June 1998

Happy June! What a great year to see which plants are drought tolerant (eternal optimist). Sometimes it is nice to have the option of being a computer horticulturist. You do not need a weather report to know it is HOT. Let's get on with the good stuff that can make a difference in your business.

One thing that is great about the Internet and this mode of communication is that it is so easy to add pictures. We had a nursery tour as part of our ANA summer seminar 3 or 4 years ago in Huntsville. One of our stops was at BoShanCee Nursery in New Market, AL. Bill O'Meara is the owner of the nursery and has always been known as an innovator. There were many things that he was doing that were special, particularly his "Chuckwagons" for the field. He related his past frustration of going to the field with his employees for digging, pruning, fertilizing or spraying and constantly having to go back to the equipment area to get more nails, refill the sprayers, someone forgot something, etc. Bill came up with the idea of designing and outfitting these "Chuckwagons" that stay equipped for everything that is ever needed when you go to the field for a particular cultural practice. There is no thumb wrestling, gehawing, or laying around in the morning waiting for things to get organized. There is no running back to the office 10 times a day to get a tool or something you forgot. It is always there and ready to go when you need it and restocked when you return from the field. Below are some pictures of his fertilizer, digging and sprayer "Chuckwagons".

PESTICIDE CHUCKWAGON


B&B CHUCKWAGON


FERTILIZER CHUCKWAGON

It is a manager's as well as well-trained employees' jobs to note inefficiencies in an operation and to figure out ways to do things better. Encourage and recognize people in your business for actively thinking and sharing ideas. If you have any time-saving ideas you would like to share, please let us know and we will help spread the word.

Tours are great for picking up ideas to help you in your business. You learn something from almost every nursery you visit. The International Plant Propagators' Association is an organization that makes this part of their program each year. If you haven't been to one of these meetings, it is a 'must' for anyone in the Nursery Business. Check our Calendar of Events for the date of this year's Southern or Eastern Regional meeting dates. Their motto is "To Seek And Share".

(Ken Tilt)


THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES ARE FEATURED IN THIS MONTH'S EDITION OF SOMETHING TO GROW ON:

1. 1998 ACTA ANNUAL CHRISTMAS TREE MEETING

2. GREENHOUSE PRODUCT NEWS MEMBER SURVEY

3. EFFECT OF TREE SHELTERS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND WOOD DENSITY OF 8 SOUTHERN TREE SPECIES SEEDLINGS

4. THE PROBLEM OF ROOTING OUT IN POT-IN-POT PLANTS

5. VIRGINIA ALSO USES DIGITAL CAMERAS AND E-MAIL FOR WEED IDENTIFICATION

6. WAX SCALE ON BURFORD HOLLY

7. IRRIGATION AND HERBICIDE APPLICATION METHODS IMPACT QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF RUNOFF WATER

8. STUNTING THE GROWTH OF SUNFLOWERS

9. ECHINACEA - 1998 PERENNIAL PLANT OF THE YEAR

10. WEB SITE REVIEWS

11. UPCOMING EVENTS

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


1. 1998 ACTA ANNUAL CHRISTMAS TREE MEETING

This is the year to attend both our state Christmas Tree meeting in Opelika/Auburn and our National Meeting in Asheville, N.C. There are great programs and fun events planned for both.

Mark your calendars to be in Opelika/Auburn on August 22 and 23, 1998 at the Holiday Inn on I-85 in Opelika for our annual meeting. (If you can only attend one meeting this year, this is the obvious one to choose). Registration and time with Exhibitors will be from 7:30 A.M. to 8:30 A.M. on Saturday morning. (It always helps our planning if you pre-register). The Exhibitors will be in a separate room from the educational meetings. You are welcome and encouraged to spend time in both areas throughout the program.

