June 2002


Hello and welcome to June!

Hydrangea Lovers Time to Shine

We missed last month due to a cantankerous computer. I will not go into details because anyone who has had a computer has seen the dreaded blue screen. It probably results from a Microsoft computer nerd who embedded a secret string of programming code in every operating system that locks up your computer to frustrate you enough to buy the next upgrade of their software that promises no more crashes. Did anyone see “A Beautiful Mind”? As Dr. Pat Cobb, our great AU young retired entomologist once philosophized to me after one of my many other major blunders, “Did anyone die, Ken”? That puts things in perspective. Nuff said.

I will start where my memory is freshest. I just returned from the Hydrangea Meeting (maybe I should say THE Hydrangea Meeting) sponsored by the Center for Applied Research at McCorkle Nurseries in Dearing, Georgia. Between 100 and 200 back yard plant nuts and assorted nursery growers along with us government employees gathered to hear the A to Z of hydrangeas. It was a great meeting and I quickly ascended to a higher level on the learning curve. Of course, as you know, the higher you get on that curve, the steeper the curve gets or as is often said, “the more you know, the more you see that you do not know……" or something like that.

Some of the heart stopping macrophylla cultivars that I saw included: ‘Ayesha’, ‘Lemon Zest’, ‘Goliath’, ‘Penny Mac’, ‘Dooley’, ‘Pretty Maiden’, ‘Sister Therese’, ‘Preziosa’ plus a host of others. I am sure I have left out 5 or 10 “gotta-haves”. Look out for the “remontant” (I learned that meant come-backers or repeaters or recurrent) bloomers. ‘Endless Summer', which is pink in our

Hydrangea mycrophylla 'Endless Summer'

which is pink in our pictures, will be blue in acid soil but will set bud, bloom and repeat after 10 to 12 weeks. Breeding is underway to bring many more along.

There are a host of lacecap cultivars that are enough to make you send in your dues to be a member of the National Society of Hydrangeas ($15). Some cultivars that caught my eye were ‘Veithcii’ (breeding work with this cultivar has great promise for new things in the near future), ‘Kardinal’, ‘Blue Billow’, ‘Blue Wave’, and ‘Grayswood’.

Hydrangea paniculata cultivars that require your attention include ‘White Moth’ (a possible tree form), ‘Pink Diamond’, ‘Chantilly Lace’ introduced by Kay Bowman at the Center for Applied Nursery Research (this name should be irresistible to the baby boomer group), ‘Unique’, ‘True Unique’, and ‘Floribunda’.

Everyone needs a collection of our Alabama State flower, Hydrangea quercifolia. Most of the

Oak leaf hydrangea

cultivars come from northern Alabama. ‘Snowflake’, ‘Snow Queen’, ‘Harmony’, ‘Peewee’, and ‘Alice’ are all great and worthy of being in every landscape in Alabama. I just left mine in bloom at home and they represent Alabama well. We need to make sure every Alabama citizen has at least 2 or 3 and that they are prominently displayed at the State Capitol.

‘Annabelle’ is a cultivar of Hydrangea arborescens and has won every award possible as a plant

Hydrangea arborescens 'Annabelle'

introduction. It still has not made the impact that it should in the gardening world. No one sees these plants without pulling out the checkbook. ‘Hayes Starburst’ is a new introduction and has all florets as double with a cascading, waterfall effect. It was found as a chance seedling in the garden of Hayes Jackson, a county agent in Anniston and a certified plant eccentric. I talked with Hayes and he said he lost his original plant to voles and will have to go to Nurseries Caroliniana in North Augusta, SC to get a replacement plant. This shows the value of getting your treasures out as quickly as possible in case a tragedy of this kind occurs.

A plant that we brought back from China that we were very excited about having as a new and exciting introduction was Dichroa febrifuga. However, as I attend many meetings I have found that collectors and now landscapers are using this plant in designs already. Our selection may offer some advantages but these plants are available on a limited basis. It is an evergreen hydrangea relative with a lacecap flower. It is hardy in Zones 8 – 10 but needs shade and protection from the wind to offer its best side. I look forward to watching this plant over the years and getting it out to the trade.

Decumaria barbara, woodvamp or native climbing hydrangea, is one of the lesser known plants that was offered as one of those plants that you can not understand why gardeners are not lining up at the nursery gates to have. It is a beautiful deciduous clinging, climbing vine that has glossy leaves and is great for a shady arbor. You can find a picture of this vine on our Plant ID Resource option on our web page at www.ag.auburn.edu/landscape. Click on the Plant ID button and type in Decumaria.

