I want everyone to go into the business with their eyes wide open. I always suggest that they work at a nursery before sinking their life savings into their dream. I also ask them to talk to plenty of people before investing. They are usually very receptive to talking to people but working for a few years is a road that is too slow to satisfy their enthusiasm.
One individual I worked with last year had great enthusiasm to start a large pot-in-pot nursery. He had most of the money, a good work ethic and enthusiasm but no experience. I walked around with him at our trade show and introduced him to many of you. As usual, everyone was very encouraging but also stressed the hard work and problems with marketing. We decided to start him off slow with an acre of containers to grow liners for his pot-in-pot nursery should he continue to seek this alternative. We designed the nursery, ordered the liners and other supplies and he was “in the business”.
He would tell you that everyone told him the truth. There is a lot to know and it is hard to anticipate all the problems or questions if you have not worked in a nursery. He has worked hard though and done a good job. I asked him to please keep a record of his first year expenses so that we could share that with other nursery want-a-be’ers. We have some more complete budgets that were done by agriculture economists but people like to look over the shoulder of people who have recently “been there”. Below is a list of his purchases and most of his expenses. I hope this will help you and others who are asked how much money do I need to get started. This is a very modest 1 acre container nursery and the out of pocket expenses were in excess of $26,000. Like many people who switch from row crops, he was fortunate to have the land and most of the equipment. I am sure he will do well but he has decided to slow down on the rate at which he achieves his ambitions. This is a good lesson learned and at a price that was manageable. I will now send new people to him for that first year advice to new nursery producers. A trade mark of this industry is their willingness to share.
FIRST YEAR BUDGET
Irrigation : micro sprinklers 2,607.12 Irrigation : pipe 505.40 Irrigation : poly tubing 1,000.00 Irrigation : jet pump 455.44 Irrigation : controller (clock) 415.80 Irrigation : solenoid valves 308.70 Irrigation : wire 80.00 Irrigation : well service (labor) 1,366.95 Irrigation : trencher 115.00 Pots 3 gallon : Rootmaker pots (1,512) 2,567.08 Pots 3 gallon : Root Right pots (1,990) 11,013.49 Media : 143 cubic yds of pine bark 2,594.50 Media : peat moss 7 bales 875.00 Media : sand 200.00 Plants: qt. liners : Natchez (1308) 1,310.40 Plants: qt. liners : Tuscarora (252) 327.60 Plants: qt. liners : Tuskegee (220) 286.00 Plants: qt. liners : "Royal Velvet" (500) 750.00 Plants: qt. liners : "Dynamite" (100) 150.00 Plants: 1 gallon material : Leyland Cypress (400) 900.00 Plants: 3 gallon material : Ligustrum(1500) 750.00 Plants: 1 gallon material : Red Maple (400) 600.00 Plants: qt. liners : Live Oak (150) 105.00 Plants: 1 gallon material : Live Oak (50) 75.00 Plants: 3 gallon material : Live Oak (200) 900.00 Plants: qt. liners : Overcup Oak (50) 47.50 Plants: 1 gallon material : Nuttall Oak (25) 37.50 Plants: 1 gallon material : Swamp Chestnut Oak (25) 37.50 Plants: 1 gallon material : River Birch (25) 37.50 Plants: 1 gallon material : American Holly (100) 150.00 Ground Cover : 15x300 ft. 1,083.00 Ground Cover : companion pins 179.48 Ground Cover : 6 ml poly 666.49 Tying Material : Ty-emup Taper 48.50 Tying Material : ty staples 5.50 Tying Material : blades 5.00 Tying Material : tape 36.00 Bamboo stakes 176.00 Water Shelter for controller 310.00 Plant Trailer Material 97.10 Insurance 116.00 Fuel 500.00 Labor 2,000.00
What’s blooming? We have kicked off a great spring flower season. I am very excited about some of the plants in our evaluation garden. Some are still numbered selections from the National Arboretum but I hope they will name them soon. The first plant is a Prunus hybrid selection (NA 63463) that, although not a plant with great bark or arching weeping habit, does put on a great and consistent flowering show. It also has a dense low branched canopy that could make it fit nicely as a screen plant.
Another National Arboretum test plant is the heat tolerant lilac. They offer great potential to satisfy those northern folks' hunger for the plants they had back home and for those of us that have not been able to enjoy the fragrance of lilacs except in fancy soap. The cold temperatures this year may have contributed to the outstanding fragrant display of beautiful blue flowers.