The opening bell sounds at 8:30 A.M. to offer our official welcome and housekeeping details. From this time until the closing bell at 11:00 A.M. on Sunday, it is every man/woman for themselves to take in all the great information/opportunities that will be offered. The theme of this year's program is Complimentary Business Opportunities to Add Visibility and Money to your Christmas Tree Business. We will also still offer the basics for the newcomers. Keep reading - I think you will like the program:

SATURDAY, AUGUST 22:
8:45-9:15 A.M.
Expanding Marketing Opportunities: Pumpkins, Indian Corn, and Other Specialty Vegetable Crops
Dr. Joe Kemble, Auburn University

9:15-9:45 A.M.
Blotches, Blights, Blemishes and Other Diseases that Sap Strength from your Christmas Trees and your Profit Margin
Dr. Austin Hagan, Auburn University

9:45-10:15 A.M.
Break with Exhibitors and Silent Auction Scramble
Remember to bring something to offer for the Silent Auction. This is the money that keeps us afloat in the ACTA and puts a smile on many people's faces. Use your imagination to get into someone's pocket. Instigators are welcome, i.e., "you are not going to let that floozie outbid you on that, are you?"

10:15-10:45 A.M.
Blueberries, Strawberries and other Pick Your Own Fruits to Get Customers to the Christmas Trees and Vice-Versa.
Dr. David Himelrick, Auburn University

10:45-11:15 A.M.
Dr. Pat Cobb is welcomed back with Control of Critters that Creep into Christmas Trees and Cause a Cruddy Crop.
Auburn University

11:15-12:00 A.M.
Herbs for Christmas Decorations and Other Scented Opportunities>br> Janette Frandsen, Village Arbors Nursery, Auburn

12:00-1:00 P.M. Lunch next door (included in registration fee)
Serving: fried chicken, rice pilaf, vegetable medley, glazed carrots, tomatoes and cucumbers vinaigrette, hot rolls and butter, lemon ice box cake and coffee or tea.

1:00-1:45 P.M.
ACTA Business Meeting

1:45-2:00 P.M.
Jeff Clary, Lee County Extension Office, and Donald Bice, Russell County Extension Office, offer directions and tour arrangements and explain on-site exhibitor demonstrations.

2:00-3:30 P.M.
Long Branch Christmas Tree Farm Tour, Randy Long (Last year's Governor's Tree winner)

3:30-5:30 P.M.
Travel and tour of Donald and Glenda Dykes' Lakeside Christmas Tree Farm. (Past Governor's Tree winner.)
From 30 farms in Lee County to 2. These farmers have had to do something right to survive the hard times. Bring your questions and suggestions to share.

6:30-7:30 P.M.
Pre-dinner Get-together-and-talk-about-it.

7:30-8:30 P.M.
Non-stuffy, informal Banquet at the Holiday Inn (included with registration fee). Good people, good food, awards and door prizes.
Buffet Serving: Roast beef au jus, roast turkey with cornbread dressing, fluffy whipped potatoes, buttered corn, green beans Almondine, tossed garden salad, hot rolls and butter, strawberry cake and coffee or tea.

8:30 - UNTIL...
Young folks and young-at-heart continue on... Old folks - pack it in - 8 A.M. comes early.

SUNDAY, AUGUST 23

8:30 - 11:00 A.M.
Coffee and donuts at Auburn University Horticulture Greenhouses and tour of research and demonstration projects: Propagation, Container Production, Pot-in-Pot Production, Growth Regulators, Grafting Demonstration, Plants of Interest and other goodies to be determined. Ken Tilt and Rob Trawick will host the tour.

Remember your tree and wreath contest entries. The bigger the turnout and the more entries we have, the more fun the meeting is.

When you register you will receive a map to the Holiday Inn.

(For more information contact Ken Tilt at Auburn University @ 334-844-5484, Jeff Clary in Lee County @ 334-749-3353 ext. 43 or Donald Bice in Russell County @ 334-298-6845, ext. 59).


2. GREENHOUSE PRODUCT NEWS MEMBER SURVEY

Greenhouse Product News randomly selected 2,000 of its subscribers and sent them a survey dealing with the issues of being a grower in today's marketplace. Access to information of this kind can assist growers in their evaluation of their own business and future planning.

Annual sales volume of the 300 respondents is as follows:
59 respondents: $250,000
40 respondents: $251,000 - $500,000
35 respondents: $501,000 - $1,000.000
47 respondents: $1,000,000 - $5,000,000
13 respondents: more than $5,000,000

Seventeen percent of the respondents were from the South.

