C O N T E N T S
KEN'S MUSINGS
THE BAGWORM PROBLEM
JUDO RECEIVES FEDERAL REGISTRATION
BIOPLEX AND GOLDENRAINTREE
MONOLITHIC SLAG AS A SUBSTRATE
RESISTANCE OF SHRUB AND GROUNDCOVER
ROSES TO BLACKSPOT AND CERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT
IMPROVING THE SURVIVAL AND PRODUCTION
OF CONTAINER GROWN KALMIA LATIFOLIA
PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT
UPCOMING EVENTS

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


KEN'S MUSINGS

Summer in Alabama….. Nuff said! I recently had the opportunity to visit some nurseries in North Florida. I do not get to as many retail nurseries as wholesale nurseries and that is regrettable. I visited a beautiful old garden center in Tallahassee where a case of Phytophthora ramorum/Sudden Oak Death (SOD) was found this past spring. It had a devastating effect. It was not the disease itself, it was the hard, but necessary precautions that had to be taken to assure the disease did not spread. The nursery had to quarantine a large part of the nursery for 6 weeks in the height of the spring season. That is like losing Thanksgiving and Christmas shopping business at Target or Best Buy! They were forced to cut down a large number of treasured, 50-year-old camellias. They had to bag and bury 100's of plants that were susceptible to SOD 162 miles from their nursery. They had to contact all their customers and try to assure them that the plants that were not quarantined were safe to buy. Amazingly, they had good spirits and indicated Monrovia Nursery was very helpful. Their long-time loyal customers were very understanding. The garden center owners said, as you might expect, they were not purchasing from the west coast until they had confidence in the safety and security of the products. We were fortunate that the Alabama Department of Agriculture reacted quickly and decisively in dealing with SOD. We thank them for their vigilance and support.

There is still something very special about an established, quaint, neighborhood garden center.

Certified Nursery Professional Program on Display.

Hydrangeas are everywhere and beautiful! You wonder why they ever dropped out of favor.

Ferns are in!

As a side note, when SOD panic was at its peak I was contacted by the news media that HAD a story and were determined to get the support for it that they wanted. They said SOD could be a good thing for Alabama growers because it would open up markets voided by cancelled orders from the west coast. I refused to give them confirmation of their headline. It could just as easily have been the Black Blob Blight (BBB) from the southeast nurseries going to the west coast and we would be the ones scrambling to stay in business. We take no pleasure in the hardships of any area nurseries. As is often said at marketing meetings, our competition is not other nurseries but dollars going to other discretionary spending leisure activities. This Florida nursery was an eye-opener because I had not heard of any similar consequences in Alabama. Like a drought, a hurricane, SOD or anything else that causes a halt in the supply, sales and delivery chain, there is a ripple across the whole industry and the economy of the state. The recent Green Industry Economic Impact study results showing the 1.9 billion dollar impact on Alabama's economy is very important in helping those in positions of power to realize the impacts of their decisions or not recognizing the potential devastation of not making a decision with the Green Industry in mind.

I want to thank Agricultural Commissioner Ron Sparks for his support of the Alabama Nursery and Landscape Association and our industry. He recently agreed to support a grant with the required matching funds that will help publish the Green Industry Economic Impact results and get the information out to our legislators and media. Commissioner Sparks and the Alabama Department of Agriculture also provided $10,000 towards the initial survey of the industry. This project is finally coming to completion after about 10 years of trying to find all the pieces to make it happen. Enjoy what is left of June and get ready for the beginning of Trade show and educational meeting season.

Ken
334-844-5484 Office
tiltken@auburn.edu


THE BAGWORM PROBLEM

The following was lifted and appreciated from Nursery Notes by Mark Halcomb in McMinnville, Tn (June 15, 2005 issue)

Bagworms: It is time to scout for bagworms and Southern blight. Southern blight attacks young apple and crabapple trees, less than a half inch caliper or so. It is best to prevent it by applying a coarse wet spray of Terraclor or Contrast to the lower stems June 1. Use a 8008 spray tip. Bagworms have probably all hatched by now. The common insecticides have not been effective recently. Try the pyrethroids (Asana, Talstar, permethrin, Mavrik) or spinosad (SpinTor). SpinTor and Asana will be a good choice when trying to control the older bagworms if you are too busy now. If you ever control them one year, you're not likely to have them the following year. They are much easier to kill when small.