The shrub to the left is NA63868 and the shrub to the right is NA 63869.
The three photos below are of Syringa oblata var. Donaldii selection (NA 63870):
The third plant I have highlighted is Cercis yunnanensis selection (NA 63336). I got the seedlings from the National Arboretum who got their start from JC Raulston’s plant hunt to China. Similar to Cercis chinensis ‘Alba’, it has white flowers which cover the branches, stem and truck of the tree. It really looks great now. Of course where there are flowers seed will follow. The seed are not very attractive especially in such large numbers but I am enjoying the show for now.
Not new but eye-catching is the Lorapetalum 'Blush'. Although a relatively new introduction, it has contested forsythia for the honor of the symbolic traditional announcement of the arrival of spring.
How much media do I need to mix for 800, 3-gallon containers? The Pot Chart is one I stole from Nursery Supplies with their permission. I am always digging through my files to get their list of container sizes and measurements and find out how many pots I can fill per cubic yard of substrate (potting medium). I put it in the newsletter for your benefit and mine. It will be also included under the Nursery production area for future reference. Thank you to Nursery Supplies.
This is a key for the following container tables:
- CC: Cubic Centimeters
- L: Liter
- CI: Cubic Inches
- D: Diameter
- H: Height
- GAL: Gallon (Actual volume)
- PPS: Pieces per stack
- CCY: Number of containers necessary
to hold a cubic yard of media
Classic Olympian Custom Trade Size D(OD)* H CCY CC CI GAL L PPS 100 100XL - - 4.75 4.75 850 900 54.9 0.24 0.90 150 150 150XL Square - - 4 Sq. 5 885 865 52.7 0.23 0.87 100 200 200XL 200C - 6 6 400 1,916 116.9 0.51 1.9 125 250 250XL Square - - 5 1/4 Sq. 6.25 385 1,986 121.2 0.52 2.0 100 275 275XL 275C - 6.75 5.5 342 2,250 153.0 0.59 2.25 125 300S 300SXL 300SC #1 6.75 6.5 300 2,555 155.9 0.68 2.60 100 300 300XL 300C #1 6.75 7.25 270 2,838 173.2 0.75 2.8 125 350 350XL 350C Sm. Mum Pan 8 5 260 2,951 180.1 0.78 3.0 125 400 400XL 400C #1 7.75 7 210 3,691 225.2 0.98 3.7 75 500 500XL - - 8 8.5 165 4,655 284.0 1.2 4.7 100 550 550XL - Lg. Mum Pan 9 6 166 4,589 280.6 1.2 4.6 100 600 600XL 600C #2 9 8.5 125 6,064 370.6 1.6 6.1 100 816 (SS) - - - 8.25 16 84 9,070 553.5 2.4 9.1 25 900 900XL 900C #2 9.5 9.25 102 7,496 457.2 2.0 7.5 75 1000S 1000SXL 1000SC - 10 7.75 104 7,371 450.0 1.9 7.4 75 1000 1000XL 1000C 10" Folage 10 9 90 8,629 526.0 2.3 8.6 75 1200S 1200SXL 1200SC - 11 7.5 89 8,557 522.0 2.3 8.6 50 1200 1200XL 1200C #3 11 9.5 70 10,784 658.0 2.9 10.8 50 1400 - - #5 Egg Can 10.5 12 60 13,058 796.0 3.5 13.1 25 1600S 1600SXL 1600SC - 12 7.75 68 11,226 685.0 3.0 11.2 50 1600 1600XL 1600C #4 Handles 12 10.25 54 14,175 864.0 3.7 14.2 50 2000 2000XL 2000C #5 Handles 12 11.25 52 14,628 893.0 3.9 14.6 50 2100 2100XL 2100C #5 Sqt. Handles 13.75 10 43 17,700 1,080.0 4.7 17.7 50 2800 2800XL 2800C #7 Handles 14 11.5 35 21,913 1337.0 5.8 21.9 40 4000 (SS) 4000BXL (SS) - #10 Handles 15.75 15 21 36,550 2230.0 9.7 36.6 15