Asked what their production cost per square foot by the size of the operation, they responded:
size of business cost per square foot
50,000-100,000 sq. ft. $6.72
more than 500,000 sq. ft. $3.00

Some of the production costs per square foot for particular regions of the country are as follows:
Mid Atlantic: $3.78
South: $5.11
Central: $7.39

Respondents described the distribution of their crops as
AVERAGE PERCENTAGE OF BEDDING & PLUG CROPS GROWN IN 1997:
Crop/Percentage
Impatiens/12.4
Petunias/9.1
Pansies/6.8
Marigolds/6.6
Seed Begonias/4.4
Herbs/3.1
Vegetables/11.7
Perennials/13.3
Others/23.4

AVERAGE PERCENTAGE OF CONTAINER CROPS GROWN IN 1997
Mums/12.6
Vegetative Zonal Geraniums/10.3
Poinsettias/9.5
Foliage/9.3
New Guineas/5.4
Ivy Gernaniums/4.3
Roses/3.6
Vegetative Begonias/1.9
Easter Lilies/1.1
Perennials/15.1
Others/20.3

SOURCES OF PLUGS AND CUTTINGS
Approximately 43% of the non-perennial plugs and cuttings were propagated in-house in 1997. Of the growers who grew perennials from plugs, approximately 42% propagated them in-house and 31% bought them from brokers.

The average square foot of production space by region in the South is 128,784 of fixed covered space and 106,062 shade total. The fixed covered space in the West Coast is 151,570 and shade total is 17,651.

Bedding plants score the highest for sales accounting for 30% of all crop sales volume in 1997.

When asked which crops they would increase in 1998 they responded that there would be an 8.8% increase in bedding plants and an 11.0% increase in perennials.

Questions about trends in automation yielded these results:
64% own equipment that monitors environmental controls; 54% have updated irrigation; 33% use rolling benches and 33% have automatic seeders.

More than $18,000 was spent on greenhouse chemicals during 1997, including $1,704 spent on "biologicals".

Questions about growing media yielded these results:
Peat: 41%
Bark: 14.3%
Perlite: 10.5%
Soil: 9.9%
Vermiculite: 4.8%
Rockwool: 2.2%
Cocnout coir: 1.7%
Foam: 1%

Kind of containers used:
- 31.3% produced their crops in flats
- 26.7% of the crops were grown in 4-6" pots
- 10% used liners and baskets
- 5.3% used 10-12" pots

Regional container crop production:
The Northeast and the Midwest lead the country in container crop perennials. Vegetative geraniums and poinsettias were the most popular container crops in the Mid-Atlantic states. In the South mums were the largest container crop accounting for more than 36% of the overall 1997 crop with 25% in foliage and 12.8% in perennials. Of particular cultivars, New Guinea impatiens were highest in the Midwest and Northeast.

(from Greenhouse Product News - May 1998)


3. POSITIVE EFFECT OF TREE SHELTERS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND WOOD DENSITY OF 8 SOUTHERN TREE SPECIES

One-year-old seedlings of nine commonly used southern urban shade tree species were planted with and without plastic shelters and grown for three growing seasons (1993-95) to determine shelter effects on tree growth, survival, and appearance. Some maintenance tasks were performed, but trees were not fertilized or watered during the study.

Shelters had a positive impact on survival of all species studied from 1993-95. Sheltered tree survival was 85% in year one compared to 56% for non-sheltered trees. Two hundred trees died over the course of the study, and 82% of those which died did so in the first year. Shelters positively impacted height growth of sawtooth oak, green ash, white oak, nuttall oak, Chinese elm, eastern redbud, swamp chestnut oak and northern red oak. Shelters had a negative impact on basal diameter of flowering dogwood and Chinese elm during the first two years and a positive impact on basal diameter of swamp chestnut oak in year one. Shelters did not impact two dimensional crown area or wood density after three years.

Communities across Alabama have been incorporating tree shelter use into their urban forestry programs. Species grown in this study were selected due to their usefulness in urban environments in Alabama.