Mixing and Matching: Adding a liquid fertilizer to an insecticide and a fungicide complicates the safety when the temperature and humidity are high. Mixing two liquid pesticides actually complicates matters also. Use one liquid and one wettable powder if possible. Compatibility is important to avoid phytotoxicity. What has been safe 100 times, may burn one day, but not kill.


JUDO RECEIVES FEDERAL REGISTRATION

Judo miticide/insecticide from OHP Inc. received U.S. EPA registration for ornamental plants, flowers and foliage. OHP is in the process of state registrations and expects the product to be commercially available in July. Active ingredient is spiromesifen (45.2%), which is in the tetramic acid chemistry class. It is effective against all life cycle stages of both mites and whiteflies and is soft on beneficials. It has translaminar activity and exhibits 28-day residual activity. It is packaged in 8-ounce containers.

For a wealth of information go to the Green Beam web site at http://www.greenbeam.com. The weekly newsletter is edited by David Kuack.


BIOPLEX AND GOLDENRAINTREE

This research project was conducted to determine the effects of transplanting and biostimulant application on transpiration rates and the survival and post-transplant growth of field grown goldenraintree (Koelrueteria paniculata). Reducing short term water loss could be potentially beneficial to the initial survival of the plants. The goldenraintree was chosen as it is a coarse-rooted, difficult to transplant species and is rarely dug in the summer. Goldenraintree's high leaf area-to-xylem diameter ratio suggests that when stressed it may not be able to adequately supply water to the shoots.

Researchers found that even with undersized rootballs and summer digging, the goldenraintrees survived transplanting and showed minimal signs of drought stress. It is speculated that, because of the thick wax on the leaves, there was minimal wilting and defoliation. Findings of this study suggest that poor transplant survival and re-growth of summer-harvested trees may be caused by stresses other than biological limitations that deal with root regeneration. Trees in this study did not have to deal with being taken long distances or being out of the ground for long. The authors concluded that transportation to and maintenance at job sites may be the greatest causes of poor transplant survival than root regeneration characteristics. More careful handling might reduce transplant losses and speed establishment.

If Bioplex had an effect, the best way to apply it is as a foliar spray, half of the volume needed to give a similar reduction when applied as a soil drench. There was no advantage in combining foliar and soil drench treatments.

(from "Effect of Bioplex on Transplant Success and Recovery of Summer-dug Goldenraintree" by Jonathan D. Sammons and Daniel K. Struve, published in J. Environ. Hort. 23(2):59-62. June 2005).


MONOLITHIC SLAG AS A SUBSTRATE

A variety of organic and mineral components may be used as rooting substrates in cutting propagation provided they have adequate water-holding capacity, maintain substrate aeration, are free of pests and pathogens, and are not phytotoxic. Composted organic wastes and inorganic byproducts may serve as suitable substrate components in areas where such materials are available and inexpensive. For growers who produce rooted cuttings for export as bareroot plants or prefer marketing and lower shipping costs of bareroot plants for sale domestically, the ability to remove substrate particals from root systems with minimum labor may also be a desirable substrate property.

Monolithic slag produced as a by-product of smelting operations, has some of these desired characteristics. This research has shown that rooting of stem cuttings of selected taxa in monolithic slag is comparable to results obtained with other substrate components. Particles of monolithic slag can be dislodged readily from root systems, without the need for extensive washing with pressurized water, when rooted cuttings must be shipped in a soil-free form. Monolithic slag is comparable to sand in weight and comparable to coarse perlite and vermiculite in particle size distribution, but has a lower water-holding capacity than these conventional substrate components.

Monolithic slag is a product of smelting operations, sold as a byproduct for use as an aggregate for fill lines, drainage lines and driveways. It is black in color, odorless and nonhazardous. Workers need to use work gloves, safety glasses and a dust respirator. Cost is similar to that of sand. This research compared adventitious rooting and initial shoot growth response of stem cuttings of four ornamental taxa rooted in monolithic slag compared with five common substrates and evaluated the amount of substrate particles that remain attached to root systems of these same cuttings upon bare-rooting.

Overall, rooting and initial shoot growth of cuttings of all taxa in the monolithic slag was very satisfactory compared to the other substrates. If bare-rooting of cuttings with maximum removal of substrate particles without washing is an objective, monolithic slag appears to provide the best results. If maximum removal of substrate particles must be accomplished, use of monolithic slag or sand, combined with a gentle washing, can give optimal results. Further research is needed to determine whether monolithic slag is suitable for use in substrate blends for both propagation and production. Also the ability to reuse this material for repeated crops needs to be investigated.