Some comments of interest that were made about hydrangeas at this meeting were that:

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:

A DAZZLING ARRAY OF AZALEAS

VINEGAR: A POTENT HERBICIDE

FLORIDA HORTICULTURE

FUNGICIDES FOR TREATMENT OF LEAF SPOT DISEASE

POINSETTIA CONSUMER PREFERENCES

ACER PALMATUM ORANGEOLA FOR WEEPING

PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

UPCOMING EVENTS


A DAZZLING ARRAY OF AZALEAS

Below is a small sampling of azaleas from the study being conducted at the Auburn University Piedmont Sub-Station in Camp Hill, Alabama. Over 600 varieties from a number of nurseries were planted there.

5-3985-32-7
Apricot HoneyCarolyn
ChansonCherie (Gartell)
ChojuhoConversation
Dawn ElizabethDorothy Reese
Dream X GunnGekkeikan
GillieHaru-No-Hibiki
Irish CreamKeepsake
Lady LouiseMaxie West
Nuccio's Razzle DazzleNuccio's Voodoo
Peg HuggerPurple Magic
S-53Saint James
SensuousSir Robert
V-14-1 (GAR)Watchet
Whipped CreamWhite Moon


VINEGAR: A POTENT HERBICIDE

The United States Department of Agriculture has found vinegar to be a potent herbicide and an inexpensive and organic alternative. Researchers tested vinegar made from fruits or grains to conform to organic farming standards on common lamb's-quarters, giant foxtail, velvetleaf, smooth pigweed and Canada thistle. Concentrations of 5% and 10% killed weeds less than 2 weeks old. Older weeds required higher vinegar concentrations such as 20%. At higher concentrations, vinegar had an 85%-100% kill rate at all growth stages. For more information contact: teasdale@ba.ars.usda.gov

(from Todd Davis, Weekly NMPRO e-mail for May 28, 2002).


FLORIDA HORTICULTURE

Final results of an economic impact study of Florida horticulture are in. In 2000, the state's green industry had sales of $9.9 billion, an increase of 33% from 1997. Grower sales nurseries, sod farms and florist products rose to $2.25 billion. Landscape sales totaled $3.11 billion. Horticulture provided 188,000 jobs in Florida in 2000, an increase of 13% from 1997.

For more information go to http://hortbusiness.ifas.ufl.edu/EIR02-3.pdf

(from Todd Davis, Weekly NMPRO e-mail for May 28, 2002).


FUNGICIDES FOR TREATMENT OF LEAF SPOT DISEASES

Those who grow ornamental crops are familiar with fungal leaf spot diseases. It is almost impossible to accurately identify these diseases unless you send a sample to a laboratory. If you know which disease you are dealing with you will be more able to choose the correct product. Fungal leaf diseases rarely kill plants but they disfigure them, resulting in financial losses.

Plant pathologists stress the importance of using cultural control strategies to control these problems. Their suggestions include: minimizing exposure to overhead irrigation and rainfall; employing pathogen-free seeds, cuttings and plugs; using resistant cultivars. Obviously, if your crops are outside some of these suggestions are unworkable.

Currently, fungicides are the most common and often only line of defense a grower has against the fungal leaf spot diseases. Growers often select very wide spectrum fungicides to cover a variety of problems. There are a number of products that have been on the market for many years as well as newly developed formulas. The responsible grower needs to rotate between products so that he/she is using more than a single active ingredient.

Effects of Fungicides on
Alternaria leaf spot of impatiens
TREATMENTDISEASE CONTROL
B-Nine WSGSome
BonziSome
Chipco 26GTExcellent
Chipco 26GT/CamelotExcellent
Compass 50WSome - very good
Daconil UltrexExcellent
Daconil Weather StikExcellent
Heritage 50WDGSome - very good
Manzate 75DFVery good
Manzate/CamelotVery good
Medallion 50WExcellent
PathGuard 6FSome - excellent
PathGuard/CamelotVery good
PathGuard 90DFExcellent
Phyton 27Good
Stature WPVery good
Stature/CapsilVery good
Terraguard 50WExcellent - none/
Sometimes phytotoxic
Sextant 25EExcellent

A number of leaf spot tests were performed on impatiens to study Alternaria leaf spot. During those tests it was found that growth regulators affect leaf spot development. More studies are needed.