Tree shelters increase survival of trees and height growth of some trees used in southern U.S. cities. This leaves growers with a tree whose wood is equally strong, trunk is straight, and canopy is equal, beginning at the height of the shelter. Removing shelters from trees before the recommended 3 year minimum does not significantly impact tree growth, but removing shelters before they disintegrate is discouraged for aesthetic reasons. Shelters are of little or no benefit when planting tree species on a site to which they are not adapted. Shelters are recommended for the establishment of the above named 10 trees in urban areas of the southern U.S.

(David H. West, Arthur H. Chappelka, Kenneth M. Tilt, Harry G. Ponder and J. David Williams).


4. THE PROBLEM OF ROOTING OUT IN POT-IN-POT PLANTS

A considerable problem for nurseries that produce pot-in-pot plants is rooting-out: the roots grow outside of the pot and anchor themselves into surrounding soil which obviously makes harvesting a problem. Copper hydroxide (Spin Out or SO) has helped but not solved the problem. Some growers are modifying the pot-in-pot system with a bag-in-pot technique. Plants are grown in Agroliner bags (needle-punched, nonwoven polypropylene bags coated with SO) to help control root circling and rooting out.

This study compared the effects of using Agroliner bags on two species (Muskogee crapemyrtle and Chinese tulip poplar) produced bag-in-pot compared to the pot-in-pot method. The study was initiated in Tifton, GA in October 1994 and completed in September 1995. Measurements were taken of height growth index, stem diameter, shoot dry weight, root growth index, root dry weight inside the planted container and root dry weight outside the container. Root coverage on the outside was estimated.

Crapemyrtle (because of its vigorous and fine root system) tends to anchor into surrounding soil and the use of heavyweight Agroline, while not eliminating the problem, did help but plants were 22% smaller. The coarser roots of the Chinese tulip poplar didn't penetrate the Agroline like the crapemyrtle. Using bag-in-pot method may be an efficient growing method.

(from SNA Research Conference - 1997, Evaluation of Tex-R Agroliners for Bag-in-Pot Production, John M. Ruter)


5. VIRGINIA ALSO USES DIGITAL CAMERAS AND E-MAIL FOR WEED IDENTIFICATION

In the August 1997 Something to Grow On we reported that extension agents in Kansas were using digital cameras to take photos of unidentified weeds which were then sent via e-mail to university horticultural specialists for identification. In Virginia many extension agents also have digital cameras to take photos of weeds in the field or specimens that are brought to their offices. The digital images are sent via e-mail to the Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia.

Scott Hagood, Virginia Cooperative Extension weed scientist at Virginia Tech, can identify about 50% of the weeds he looks at from the digital images he receives. Scientists at Virginia Tech also maintain a web site where pictures of weeds from Virginia and the southeastern United States are matched with recommended herbicides. The address of the site is http://www.ppws.vt.edu/. The web pages have photographs of the weeds as seedlings and mature plants, leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits. Significant distinguishing attributes of the weeds are also discussed.

(from VNLA Newsletter, March/April 1998)
NOTE: If you have your own digital camera and would like help identifying a mystery weed we'd be happy to try it via e-mail.


6. WAX SCALE ON BURFORD HOLLY

Florida Wax Scale causes damage to hollies - from cosmetic problems to the death of entire branches. The effectiveness of two acephate products, compared to a water sprayed control and SunSpray Ultra Fine Spray oil were studied.

Plants were treated during the second instar (hatched eggs) of the scale, instead of during the egg stage. They received one of the four treatments described above. Treating eggs after they hatched and developed into second instars gave investigators more time as the second instar is longer than the first and the hatched eggs were easier to see and count than the eggs of the first instar.

Plants treated with the oil spray had significantly less sooty mold and were easier to wash off than the mold treated with the other methods. The pest, though, must come in direct contact with the spray for it to work.