(from "Monolithic Slag as a Substrate for Rooting and Bare-Rooting Stem Cuttings" by Eugene K. Blythe, Jeff L. Sibley, Ken M. Tilt, and Bertram Zinner, published in J. Environ. Hort. 23(2):67-71. June 2005).


RESISTANCE OF SHRUB AND GROUNDCOVER ROSES TO
BLACKSPOT AND CERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT

This study was undertaken to determine the susceptibility of Meidiland, as well as other selected shrub and ground cover roses, to black spot and powdery mildew in a simulated landscape planting and to assess the impact of fungicide inputs on disease severity and plant growth.

In March and early April, newly unfurled leaves were free of symptoms of black spot. On the most black spot-susceptible roses, significant lesion formation and leaf chlorosis that appeared in early to mid-May was quickly followed in mid- to late June by noticeable premature defoliation. Lesion formation and premature defoliation intensified through the summer until peaking in September or October. In contrast, noticeable leaf spotting and premature defoliation on the more black spot-resistant selections was usually delayed until August or September. Significant differences in the severity of black spot were noted among shrub and ground cover roses that were not treated with chlorothalonil. Black spot was found on approximately 70% of the rose selections screened. Flower Carpet, White Flower Carpet and The Fairy were black spot resistant but they were damaged by Cercospora leaf spot.

Development of Cercospora leaf spot on susceptible rose selections closely paralleled that observed for black spot. Symptoms of Cercospora leaf spot were found on all of the rose selections that were not damaged by black spot.

Historically, black spot and other diseases have often heavily damaged roses in landscapes across Alabama. Intensive fungicide programs, which are often required to control black spot and maintain plant health, have discouraged the installation of roses in residential and commercial landscapes. The disease-resistant shrub and ground roses have the potential to greatly broaden the market for these plants.

Ice Meidiland, Mystic Meidiland, Red Cascade, Pink Pet, Hansa and Pink Grootendorst suffered from less leaf spotting and premature defoliation. All of these roses probably can be maintained in a residential landscape with no more than monthly applicaitons of a recommended fungicide. Those selections that suffered the least Cercospora leaf spot damage and could be maintained with minimal fungicide protection were Polar Ice, Fuchsia Meidiland, and Fire Meidiland. Heat sensitive roses were: Knock Out, Magic Carpet, Flower Carpet, and White Flower Carpet. Chlorothalonil-induced injury was also seen on First Light, Flower Carpet, Hansa, Happy Trails, Magic Carpet, Mystic Meidiland, Nozomi, and Raven. When compared with the untreated controls, the growth indices were usually higher for the fungicide-protected plants of most of the susceptible and a few of the partially disease resistant rose selections.

(From "Resistance of Shrub and Groundcover Roses to Black Spot and Cercospora Leaf Spot, and Impact of Fungicide Inputs on the Severity of Both Diseases" by A.K. Hagan, M.E. Rivas-Davila, J.R. Akridge, and J.W. Olive, published in the J. Environ. Hort. 23(2):77-85. June 2005).

IMPROVING THE SURVIVAL AND PRODUCTION OF CONTAINER GROWN KALMIA LATIFOLIA

Improving survival of transplanted, container-grown mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) may encourage increased commercial production and use of this native plant species. This research examined the effects of initial plant size and landscape exposure of transplanted mountain laurel. Results indicated that in warmer climates planting mountain laurel in shaded locations may improve survival. Mountain laurel transplanted from 2 gallon containers outperformed mountain laurel transplanted from 1 quart containers after 3 or 4 years in the landscape. Growers may want to market mountain laurel earlier in its production cycle to achieve a higher container volume:top ratio that may improve landscape establishment.

(from "Initial Plant Size and Landscape Exposure Affect Establishment of Transplanted Kalmia latifolia 'Olympic Wedding'" by Amy N. Wright, Stuart L. Warren, Frank A. Blazich, J. Roger Harris, and Robert D. Wright, published in J. Environ. Hort. 23(2):91-96. June 2005).


PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT - APRIL 2005

Jackie Mullen, Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Auburn
Jim Jacobi, Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Birmingham
Charles Ray, Research Fellow IV-Auburn

Auburn Plant Disease Report-April 2005 (J. Mullen)
April was generally cooler than normal, at least night temperatures in many parts of the state were below normal. Late April and May are usually months where we see a number of turf grass samples. Many of these samples are not disease problems but are related to winter-time injury.

We have seen Cercospora leaf spot and bacterial leaf spots as fairly common occurrences on kudzu. Clover samples have mostly contained thrips and spider mite damage (C. Ray). Check with Ed Sikora if you have questions.