TRADE SIZE D(ID) H CCY CC CI GAL L PPS #1 7 7 204 3,747 228 1.0 3.7 75 #2 8 8.5 127 6,010 367 1.6 6.0 100 #3 10 9.5 72 10,604 647 2.8 10.6 50 #5 Egg Can 10 12 60 12,860 785 3.4 12.9 40 #5 Squatt 13.75 10 36 21,092 1,287 5.6 21.1 40 #7 13.75 12 31 24,607 1,502 6.5 24.6 40 #10 14.5 14.25 22 34,090 2,080 9.0 34.1 20 #15 Tall 14.5 17 19 40,877 2,494 10.8 40.9 25 #10Squat 17.25 12.25 19 40,852 2,492 10.8 40.9 20 #15 17.25 15.25 14 49,967 3,049 13.2 50.0 20 - 17.25 17.25 16 54,880 3,350 14.5 54.9 20 #20 19.25 17 10 74,193 4,520 19.6 74.2 15 #20 Squat 22.75 13.25 10 77,672 4,738 20.5 77.7 15 #25 22.75 18.25 7 104,475 6,373 27.6 104.5 10 INJECTION MOLDED POLY-TAINER LINE
. TRADE SIZE D(ID) H CCY CC CI GAL L PPS ARP #1 Square 6 Square 7 280 2,732 167 0.72 2.73 50 1 #1 6 7 270 2,839 173 0.75 2.84 50 2 #2 8.5 8.5 125 6,189 377 1.6 6.19 50 3 #3 10 9.25 73 10,440 637 2.8 10.44 35 3S #3 Squat 9.5 8 100 7,637 466 2.0 7.64 35 4 #5 Egg Can 10 12 55 13,735 838 3.6 13.74 25 5S #5 Squat 11 10 55 13,909 848 3.7 13.91 25 6 #6 12 9 49 15,652 955 4.1 15.65 25 7T #7 Tall 12 14.5 33 23,274 1,420 6.2 23.27 10 7S #7 Squat 14 11.5 34 22,765 1,389 6.0 22.77 25 10 #10 15 15 20 37,861 2,310 10.0 37.86 15 15TT #15 Tall 14.5 17.5 18 41,504 2,532 11.0 41.5 25 15S #15 Squat 17.25 15 16 46,777 2,854 12.4 46.78 10
. TRADE SIZE D(ID) H CCY CC CI GAL L PPS #6 Dec-Grow 6 Inch Decorative 6 5.25 375 2,041 124.6 0.54 2.0 255 (3x85) #8 Dec-Grow 8 Inch Decorative 8 7.25 182 4,195 256.0 1.1 4.2 180 (3x60) #10 Dec- Grow 10 Inch Decorative 10 8.75 91 8,392 512.0 2.2 8.4 50 #11 Dec- Grow 11 Inch Decorative 10.5 10 66 11,567 705.0 3.1 11.6 50 #12 Dec- Grow 12 Inch Decorative 12 10.75 51 14,984 924.0 4.0 15.0 40
ABOVE GROUND SYSTEM
. TOP DIA. BOTTOM DIA. HEIGHT PPS AGS 6900 17.25 22.75 17.25 10
SAND…….? I have had the opportunity to review a couple of garden books over the past month. Both have had the recommendation to amend their beds with sand to break up the hard clay. I remembered from my early soil physics classes that adding sand had little value for clay soils and could do more harm than good. By filling in any open air space voids that were present you are creating a soil that is more like concrete. I double-checked this thought with my great soil Extension specialist and he confirmed my weak memory. You would have to add so much sand to make a difference that it is not physically or economically feasible. Golf course superintendents do use a great deal of sand on golf greens and people get the idea that this is the thing to do. However, to make a difference, you have to add at least 75% sand and most greens run 80% to 90% sand. It is hard to beat organic matter and some good worm activity to make some good planting beds. SAND NO!!
Mr. Tom Dodd Jr. donated some Gresham Hybrid magnolias for our teaching gardens several years ago. They have been special this year. Below are some pictures of them at the end of February and early March. Thank goodness for no hard freezes and thanks again to Mr. Dodd for his endless generosity and contributions to our industry and Auburn University.
Take some time to enjoy the flowers. They come and go so fast. Unfortunately they come at the same time everyone wants them off your nursery.