(from SNA Research Conference - 1997, Control of Florida Wax Scale (Ceroplastes floridensis) on Dwf. Burford Holly (Ilex cornuta cv. 'Dwarf Burford') by Charles P. Hesselein, Joseph R. Chamberlin and Michael L. Williams)


7. IRRIGATION AND HERBICIDE APPLICATION METHODS IMPACT QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF RUNOFF WATER

The quality and quantity of runoff water is a constant concern of nursery owners. This study addressed irrigation methods and the residue from the application of preemergence herbicides (Trifluralin and Isoxaben). The study was done at a containerized plant facility in South Carolina where a Bermuda grass waterway was installed at the down-slope of four rows of growing beds while runoff from the other four rows was directed to a clay/gravel roadway. Water for the study was collected from both of these locations.

For irrigation three thirty minute pulse cycles (with 90 minute intervals) were used for the rows where runoff went into the grassed waterways. Rows that drained into the clay/gravel roadway were irrigated with one uninterrupted application of water for 1.5 hours. Samples of runoff volume were tested in the laboratory by high pressure liquid chromotography.

With the pulse irrigation system 60% of the water applied ended up as runoff. From the continuous irrigation system 71% of the applied water was runoff.

Snapshot TG was broadcast with hand held spreaders. The highest concentration of herbicides in the runoff water was found after the initial application. Trifluralin was not detected in samples taken after the initial pulse irrigation but Isoxaben was found in samples of runoff for nine days, although samples from the last days were barely discernible.

Researchers concluded that pulsed irrigation in combination with grassed waterways is an effective way to minimize herbicide runoff. Pulse irrigation also loses less water than continual watering. The combination of these methods could significantly impact the quality and quantity of runoff.

(from SNA Research Conference, 1997 - Cycle Irrigation and Grassed Waterways Reduced Isoxaben and Trifluralin (Snapshot TG) Movement in Runoff Water by Melissa B. Riley, Jeanne Briggs, Tracy Lee and Ted Whitwell)


8. STUNTING THE GROWTH OF SUNFLOWERS

No doubt you have marveled at the beauty and scale of sunflowers growing in a field or garden. They are an important agronomic crop, harvested for sunflower oil and forage. They are, however, inappropriate for container gardening as they grow too tall and droop dramatically once the seeds are mature.

Experiments have been conducted to determine whether the height of the plants could be retarded sufficiently to make sunflowers a viable potted plant. Paclobutrazol, a growth retarding chemical, was applied in carefully monitored amounts to Helianthus annuus 'Pacino' during the summer and winter to determine what amount would be safe. A reduction in plant height was achieved using up to 16 mg and severe height retardation was accomplished at 16 mg. and up to 32 mg a.i./pot. However, plants treated with from 16 to 32 mg. exhibited crinkled leaves and stunted growth in addition to smaller and greener leaves.

Two experiments were completed. In the first seeds were sown in May and transplanted in June. Plants were kept in a greenhouse. Paclobutrazol drench treatments were applied 12 days after potting, using 2,4, 8, 16 or 32 mg a.i./pot. When the flowers bloomed, plant height was measured as well as plant and flower diameter. The second experiment was done in the winter. Seeds were sown in December and transplanted in January in a greenhouse. Drench treatments were applied 15 days after potting. The doses were the same.

There was a reduction in height even at the lowest application. The 2 mg. treatment resulted in plants that were 27% shorter than untreated plants in both experiments. Those treated with 4 mg. were 36% shorter in experiment 1 and 26% shorter in experiment 2. Severe retardation of the 'Pacino' sunflower occurred at 16 and 32 mg.

Seasonal differences are significant among untreated plants. The ones grown in the summer were 30% taller than the ones grown in the winter. Temperatures in their greenhouses could not always be controlled during the summer months.

Regarding flower diameter, increasing doses of paclobutrazol will reduce the width of the flowers. Drench applications of 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg reduced flower diameter by 12%, 15%, 13% and 30% when compared to the untreated plants. Treated plants (with 32 mg) came into full bloom 3 days later than untreated plants in the summer study. In the winter experiment, flowering of treated plants was delayed by 6 days compared to untreated plants.