Cercospora leaf spot was our most commonly seen leaf spot disease in April. We found it on cleyera, clover, hydrangea, rhododendron, and Rubus. More recently, we have seen it on kudzu. We tend to see Cercospora leaf spot before temperatures increase, but some species are more heat tolerant. Sanitation and protective fungicides are often recommended in landscape situations.

We have received our first few landscape samples for Sudden Oak Death, and thus far ELISA tests have been negative for Phytophthora.

April Plant Diseases Seen In The Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab
PLANTPROBLEMCOUNTY
AmaryllisFusarium Bulb RotCovington
AmaryllisStagnospora Leaf SpotCovington
AzaleaExobasidium GallLee
CentipedeAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Jefferson
CentipedeSuspect Winter-Related DamageJefferson
CleyeraCercospora Leaf SpotBaldwin
CloverCercospora Leaf SpotMarengo, Washington, Wilcox
GardeniaAnthracnose Leaf SpotGA
HibiscusBacterial Leaf SpotLee
Hydrangea, Oak LeafCercospora Leaf SpotMarshall
ImpatiensRhizoctonia Crown RotLee
IrisHeterosporium Leaf SpotLee
KudzuBacterial Leaf SpotHenry, Washington
OakArmillaria Wood/Root RotTalladega
OakHypoxylon CankerTalladega
OakOak Leaf BlisterLee
PhotiniaEntomosporium Leaf SpotLee
RhododendronCercospora Leaf SpotCalhoun
RhododendronPestalotia Leaf SpotFayette
RubusCercospora Leaf SpotLee
St. AugustineBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Choctaw, Jefferson
*Counties are not reported for nursery, greenhouse, and golf course samples.

Monthly Plant Problem Report From The Birmingham Lab (J. Jacobi)
Some of the problems seen last month included azalea and camellia leaf gall, pine needle rust, Japanese maple scale on waxleaf ligustrum (privet). Japanese maple scale was identified by Dr. Charles Ray and has not been previously recorded in Alabama.

Camellia leaf gall is caused by a fungus (Exobasium camellia) and has been a common problem this spring. As new leaves develop they are thickened, fleshy and off-color. The disease is more common on Sasanqua than Japonica varieties of camellia. Fungicides are seldom necessary in home landscapes. Handpick and destroy galls before the lower leaf surface breaks open and the white powdery growth appears. Even though the disease is primarily a cosmetic problem, failing to remove and destroy galls will result in more disease next spring. Avoid planting camellias in deep shade, where air circulation is poor.

Pine needle rust (Coleosporium spp.) infects pine, aster, and goldenrod. Diseased pine needles have small, delicate cream colored blisters containing masses of orange spores. The fungus cannot spread from pine tree to pine tree but must alternate from pine and goldenrod or aster. Wind-blown spores from goldenrod or aster infect pine needles in summer and fall. The following spring the cream colored pustules develop and the needles may drop. Young trees may be stunted, but older trees are seldom damaged. Where practical, destroying the alternate host plants (aster and goldenrod) breaks the life cycle of the fungus and controls the disease. Hand-removal, mowing or the use of herbicides can be used to eliminate the goldenrod and aster in the vicinity of the pines. Chemical control is usually not necessary under forest or landscape conditions.

APRIL 2005 Plant Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab
PLANTPROBLEMCOUNTY
AzaleaLeaf Gall (Exobasidium)Jefferson (2)
Boxwood, CommonLeafminerJefferson (2)
Boxwood, CommonVolutella BlightJefferson
Camellia, SasanquaLeaf Gall (Exobasdium)Jefferson (2)/Shelby
Camellia, SasanquaTea ScaleJefferson
CherrylaurelSouthern Red MitesJefferson
CherrylaurelWhite Peach ScaleJefferson
Clematis, EvergreenBrown Soft Scale/Sooty MoldJefferson
CleyeraSouthern Red MitesJefferson
Clover, CrimsonCercospora Leaf SpotDekalb
CryptomeriaPlanted Too DeepJefferson
Cypress, LeylandBotryosphaeria Canker Shelby
Dogwood, FloweringSpot AnthracnoseJefferson (2)
EuonymusPowdery MildewJefferson
GardeniaCitrus Whiteflies/Sooty MoldCoosa
Holly, ChineseCottony Camellia ScaleJefferson
Juniper, ShoreArmillaria Root RotShelby
KudzuHalo Blight (Pseudomonas)St. Clair/Marshall/
Talladega/Etowah
Ligustrum, WaxleafCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
Ligustrum, WaxleafJapanese Maple Scale(Lopholeucaspis)Jefferson
Oak, WhiteWool Sower GallJefferson
Magnolia, SouthernAlgal Leaf SpotJefferson
Magnolia, SouthernPhyllosticta Leaf SpotJefferson
PansyPythium and Crown Root RotJefferson
Pine, LoblollyPine Needle RustJefferson
RhododendronCercospora Leaf Spot/Winter DamageJefferson
RoseRose Mosaic (Virus)Jefferson