The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:
FIREBLIGHT CONCERNS THIS SPRING
AVOID DISEASE SUSCEPTIBLE ZINNIAS
THE GREAT SOUTHERN TREE CONFERENCE
CONTAINER CONVERSION CHART
EXTENSION PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT
DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.
FIREBLIGHT CONCERNS THIS SPRING
(Louisiana Extension Horticulturist John Pyzner)
Fire blight was extremely destructive on apples, pears and mayhaws last spring. Even many Bradford pears, which are generally resistant to fire blight, were damaged. Fire blight is caused by a bacterium that can be spread by insects and hard, driving rains. Plants are most susceptible during bloom and while fast, tender growth is occurring in the spring.
This bacterial disease is characterized by a blackening of leaves at the tip of new shoots. The infected tip usually bends into a shepherd's crook. The bacteria can move down the stem to larger limbs and infect them. The disease also is common in blooms and can be spread by insects. The infected flowers will turn black. The bacteria will often move down the flower petiole and infect twigs. Fire blight runs in cycles. That is, the disease may appear for several years in various degrees of severity, then show little or no damage for a few years.
Bacteria causing fire blight frequently overwinter in cankers at the base of a killed twig. Removal of these twigs by pruning can reduce the severity of fire blight the following year. Removal of infected twigs in late winter is best, although damaged twigs and cankers are sometimes difficult to see. Pruning of infected shoots is discouraged during the spring and early summer; this is likely to spread bacteria into otherwise healthy parts of the tree. Small pruning cuts can be made in late July and August after leaf growth has stopped. Because the bacteria may be present in stems beyond the area showing symptoms, make all pruning cuts at least 8 to 12 inches below damaged wood. Sterilizing the shears between each cut by dipping into 10% commercial bleach or alcohol will reduce the chances of bacteria being spread during pruning.
Vigorously growing apple and pear trees are more susceptible to fire blight. Bearing pear trees should not produce more than 6 to 8 inches of new terminal growth in a season or 10 to 12 inches for bearing apple trees. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer levels will reduce the growth of the trees. The best way to prevent fire blight is to plant varieties that have good resistance. The pear varieties Orient and Ayers have good resistance.
Timely use of chemicals can help control fire blight, but this may not be practical for homeowners except on small or dwarf fruit trees. Spray during blossoming with Bordeaux mixture, fixed copper (Kocide) or streptomycin according to manufacturer's directions.
AVOID DISEASE-SUSCEPTIBLE ZINNIAS
In the recent past disease problems have deterred growers and landscape designers from encorporating zinnias in their plans. They are lovely flowers in their own right, attract butterflies and bees, and their seed heads at the end of the summer are very attractive food for birds. Unfortunately, they are very susceptible to alternaria blight, powdery mildew and bacterial leaf and flower spot. Fifty-seven varieties were evaluated and none were found resistant to these diseases. However, zinnias, in the correct situation, flower reliably and soon after planting. They are ideal for small home gardens. When a disease is identified in a small garden it can be dealt with effectively or plants can be removed without ruining an entire landscape design that relies heavily on one particular plant. Of the zinnias tested the following cultivars performed the best:
In the Short group: Thumbilina Mix, 'Dasher Pink'
In the Medium group: 'Ruffles Pink', 'Ruffles Yellow', 'Ruffles Cherry'
In the Tall group: 'Giant Dahlia Bluepoint Polar Bear', 'Oklahoma Pink', 'Giant Dahlia Bluepoint Hallo', 'Oklahoma Golden Yellow', 'Oklahoma White'
The effects of different types of irrigation were studied and the differences in severity of the diseases was not significant enough to merit recommending one system over another.
Alternaria blight appeared less severe when direct seeded as opposed to being sown in flats.
(from an article in GMPRO, March 2001 by Linda L. Gombert, Mark Windham, and Susan L. Hamilton).
Most Americans remember the energy crisis of the eighties. Greenhouse operators depend on energy sources to maintain particular temperatures. It is time to rethink those strategies. Many growers have NATURAL GAS distribution lines connected to their greenhouses. Because of the quantity of fuel that growers use they can often buy fuel at the "direct purchase" price from a supplier. You don't need to store large quantities and it is recognized as a relatively clean fuel.
OIL is used by those without access to natural gas. Usually oil fired equipment is more expensive and needs more maintenance. It also needs to be stored on site and is difficult to burn oil cleanly.