Anthracnose diseases were also studied on azalea, cordyline, euonymus and lupine. The results of that study follow:

Cumulative summary of Anthracnose control
on ornamentals
FUNGICIDERESULT
Banner MaxxSome
Camelot 1Some
ConSyst WDGSome
CygnusGood
Daconil Weather StikSome to good
Dithane WFGood
Domain 50WNone
Heritage 50WGood
Kocide 101 77WGood
Medallion 50WPVery good
Ornalin FLSome
PathGuard 6FSome
Phyton 27 6FGood
Protect T/OSome to good
RH-0611Some to excellent
SysTec 1998 WDGNone
Systhane WSPGood
Terraguard 50WNone
Zyban WSBGood
3336 4.5FNone to excellent

There are many things to consider when deciding how best to deal with leaf spot diseases: disease pressure, ease of application and direct fungicide costs. The most cost-effective approach is prevention in combination with cultural disease controls such as pathogen-free plugs or cuttings and the minimization of overhead irrigation. Also, be very careful to follow product labeling.

(from "Fungicides for Leaf Spot Diseases of Ornamentals" by Ann Chase, published in GPN, April 2002).

POINSETTIA CONSUMER PREFERENCES

Consumer surveys were conducted at Purdue University and the University of Florida. Results were interesting in that consumers appear to appreciate new varieties.

Ten red, 10 novelty and 125 different poinsettia cultivars were placed on display in the conservatory greenhouse at White River Gardens, Indianapolis, Indiana from late November until late December 2001. 861 survey forms were completed for the 125 cultivars, 1,073 for the red and 1,239 for the novelty groups. There didn't seem to be any significant difference between age, gender and purchase characteristics of the consumers in the survey.

Orange-colored bracts did not attract consumer attention in the survey. Also, Freedom Red, which has been extremely popular in the past, was not very highly rated in either survey, red or overall.

FAVORITE RED CULTIVARS AT PURDUE:
  1. Strawberry Punch
  2. Bright Red Sails
  3. Success Red
  4. Victory Red
  5. Prestige Red
  6. Freedom Red
  7. Winterfest Red
  8. Mondial Red
  9. Peterstar Orange
  10. Christmas Spirit
OVERALL PREFERENCES AT PURDUE:
  1. Sonora White Glitter
  2. Monet Twilight
  3. Strawberries 'N Cream
  4. Success Coral
  5. Lemon Snow
  6. Redberry Punch
  7. Deluxe Red
  8. Carousel
  9. Maren
  10. Nutcracker Pink
  11. Strawberry Punch
  12. Cortez Burgundy
  13. Winter Rose Dark Red
  14. Bright Red Sails
  15. Freedom Fireworks
  16. Freedom Red
  17. Red Velvet
  18. Christmas Cookie
  19. Jester Jingle
  20. Winter Rose Deep Pink
  21. Holly Point
  22. Jingle Bells 4.0
  23. Silverstar Red
  24. Winter Rose Pink
  25. Freedom Rose

FAVORITE NOVELTY CULTIVARS AT PURDUE:

  1. Sonora White Glitter
  2. Carousel
  3. Plum Pudding
  4. Holly Point
  5. Pepride Marble
  6. Winter Rose Dark Red
  7. Da Vinci
  8. Heirloom Peach
  9. Avant Garde
  10. Marblestar

At the University of Florida poinsettia trials 316 participants completed surveys. There was a definite preference for novelty varieties.

OVERALL PREFERENCES IN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA STUDY:

  1. Monet Twilight
  2. Cortez Burgundy
  3. Sonora White Glitter
  4. Winter Rose Dark Red
  5. Strawberries and Cream
  6. Success Coral
  7. Carousel
  8. Freedom Rose
  9. Santa Claus Marble
  10. Max Red
  11. V-07B
  12. Lemon Snow
  13. Marblestar
  14. Eternity Red
  15. Plum Pudding
  16. Success Red
  17. White Christmas
  18. Whitestar
  19. Coco Pink
  20. Cranberry Punch
  21. Nutcracker Pink
  22. Christmas Spirit
  23. Pizarro
  24. Strawberry Punch
  25. Pepride Pink

The Florida study did comparisons between groups of plants. Respondents were asked their preference between two dark red poinsettias. Sixty-six percent chose Chianti and 34% chose Freedom Red. Respondents were asked their preference for red bract color: 45% chose Christmas Cookie, 40% chose Orion and 15% chose Cortez Dark Red. When asked to choose between Cortez Burgundy and Plum Pudding, 67% chose the former and 33% chose the latter.