The experiments have proven that paclobutrazol drenches effectively controlled plant height, diameter and flower diameter of potted sunflowers. Seasonal variations were significant and must be taken into consideration when deciding the dosage. Plants in this study were grown to 2-3 times taller than their pots with 2 to 4mg of paclobutrazol. Growers must consider the price of the PGR (plant growth retardant). Growers may find daminozide foliar sprays more economical than a paclobutrazol drench.

(From HortTechnology April-June 1998: Paclobutrazol Drenches Control Growth of Potted Sunflowers by Shavran Dasoju, Michael R. Evans,and Brian E. Whipker)


9. ECHINACEA - 1998 PERENNIAL PLANT OF THE YEAR

The Perennial Plant Association has named Echinacea purpurea 'Magnus' the 1998 Perennial Plant of the Year. It is easy to grow, has a long growing season, and is adaptable to most North American sites. The plant is an upright-growing clump form with hairy 6" long leaves. Flower stalks can grow to four feet. Echinacea colors are from pink to white to carmine. The cultivar 'Magnus' comes from a nursery in Sweden where its owner, Magnus Nilsson, 90 years old, still works.

'Magnus' can be propagated by seed, basal cuttings, root cuttings or division. Seedlings should be grown at cool temperatures and transplanted after 6-8 weeks. The blooming season is long (sometimes as long as 6 weeks) and you will find the plant easy to grow. Plant bare-root or containerized plants in partial to full sun. Not many insects frequent 'Magnus' and they are visited by butterflies and birds.

When planting echinacea in your garden it works well as a single specimen plant or massed together towards the back of your perennial garden. Effective complimentary plants include: Perovskia, Liatris or ornamental grasses (for example, Calamagrostis x acutifora Stricta). Other available varieties are: Bravado, White Swan, White Lustre, Robert Bloom, Bright Star and Sringbrook Crimson Star.

(From VNLA Newsletter, March/April 1998 by David J. Beattie and Robert Berghage. For more information contact Dr. Steven Still at 614-771-8431.)


10. WEB SITE REVIEWS:

a. http://www.bioscape.com
Bioscape
Learn to use non-toxic methods for pest control. Deals with an Integrated Pest Management plan. They sell large and small quantities of products. There is a downloadable order form. I was excited to see videos listed on organic broccoli farming, their nursery and lab - but when I clicked on the links I was met with a message that told me the videos were not available.

b. http://www.garden.org
National Gardening Association
Lots of articles to read on interesting sounding topics. The site could use some photographs, though.

c. http://www.iquest.net/ofma/
Organic Farmers Marketing Association
A site full of politically charged articles - how to address the USDA and Congress. Many other articles of a practical nature along with a Calendar of Events and listing of organic products for sale.

d. http://www.nature.net
Nature
Lots of forums that you can participate in on topics as far ranging as nature photography and the wildlife garden; also has a number of Audubon watercolor paintings of birds.

e. http://www.gardenweb.com
Supposedly largest community of gardeners on the Internet participating in forums. Also a Calendar of Events and a searchable database. Information on gardens from around the world.

f. http://www.rosarian.com
Rosarians
This site is devoted to roses with a vintage book on roses for the English garden. Old prints of roses and some paintings (whose selection for this site it pretty far fetched). There is a forum for concerns about roses. I'm sure a great deal of useful information can be found at this site by rose gardeners. I do wish they would have incorporated some photographs. With a subject like that it seems a shame not to make the viewer salivate at their beauty.


11. UPCOMING EVENTS:

June 17-21, 1998:
American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta 1998 
Conference
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Contact AABGA at 610-925-2500, 
ext. 11 or
www.mobot.org/AABGA

July 6-11, 1998:
Perennial Plant Association (PPA) Annual Meeting
Boston, MA. Contact 614-292-6027

July 11-15, 1998:
Ohio Short course
Columbus, OH. Contact 800-453-3070

July 12-15, 1998:
95th American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference
Charlotte Convention Center, Charlotte, North Carolina. 
Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; Fax: 703-836-2024; e-mail: 
ashs@ashs.org

July 16-19, 1998:
International Herb Association Annual Conference
"Herb Smart Day" open to the public, July 19, 1998. Contact 
International Herb Association at 847-949-4372; fax 847-949-
5896, http://www.herb-pros.com