LIQUID PROPANE gas (LPG) can be burned in the same equipment used to burn natural gas. It is clean burning and environmentally friendly. Storage must be on site and if used incorrectly pieces of equipment can be damged by improperly vaporized fuel.
ELECTRICITY costs 3 to 4 times more than oil or gas. There are no emissions and very low maintenance. Cost is the only problem.
WOOD AND COAL are rarely viable heat sources. Storage is a problem. Labor and maintenance and emissions are also problemmatic.
It appears that the best solution for most growers is to use natural gas and have some other fuel ready in an emergency. If you can store large quantities of fuel you can probably get better prices. The "spot market" is now costing growers 5 to 10 times what they would have paid had they bought in advance.
BTU Content of Various Fuels
Fuels Unit of
used to paying
Natural gas Therm 100,000 $.30 to $.60 LPG Gallon 92,500 $.45 to $.75 #2 Fuel oil Gallon 138,500 $.55 to $.80 Electricity Kilowatt 3,412 $.06 to $.12 Wood Cord 15-30 Million N/A Coal (anthracite) Pound 13,000 N/A * = gross amount of heat available per unit. Actual amount of fuel you derive has to do with the efficacy of your equipment and your techniques. You must also consider delivery charges and maintenance costs.
(from the article, "Which Fuel Should I Burn?", published in Grower Talks).
THE GREAT SOUTHERN TREE CONFERENCE
Mark your calendars for November 30 - December 1, 2001. The Great Southern Tree Conference will be held at the University of Florida, Gainesville. This conference is a unique educational program developed through the joint efforts of the Florida Nurserymen & Growers Association, the University of Florida and the Environmental Horticulture industry. The conference will be devoted entirely to tree selection, landscape production, establishment and marketing issues in the southeastern United States.
The Great Southern Tree Conference aims to establish a cutting edge educational conference centered around an outdoor demonstration area developed in conjunction with the conference. Florida's nursery and landscape industry and the citizens it serves will benefit from growers, landscape architects, landscapers, researchers, and educators coming together for an annual conference to share experiences and research results in growing, planting, and using quality trees.
A vital component of this conference will be hands-on training, field demonstrations, and current project updates. Green industry personnel will see for themselves the results of various production practices and techniques, and put them to use in their businesses.
In addition to current projects covering the topics of tree establishment, tree pruning, and tree root growth, the site will host project demonstations on a wide range of tree care and production concerns. Demonstration topics include: Tree Production Issues (propagation, production pruning, fertilization, irrigation, tree selection, cultivars); Landscape Tree Issues (planting techniques, tree establishment, staking techniques, pruning landscape trees, tree management); and Additional Topics (new cultivar trials, marketing and technology; living lab for use by the green industry, non-profit groups, and local educators).
For more information on the Tree Conference or becoming a conference partner contact: Heather Nedley at the FNGA office, 800-375-3642 or email
EXTENSION PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT
JANUARY PLANT PROBLEM REPORT FROM THE
AUBURN and BIRMINGHAM PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LABS
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist
Auburn Plant Disease Report-January(J. Mullen)
Of our 22 samples received in the lab in January, only 3 were biological, infectious diseases. The rest of the sample problems were caused by a variety of factors including cold injury, scales, and possible root damage from excess application of fertilizer salts.
Podocarpus fleuryi cuttings were submitted for diagnosis of the cutting end rot. ELISA and culture work indicated the decay was caused by a Phytophthora sp. Treatments of Subdue would have provided protective disease control.
A Leucothoe leaf sample showed two types of foliage damage-large white blotches (approximately 1/2 inch diam.) and smaller reddish diffuse spots (approximately 1/4 inch diam.). The larger spots were typical of Pestalotia spot or blotch which often develops in the spring on tissues previously damaged by cold. In many situations, diagnostic fruiting bodies and spores develop on the surface of the white blotches and appear as tiny black dots. In this situation, the bodies were present as immature structures and did not continue to develop. Culture work produced Pestalotia growth and diagnostic fruiting bodies. Cultures of the smaller diffuse red spots produced Colletotrichum which is reported to cause a leaf spot disease on Leucothoe. Colletotrichum is usually considered to be a pathogen when it is found, but it may be a weak or secondary disease agent, developing only on previously stressed tissues. Pathogenicity testing is the only way to be really sure if Colletotrichum is responsible for the red spots or if stress or other problems caused the spots and Colletotrichum developed later.