From the University of Florida surveys it appears that novelty cultivars are more appealing than the traditional favorites. Growers must be careful in their selections, though, as many of the new cultivars are challenging to grow.

(from "Which Poinsettias do Consumers Prefer?" by Jim Barrett, Rick Schoellhorn and Allen Hammer, published in GPN, April 2002).

ACER PALMATUM ORANGEOLA FOR WEEPING

Below are photos of Acer palmatum orangeola. It was planted along a wall with other Japanese maples that are known for their weeping growth habit. You can see the superior weeping trait of this variety.


PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

MARCH PLANT DISEASES FROM THE
AUBURN AND BIRMINGHAM PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LABS

AUBURN PLANT DISEASE REPORT- APRIL
Jackie Mullen
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist

April was a busy month for plant samples with the 136 plant samples submitted. Many of these samples were ornamentals, and turf samples were numerous during the last week of April. Anthracnose diseases and Phytophthora root/crown rots were seen on several samples.

Anthracnose diseases are leaf spot/blight diseases caused by a group of fungi that produce a particular type of fruiting structure. Last month we saw anthracnose leaf spot/blight diseases on Hosta, Hydrangea, Jade, Asiatic lily, Mexican heather, and strawberry. The Hydrangea, Jade, Asiatic lily, and Mexican heather samples showed the usual leaf spot and blight symptoms characteristic of anthracnose. The specific leaf spot characteristic vary with the particular fungus and plant. Many anthracnose diseases are caused by the fungus Colletotrichum. Generally, leaf spots tend to be round or oval and pale in the centers. Fruiting bodies often develop and appear as scattered black, cream, or orange specks on the surface of the leaf spots. Sometimes, these bodies are arranged in ring-like patterns.

Anthracnose leaf spots sometimes are described as zonate spots and the zonation often relates to the fruiting body arrangement. Disease control involves sanitation, reducing humidity levels, and sometimes the application of protective fungicide sprays.

Phytophthora crown rot or root rot was diagnosed on aucuba, boxwood, Yoshino cherry, and desert rose. Also, late blight was identified on Irish potato in Baldwin County. The crown and root rot diseases were typical of Phytophthora. Tissues developed a wet, watersoaked, dark brown, rotted characteristic. Outer cortex layers easily pulled away from the inner central cylinder. These diagnoses were made by ELISA and culture work. Phytophthora, like Pythium, requires wet conditions in order to be active. The late blight on the Irish potato showed the usual black, wet, spreading foliage blight typical of late blight. With Phytophthora root and crown rots, damaged plants should be removed and destroyed. Water levels in the area should be closely monitored. Soil or media drainage should be good. Protective fungicide drenches are usually recommended only in nursery or greenhouse situations. For late blight of field Irish potato, protective fungicide sprays are usually necessary.

Fireblight on ornamental pear has been noted. Usually the bacteria enter through the blossoms and then blight spreads downward from that point. Pruning severely, 9-12 inches from the damage, is usually recommended as the bacteria may spread to a considerable distance from the noticeable blight symptoms.

April 2002 Plant Diseases Seen In The Plant Diagnostic Lab at Auburn

PLANTDISEASECOUNTY
Aucuba Phytophthora Root Rot Butler
Boxwood Phytophthora Root Rot Colbert
Centipede Brown Patch (Rhizoctonia) Barbour, Mobile
Centipede Take-All Patch/Stress
(Gaeumannomyces graminis cv. graminis)
Butler
Cherry, Yoshino Phytophthora Root Rot *
Cowpea Fusarium Seedling Disease Mobile
Desert Rose Phytophthora Stem Rot *
Dogwood Botryosphaeria Canker Escambia
English Ivy Root Rot (Pythium) Lee
Euonymus Powdery Mildew Russell
Gerbera Daisy Powdery Mildew *
Hosta Colletotrichum Leaf Spot Lee
Hydrangea Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Covington
Hydrangea Botrytis Blight Covington
Indian Hawthorn Entomosporium Leaf Spot Pike
Irish Potato Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) Mobile
Jade Colletotrichum Blight Lee
Leyland Cypress Seiridium Canker Lee
Ligustrum Cercospora Leaf Spot Tuscaloosa
Lily, Asiatic Colletotrichum Leaf Spot *
Mexican Heather Colletotrichum Leaf Spot/Canker Bullock
Pansy Myrothecium Crown Rot Lee
Pear, Oriental Fireblight (Erwinia amylovora) Lee
Rose Brown Canker (Diaporthe umbrina) Montgomery
Rose, Climbing Virus or Mycoplasma Covington
Shamrock Possible Virus *
Strawberry Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Blount, Limestone
Strawberry Botrytis Blight Blount, Limestone
Tomato Leaf Mold (Cladosporium) Tuscaloosa
Turnips Cercospora Leaf Spot Macon
Turnips Virus Macon
Wheat Suspect Soilborne
Wheat Mosaic Virus Complex
Limestone
Zoysia Brown Patch (Rhizoctonia) Lee
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery samples.