July 25-27, 1998:
International Lawn, Garden, and Power Equipment - Expo 98
Kentucky Exposition Center, Louisville, KY. Contact Sellers 
Expositions (Donna Lewis) at 800-558-8767, 502-562-1962; fax 
502-562-1970, e-mail wss315@aol.com; http://expo.mow.org

August 2-5, 1998:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference
Birmingham, England. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411 or 
www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

August 5-8, 1998:
National Christmas Tree Association Annual Meeting
Asheville, North Carolina
P.O. Box 1937, Boone, North Carolina 28607

August 5-9, 1998:
American Nursery and Landscape Association Annual Conference 
and Trade Show Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. 
Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; 
http://www.sna.org or ANLA at 202-789-2900; 
http://www.anla.org

August 22-23, 1998:
ACTA Annual Christmas Tree Meeting
Holiday Inn, Opelika, AL
Contact Ken Tilt at 334-844-5484 or Jeff Clary at 334-749-3353 ext. 43.

September 3-4, 1998:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and 
Conference
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville TN. Contact TNA, 
931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail 
nurseryassn@blomand.net

October 7-10, 1998:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society 
Annual Meeting
Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Contact Margot 
Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; 860-429-6818; 
e-mail: mbippser@neca.com

October 9-10, 1998:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Trade Show
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN. Contact MTNA, Ann 
Halcomb, Exec. Secr. 615-668-7322; Fax: 615-668-9601; e-
mail: MTNA@juno.com or MTNA@blomand.net

October 18-21, 1998:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators Society
Tulsa, OK. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, 
P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101.

November 5-7, 1998:
Annual Meeting of The Holly Society of America Annual Meeting
Colonial Williamsburg, VA
Contact 757-363-3906

November 20-22, 1998:
Meeting of the Middle Atlantic Chapter of the American Rhododendron Society
Chamberlain Hotel, Hampton, VA
Contact 304-765-5551

January 13-15, 1999:
Mid-AM Trade Show
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Donn W. Sanford at 847-526-
2010; fax 847-526-3993; e-mail midam@mc.net

January 30-February 3, 1999:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science 
Annual Convention
Memphis, TN. Contact Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, 
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656; phone 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-
0805; e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

February 4-7, 1999:
The Management Clinic
Galt House, Louisville, KY. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;
http://www.anla.org

July 22-27, 1999:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention
Philadelphia, PA. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; 
http://www.anla.org

July 28-31, 1999:
96th American Society for Horticultural Science
Minneapolis Convention Center, Minneapolis, MN. Contact 
ASHA: 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024; e-mail: ashs@ashs.org

July 30-August 1, 1999:
SNA 99 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's 
Conference and Trade Show
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 
770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; 
http://www.sna.org

August 1-4, 1999:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference
Stamford, CT. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411; 
http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 10-11, 1999:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and 
Conference
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA 
at 931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail 
nurseryassn@blomand.net

September 23-25, 1999:
6th Biennial Southern Plant Conference
Richmond, VA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 
770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

October 3-6, 1999:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society
Mobile, AL. Contact David Morgan: 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, 
P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail 
dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

January 19-21, 2000:
Mid-AM Trade Show
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Donn W. Sanford at 847-526-
2010, fax 847-526-3993; e-mail midam@mc.net

January 29-February 2, 2000:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science 
Annual Convention
Lexington, KY. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, 
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; 
e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

February 3-6, 2000:
The Management Clinic
Galt House, Louisville, KT. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;
http://www.anla.org

July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; 
http://www.anla.org

July 16-19:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th 
International Conference
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 
703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail ashs@ashs.org

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's 
Conference and Trade Show
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 
770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; 
http://www.sna.org

August 11-18, 2000:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference
Baltimore, MD. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411; 
http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 15-16, 2000:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and 
Conference
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA 
at
931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail 
tnurseryassn@blomand.net

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-
882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-
mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science 
Annual Convention
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, 
Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, 
e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's 
Conference and Trade Show
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 
770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; 
http://www.sna.org

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.