An unusual camellia leaf spot disease came to the lab recently. Young leaf spots were large (approx. 1/2 inch diam.) and a medium brown color. Older spots were large (1/4-1/2 inch diam.) and white with dark borders. Black spore structures were scattered across the surface of the spots. These fungus spore structures were unusual, and the sample has been referred to a mycologist for an exact identification.
A problem has been noted on Boston fern in greenhouse situations located in several different areas of the state. J. Olive also reported several such samples in the Mobile area. Plants received have displayed a scorch or scald like browning (Actually, the blotch color was a reddish brown.) uniformly on many of the frond leaflets. The blotching was located in the central areas of the leaflets. Damage was seen on approximately 75% of the fronds. Typically the base and tips of the fronds were not affected. Disease was not present on these samples. Dr. Raymond Kessler suspects the problems relate to cold damage. In one case, excessively high soluble salts may also have been involved.
A bacterial leaf spot on Gerbera daisy was recently noted in the Mobile area (J. Olive). Lesions are typically dark, angular, with water-soaked edges. Bacterial foliage diseases are very difficult to control. Sanitation and ground-level irrigation will help control the disease.
Birmingham Plant Disease Report-January(J. Jacobi)
January started cold, but ended with slightly below normal temperatures and normal rainfall. A total of twelve samples were submitted in January. Cold injury was the most likely the cause of damage to boxwood, common cherry laurel, Japanese cryptomeria, various hollies, and other woody plants. Plant vigor, exposure to wind, cultivar variation and other factors can affect susceptibility of individual plants to damage. Plants that experienced drought stress last summer and fall might have been predisposed to winter injury. Corrective pruning (removal of dead wood and foliage) can be undertaken when the full event of the damage is determined. In some cases, it can take several months before damage to larger limbs become noticeable.
Several samples and calls were received regarding dark patches of zoysiagrass (cv. Emerald) turf. These patches were mostly found in locations that were under significant stress last fall from drought, root damage from insects or disease and other factors. Upon closer inspection, individual grass blades were covered with darkly pigmented fungi (including Curvularia spp.) that invaded the stressed turfgrass. These darkly pigmented fungi contribute to the sooty black appearance of the affected turf. In one of the samples, the turfgrass was completely dead and will have to be replaced. In other cases, we won't know the full story until after green-up this spring. Other samples received included edema on sasanqua camellia, Pythium root rot on spinach, and Phytophthora root rot/poor drainage on winged euonymus.
Powdery mildews and Botrytis may be a problem in greenhouses where temperatures are on the moderate to cool side. Also downy mildew (yellow spotting, defoliation) on rose and bedding plants and vegetable transplants may develop when temperatures are moderately cool (60-70oF). High humidity is also favorable for the above three diseases. If temperatures are 60-70oF, some leaf spots on grasses may develop.
Disease Possibilities For February
The list below includes some common disease problems received in the lab in February of the past few years. Comments on control practices are brief. Refer to appropriate fact sheets, or timely information sheets for details of disease control.