BIRMINGHAM PLANT DISEASE REPORT- APRIL
J. Jacobi
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist

We received 120 samples for the month of April. Brown patch was the most common disease on turfgrass, with several samples on zoysiagrass and two samples from centipedegrass. Spider mites (southern red mite, spruce spider mite) were observed causing problems on several ornamental samples. A cabbage sample was brought in with a severe case of downy mildew. Downy mildew symptoms first appear as small spots on the leaves, which are first yellow but later turn brown with bluish-black irregular spots. In moist weather a downy white mold develops on the underside of the leaf spots. Downy mildew is promoted in cool, wet weather. The disease is most serious in seedbeds and young plants may be killed in only a few days. Bravo or Daconil (Homeowners), Aliette, and Kocide are labeled for downy mildew control in cabbage.

We also received samples and calls concerning Asian ambrosia beetles. These small beetles (c inch long) attack a wide range hosts in nursery and landscape settings. This spring we have received reports of damage to fig, crape myrtle, cherry, peach, oak, and Japanese maple. Plants recently installed in the landscape are particularly susceptible to Asian ambrosia beetles. Infestations can be identified by tooth pick-like strands of boring dust protruding up to a few inches from stems and branches of damaged plants. Heavily infested plants should be removed and destroyed. Insecticide applications to surrounding plants may help protect against infestation. The insecticide permethrin. (Astro and other formulations) has shown good efficacy against this pest. Follow label instruction carefully. More information on the identification and control of this pest can be found at the following web sites: www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/&T/trees/note111/note111.html and www.bugwood.org/factsheets/99-010.html

2002 April Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab

PLANTDISEASECOUNTY
Arborvitae Spruce Spider Mite Jefferson
Bentgrass Dollar Spot *
Bermudagrass Spring Dead Spot Blount
Bermudagrass Helminthosporium Leaf Spot *(2)
Bermudagrass Black Layer *
Boxwood, Common Boxwood Mite Jefferson
Boxwood, Common Poor Drainage Dallas
Boxwood, Common Phytophthora Root Rot Jefferson
Boxwood, Common Pythium Root Rot Jefferson
Cabbage Downy Mildew *
Centipedegrass Brown Patch Jefferson (2)
Cherry, Yoshino Cold Injury *
Cherrylaurel Botryosphaeria Canker Jefferson
Cherrylaurel Shothole Jefferson (2)
Cedar, Eastern Red Cedar Apple Rust Shelby
Cleome Edema Jefferson (2)
Cleome Spider Mites Jefferson
Clematis Cold Injury/Aphids Jefferson
Cleyera S. Red Mites Jefferson
Cypress, Leyland Seridium Canker Jefferson, Shelby
Dogwood, Flowering Spot Anthracnose Blount
Fig, Common Asian Ambrosia Beetle Jefferson (2)
Foxglove Two Spotted Spider Mite Jefferson
Hickory Phylloxera Galls Jefferson (2)
Ivy, English Spider Mites Jefferson
Juniper Spruce Spider Mite Jefferson
Leucothoe Cercospora Leaf Spot Jefferson
Lime Mealybugs, Sooty Mold Jefferson
Magnolia, Saucier Cold Injury Jefferson
Nemesia Virus, Undetermined *
Oak, Blackjack Oak Leaf Blister Jefferson
Oak, Nuttal Eastern Tent Caterprillar *
Oak, White Oak Tree Hoppers Jefferson
Oak, White Wool Sower Gall Jefferson
Palm Mealybugs, Spider Mites Jefferson
Pepper Aphids Jefferson
Pepper Fertilizer Injury Jefferson
Photinia Entomosporium Leaf Spot Jefferson
Pine, Loblolly Fusiform Rust Jefferson
Pine, Loblolly Needlecast (Ploioderma) Jefferson
Plum Black Knot Jefferson
Rhododendron Lacebugs Jefferson
Rose Cold Injury Jefferson
Smilax Spider Mites Jefferson
Tomato Fertilizer Injury Jefferson
Tomato Herbicide Injury Jefferson
Waxmyrtle Cottony Cushion Scale Jefferson
Willow, Weeping Willow Leaf Beetle Jefferson
Zoysiagrass Brown Patch Jefferson (4)