AUBURN INSECT REPORT - APRIL 2005 (C. Ray)
COUNTY CROP CATEGORY SPECIMEN NAME
Cullman . Turf Digger Bee
Jefferson Mulch Miscellaneous A Wireworm
Jefferson Mulch Miscellaneous Bibionid Larva
Cullman Landscape Timbers Miscellaneous A Moth
Montgomery Kwanzan Cherry Ornamentals Asian Ambrosia Beetle &
Camphor Shoot Beetle
Montgomery Willow Ornamentals Willow Leaf Beetle Larva
Muscogee, GA Gardenia Ornamentals Citrus Whiteflies, Yellow Mites
Jefferson Woody Ornamental Ornamentals Stem Borer-Chalcoid Larva
& Bird? Damage
Russell Crape Myrtle Ornamentals Asian Ambrosia Beetle

Disease Possibilities For May
As is usual in May, we are seeing an abundance of turf grass samples. Thus far, many of our turf samples have involved non-infectious situations as is typically the case for turf problems sent to us in April and early May. We have, also, seen brown patch and take-all patch disease recently. Also, powdery mildew diseases and anthracnose leaf spots have been noted on a variety of plants.


UPCOMING EVENTS

June 22-25, 2005:
Southeast Greenhouse Conference and Trade Show.
Palmetto Center, Greenville SC
For information go to
www.sgcts.org

June 25, 2005:
Crape Myrtle Conference.
The Collin County Community College Campus in McKinney, Texas.
For registration and location information see the above article.

August 11-13, 2005:
SNA 2005.
Georgia World Congress Center, Building C.
If you have any additional questions, please contact the SNA Office:
Southern Nursery Association, Inc.
1827 Powers Ferry Road SE Ste 4-100
Atlanta, GA 30339-8422
Voice: (770) 953-3311
Fax: (770) 953-4411
Email: mail@sna.org
Website: http://www.sna.org

August 25-27, 2005:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

September 16-18 2005:
Southern Christmas Tree Association Annual Meeting.
Beavers Christmas Tree Farm
Trafford, Alabama.
For more information go to www.southernchristmastrees.org

September 9-10, 2005:
The Southern Plant Conference.
Louisville, Kentucky.
Contact: Matt Gardiner, KY Coordinator, 502-245-0238: e-mail, matthew624@aol.com; or Betsie Taylor, KNLA Exec. Dir., 350 Village Drive, Frankfort, KY 40601; 502-848-0055 or 800-735-9791, Fax 502-848-0032 e-mail knla@mis.net
URL: http://www.knla.org
or Danny Summers at SNA, 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636; e-mail, danny@mail.sna.org;
URL: http://www.sna.org

September 24-30, 2005
Alabama Farmers Federation Horticultural Tour.
Niagra Region of Canada
Contact Brian Hardin at 800-392-5705, ext.4217 or bhardin@alfafarmers.org

September 30 - October 1, 2005:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 3-4, 2005
North Alabama Middle Tennessee Tour
Hosted by Alabama Nursery and Landscape Association
For more information contact Linda VanDyke at ALNLA: 334-821-5148

January 5-6, 2006:
Mid-States Horticultural Expo.
Kentucky Fairgrounds, Louisville, Kentucky.
NOTE: Kentucky will host this new winter trade show. The event was created with cooperation from the Kentucky Nursery & Landscape Association, the Tennessee Nursery & Landscape Association, and the Southern Nursery Association. The Kentucky Fairgrounds is a 400-acre facility with more than 1 million square feet of indoor space.

February 2-4, 2006:
Gulf States Horticultural Expo.
Mobile Convention Center, Mobile, Alabama.
For more information email: info@gshe.org
Voicemail: 334-502-7777
Fax: 334-502-7711

August 24-26, 2006:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

October 6-7, 2006:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

August 23-25, 2007:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401, 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503.682.5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

October 5-6, 2007:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
For more information contact Ann Halcomb by: phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/


Send horticultural questions and comments to ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu.

Send questions and comments to fischbr@auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.