Disease Descriptions and Brief Control Comments on Some Common Diseases
Often Seen in February
PLANT DISEASE DESCRIPTION CONTROL AGLAONEMA Rhizoctonia Crown Rot Brown dry decay of lower stem. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 protective treatments. AZALEA Cercospora Leaf Spot Brown, roughly circular leaf spots, diameter. Sanitation; See the AL Pest Management Handbook. BEGONIA Botrytis Blight Brown, water-soaked or dry tissue blight. Sanitation. See the AL Pest Management Handbook. BOXWOOD Phytophthora Crown & Root Rot Lower trunk is brown and rotted. Initially the decayed tissues are water-soaked but later the dead tissues are dried. Sanitation. Improve soil drainage and/or decrease irrigation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook for fungicides recommended for nursery situations & some large scale landscape plantings. CAMELLIA Anthracnose
Light to medium brown, circular-irregular (0.2-1 cm diam.) spots develop on leaves. Sanitation; Protective fungicides labelled on camellia such as Cleary's 3336. CAMELLIA Botrytis (Sclerotinia) Flower Blight Brown, small-large, irregularly-shaped lesions. Sanitation of fallen blossoms; see AL Pest Management Handbook. CAMELLIA Ring Spot Virus Yellow rings appear on foliage; plants may become slightly stunted. Sanitation. DAYLILY Kabatiella Leaf Spot Red brown elongated spots (approx. 1/8 - 1/4 inch diam.). Sanitation. DUSTY MILLER Alternaria Leaf Spot Dark brown angular spots (0.2-0.6 cm) on foliage. Sanitation. Cleary's 3336 may help. EUONYMUS Anthracnose
Large (1/4-1/2 inch diam.; 0.6-1.2 cm) brown, circular spots. See AL Pest Management Handbook. GERANIUM Oedema Small (0.1-0.3 cm diam.), raised corky spots scattered on lower leaf surfaces. Upper leaf surfaces corresponding to corky spots often show yellowed spots. Reduce watering schedules when weather is cloudy and cool. GERBERA DAISY Powdery Mildew Leaves show some necrosis and white powdery dusting on leaf surfaces. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336. GERBERA DAISY Pythium Root Rot Plants become stunted and yellowed. Usually lower leaves become yellowed first. Roots become brown and water- soaked. Sanitation of damaged plants. In some situations, removal of contaminated soil or media is recom-mended. Protective fungicide drenches in greenhouse situations. GREENHOUSE/
Tan-orange-yellow spore masses often develop on the surface of potting mix or at the edge of potting mix next to the pot rim. Extensive fungal growth may cause the potting media to become water repellent; that is, the media will not absorb water. Sanitation HOLLY, FOSTER Bacterial Leaf Spot Small, black, angular leaf spots. Sanitation. HOLLY, JAPANESE Phomopsis Dieback Cankers on twigs and small branches with dieback resulting. Sanitation. HYDRANGEA Powdery Mildew White dusty coating on upper leaf surfaces. Leaf yellowing and blight; some new growth distortions. Sanitation. Fungicide spray treatments. See AL Pest Management Handbook. HYDRANGEA Phytophthora & Pythium Root Rot Roots brown and water-soaked initially, then dried. Sanitation; improve soil drainage and/or reduce irrigation; Banrot or Banol are recommended in some nursery situations. IMPATIENS Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus Black, circular leaf spots; stunted growth. Sanitation; thrips control. IMPATIENS Phytophthora Crown Rot Plants become stunted. Older leaves turn yellow. Roots become brown and water-soaked. Sanitation of plants and sometimes removal of contaminated soil or media. Adjust watering practices and/or improve water drainage through soil or media. Fungicide drenches are often recommended in greenhouse situations. IMPATIENS Pythium Crown Rot See Phytophthora comments. See Phytophthora comments. IMPATIENS, New Guinea Botrytis Stem Rot Dark, water-soaked leaf blight & stem rot. Sanitation; See AL Pest Management Handbook. IMPATIENS Necrotic Spot Virus New growth is stunted; circular black, greasy spots develop. Remove damaged plants; control thrips. INDIAN HAWTHORN Cercospora Leaf Spot Circular, dark brown spots (approx. 1/8 inch diam.) Sanitation; Mancozeb fungicide. INDIAN HAWTHORN Entomosporium Leaf Spot Red-black spots. Sanitation. See the AL Pest Management Handbook. INDIAN HAWTHORN Suspect Bacterial Leaf Spot Red-black angular spots. Sanitation. IVY, ENGLISH Anthracnose
Black irregularly shaped leaf spots. Sanitation; See AL Pest Management Handbook. IVY, ENGLISH Bacterial Leaf Spot (Xanthomonas) Brown-black, angular, wet-looking spots (1/8 - 1/4 inch diam.; 0.3-0.6 cm). Sanitation; See AL Pest Management Handbook. IVY LEAF