Disease Possibilities for May

As is usual in May, we are seeing an abundance of turf grass samples. Thus far, many of our turf samples have involved non-infectious situations as is typically the case for turf problems sent to us in April and early May. We have, however, seen a few cases of brown patch and take-all patch disease thus far this spring. Also seen recently are tan spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis) on wheat and a mosaic virus-like problem on wheat in some areas in North Alabama.

Go to: Disease Reports see a list of some common disease problems received in the lab during April of the past few years. Comments on control practices are brief. Refer to the fact sheets, timely informations, 2000 or 2001 spray guides, and the Alabama Pest Management Handbook for details.


UPCOMING EVENTS

April to October, 2002:
Floriade 2002.
See the AmeriGarden (5,400 square feet), part of the world horticulture exhibition in the Netherlands.
For more information call 808-961-6660 or visit
http://www.floriade.nl/ or http://www.amerigarden2002.com/

June 19 - 22, 2002:
Southeast Greenhouse Conference and Trade Show.
Greenville, South Carolina
Information for attendees call: 1-877-927-2775; for exhibitors call: 1-800-453-3070 URL: www.sgcts.org

July 12 - 15, 2002:
ANLA Convention & Executive Learning Retreat.
San Diego, CA. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; Fax, 202-789-1893
http://www.anla.org

July 25 - 27, 2002:
Cullowhee Conference: Native Plants in the Landscape.
Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina
For information call 770-922-7292.

August 1-4, 2002:
SNA 2002 - Southern Nursery Association Researcher’s Conference and Trade Show
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact SNA at 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636; e mail: mail@mail.sna.org
URL: http://www.sna.org

August 11-17, 2002:
American Society for Horticultural Science and XXVI International Horticultural Congress & Exhibition.
Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024, E-mail: ashs@ashs.org
URL: http://www.ashs.org
http://www.ihc2002.org

September 26, 2002:
Fletcher Field Day.
Ornamentals field day at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station in Fletcher, North Carolina.
Contact Dick Bir (rbir@fletcher.ces.state.nc.us) for more information.

September 29-October 2, 2002:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society NA and IPPS Southern Region NA Annual Meeting.
Hunt Valley (Baltimore), MD.
Contact Margot Bridgen at 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; 860-429-6818, E-mail: mbippser@neca.com or Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; ph. 817-577-9272; e-mail, dleemorgan@msn.com

October 4-5, 2002:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

January 15-17, 2003:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact: Rand Baldwin at 847-526-2010, Fax 847-526-3993, e-mail mail@midam.org
URL: http://www.midam.org

January 30 - February 02, 2003:
ANLA Management Clinic.
Louisville, KY.
Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; Fax, 202-789-1893
URL: http://www.anla.org

February 23-26, 2002:
Plasticulture 2002.
30th American Agricultural Plastics Congress
Contact ASP at 717-238-9762, Fax 717-239-9985, e-mail pheuser@calabreseheuser.org
URL: http://www.plasticulture.org

July 15 - 20, 2003:
ANLA Convention & Executive Learning Retreat.
Location TBA. Contact: ANLA, 202-789-2900; Fax, 202-789-1893.
URL: http://www.anla.org

July 30-August 2, 2003:
SNA 2003- Southern Nursery Association Researcher’s Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact SNA at 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636.
URL:http://www.sna.org

September 30 - October 4, 2003:
American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Meeting and 100th Anniversary.
Providence, RI.
Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024, E-mail: ashs@ashs.org
URL: http://www.ashs.org

October 3-4, 2003:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 5-8, 2003:
IPPS Southern Region NA.
San Antonio, TX.
Contact: Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; phone 817-577-9272; e-mail, dleemorgan@msn.com

July 29 - 31, 2004:
SNA 2004 - Southern Nursery Association Researcher’s Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact: SNA 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636
URL: http://www.sna.org

October 1-2, 2004:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 3-6, 2004:
IPPS Southern Region NA
Greenville/Spartanburg, S.C.
Contact: Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; phone 817-577-9272; e-mail, dleemorgan@msn.com

Send horticultural questions and comments to ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu.

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.