Oedema Upper leaf surface shows diffuse yellow spots; lower leaf surface shows brown, corky, slightly raised spots (less than 1/8 inch diam.; 0.1-0.3 cm). Decrease watering schedule. KALANCHOE Botrytis Blight Brown, gray spots, blotches on the foliage. Infected areas may become limp. Spots look grayer when spore production occurs. Sanitation. Apply protective fungicide drenches. See the AL Pest Management Handbook. Decrease humidity. Increase temperature. LANTANA Foliar Leaf Spot Nematode Angular, brown-black leaf spots. Sanitation. LILY, EASTER Lily Symptomless Virus & Cucumber Mosaic Virus Yellow and brown flecks on foliage; plants stunted; leaves curl under. Sanitation. Control aphids. MAGNOLIA Algal Leaf Spot (Cephaleuros) Greenish or reddish slightly raised spots (0.1-1 cm) on upper leaf surfaces. Spot edges are often irregular or wavy in appearance. Old spots are usually cream colored in the center. Control measures are usually not necessary. Bordeaux mixture may be used. See the AL Pest Management. MARIGOLD Botrytis Canker Dark brown, elongated cankers form on stems. Sanitation. See the AL Pest Management Handbook. PANSY Botrytis After Cold Damage Brown leaf spots/ blight; gray mold. Sanitation; protective fungicide sprays. See AL Pest Management Handbook. PANSY Cercospora Leaf Spot Brown-black circular spots. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336. PANSY Phytophthora Crown/Root Rot See comments for Impatiens. PANSY Pythium Crown/Root Rot See comments for Impatiens. See comments for Impatiens. PENTAS Bacterial Leaf Spot Dark brown, angular leaf spots, 1/16-1/8 inch diam. Sanitation. PHOTINIA Entomosporium Leaf Spot Small reddish spots (1/4-1/2 inch diam.; 0.6-1.2 cm) often coalesce into larger red spots with dark red centers and bright red, diffuse borders. Sanitation; See the AL Pest Management Handbook. PINE, LOBLOLLY Needle Rust (Coleosporium) Cream-white pustules (1/8 inch diam.; 0.2-0.3 cm) on needles. No control recommended. PINE SEEDLINGS, LOBLOLLY Phytophthora Root Rot Plants become stunted. Older growth becomes yellowed. Roots become brown and water-soaked. Sanitation of infected plants and sometimes media/soil replace-ment is recommended. Correct water problems. Fungicide drenches are recommended in nursery situations. PINE, VIRGINIA Lophodermium (Ploioderma) Needle Cast Small (1/32-1/16 inch diam.; 0.15 cm or less; just barely visible), black, football-shaped slightly raised fruiting bodies scattered on needles; needles brown and drop. See AL Pest Management Handbook. POA TRIVIALIS Pythium Blight Foliage blight. Decrease water content of soil. Apply fungicide treatments as listed in the Alabama Pest Management Handbook for turf grasses. POTHOS Rhizoctonia Stem Rot Stems near or touching the soil (potting mix) developed a dark brown canker or lesion (0.3-1 cm). Sanitation. Protective sprays of Cleary's 3336. SNAPDRAGON Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne) Stunted, wilted plants; roots develop irregular galls. Sanitation; See AL Pest Management Handbook. SPIREA Powdery Mildew Leaves show a white powdery dusting on upper leaf surfaces and young shoots. Sanitation. Cleary's 3336. VERBENA Bacterial Leaf Spot Angular, water-soaked black or dark green leaf spots. Sanitation. VERBENA Myrothecium Crown Rot Plants collapse after decay at crown. Sanitation. VERBENA Foliar Nematode Angular brown leaf spots; sometimes these symptoms can be confused with bacterial disease. Sanitation. VERBENA Pythium Root Rot Roots brown and water-soaked when infections are new. Sanitation; improve water/soil situation so soil does not remain wet.
UPCOMING EVENTSMarch 20 - March 30, 2001:
The Magnolia Society Conference and Tour of Ireland.
For more information write to Jim Gardiner, RHS Garden Wisley, Woking, Surrey GU23 6QB
June 20 - 23, 2001:
2001 Southeast Greenhouse Conference and Trade Show.
For more information call 877-927-2775; www.sgcts.org
July 24 - 28, 2001:
Cullowhee Conference: Native Plants in the Landscape.
Western Carolina University in Cullowhee, North Carolina
For more information call 770-922-7292.
August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org
September 30 - October 3, 2001:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Lexington, KY. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
October 11-12, 2002:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: email@example.com,
http://www.mtna.com or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna
October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
November 30 - December 1, 2001:
The Great Southern Tree Conference.
Contact Heather Nedley at email@example.com; 1-800-375-3642.
April to October, 2002:
See the AmeriGarden (5,400 square feet), part of the world horticulture exhibition in the Netherlands.
For more information call 808-961-6660 or visit http://www.floriade.nl or http://www.amerigarden2002.com
Send horticultural questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Send questions and comments to email@example.com.
Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.