JUNE 2000

Greetings from Ken Tilt -

Hello to June and greetings from your Horticulture Department at Auburn University.

I hope all is well with everyone. Except for the lack of rain, it has been our most beautiful spring in many years. Gardenias and other plants are displaying a passion for life this year and are offering prolific fragrant flowers backed up by buds that promise a long flowering period. It is a great year to get hooked on gardening.

Having said that, I think we are going to have to redefine “it is a beautiful day” from clear and sunny with blue skies to one that is overcast and dreary with 100% chance of rain. We are never satisfied with the weather. As always, I need to be careful what I wish for. Next month we will probably have a dam breaking, ark building rain and I will be looking for the sun again. I have had calls from newspapers on the effect the lack of rain is having on our industry. I welcome you to correct me but I think nursery producers discovered a long time ago that we can not grow our high value crops and be totally dependent on nature’s irrigation schedule. The problem can come in the outflow of our products through the retail and landscape end as people get tired of the heat and their spades can not penetrate the rock hard soil. Our hope for rain is to keep the flow of our plants moving out the door. Irrigation contractors are probably doing well.

Has anyone seen the dreaded crapemyrtle disease this year?

We have and we still do not know what it is. Dr. Jeff Sibley has taken this project on as a personal crusade and has tested many theories with no breakthroughs. If you are looking at the web page, you can see a picture of the problem. It looks like a terrible nutritional deficiency of zinc or iron or possibly a virus. Jeff has chased those ideas and others but can not pin it down. If you know the answer you can put Jeff out of his misery. It apparently is much more prevalent on Tuskeegee and Tuscarora with a little on Natchez. The problem is seen only on the faureii crosses and not the indicas. I was at a nursery last week and there was a clear pattern in the crapemyrtle blocks as the cultivars changed.

At first glance the problem looks like you are going to have to make room in your trash pile but history shows that in the next flush of growth, things return to normal. These are the problems that make for job security for research faculty and give them the challenges they enjoy. If you have some information to share on this problem, please let us know.

Another problem that has surfaced this month that we have not seen for a while is fire blight on pears. This year it has been prevalent on Bradford pears that are supposed to be more resistant. There is still not much that can be done with the problem. Streptomycin sprays are more effective in the bloom stage. You should prune out the diseased, black, “shepards crook” branches and disinfect your shears between each cut. Our last serious outbreak of fire blight almost soured the public and the nurseries to growing and buying pears. Hopefully this will be a short term event.

We are highlighting our ground cover rose trials at the Brewton Experiment Station in this issue. This trial is led by Dr. Austin Hagan, our extension plant pathologist. I went down and took the pictures (included in the article below) before peak bloom. I need to schedule another trip. If you are near Brewton and would like to stop by, you are welcome to see this trial as well as the Rapheolepis trials that have been very revealing in their evaluation of resistance to entomosporium leaf spot.

Our e-mail questions are picking up and we are getting suggestions from time to time. We thank you for your comments and welcome your input at anytime. Have a nice June and keep those rain dances going.


The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:

UPDATE ON SHRUB AND GROUNDCOVER ROSES

2000 PEST MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK AVAILABLE ON LINE

WHEN POPULATIONS MEET THE FOREST

SPECIALTY GERANIUMS AND BACTERIAL BLIGHT

MANAGING FUNGUS GNATS - A COMMON SPRING PROBLEM

ANNOUNCING - GARDEN PATHWAYS

CHECK OUT THE PLANT MATERIALS PROGRAM WEBSITE

NOTES FROM KENTUCKY

VALENT'S PROFESSIONAL PRODUCTS DIVISION SELLS PRODUCTS ON-LINE

PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


UPDATE ON SHRUB AND GROUNDCOVER ROSES

In the June 1999 Something to Grow On we published some results from a 1998 study of selected shrub and groundcover roses with regard to their susceptibility to Black Spot and Cercospora Leaf Spot. Austin Hagan, Randy Akridge, and John Olive published the results of that ongoing study, including data from 1999, in the Fall 1999 issue of Highlights of Agricultural Research, a publication of the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station of Auburn University. Because of the problems caused by Black Spot and Cercospora Leaf Spot, 30 or more weekly fungicide sprays are typically required to protect most roses from these diseases and maintain their health and vigor. Very few commercial enterprises or homeowners are willing to do that. The study has identified several cultivars that are somewhat disease resistant.

Over the two year test period, the groundcover rose R. wichuraiana showed the best resistance to both of

these diseases, and this rose appears to tolerate hot, droughty conditions. The groundcover rose Red Cascade and shurub rose Nozomi also proved less susceptible to black spot than the majority of other roses. Both cultivars also are highly resistant or immune to Cercospora leaf spot. In its first year in this study, the shrub rose Pink Grootendorst suffered no more damage from black spot or Cercospora leaf spot than Red Cascade or Nozomi. Other than these few cultivars, it appears that protective fungicide sprays (weekly to possibly monthly). would be needed to maintain the beauty, health and vigor of the others.

Hansa did very well in the 1999 Black spot rating, scoring 1.4. The 1999 Cercospora Leaf Spot rating for Hansa was 1.0. There is no data for 1998 in either test.

The following may not have done that well on the test but are certainly worth being seen:

Pearl Sevillana

Jeepers Creepers

Nearly Wild

Livin' Easy

Livin' Easy

Rosa Mutabilis

Rosa Mutabilis

Ralph's Creepers

Ralph's Creepers

(from A Rose Is Not a Rose by Austin K. Hagan, Randy Akridge, and John Olive, published in Highlights of Agricultural Research, Vol. 46, No. 3, Fall 1999).


2000 PEST MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK AVAILABLE ON LINE

To access the 2000 Pest Management Handbook, published by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System please go to http://www.aces.edu/department/extcomm/publications/anr/anr-500A/2000PMHB.html.


WHEN POPULATIONS MEET THE FOREST

As the urban population moves further from city centers, we are faced with the interface of forests and people. Interface South was developed by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station and Southern Region to heighten awareness of this situation and its many ramifications. It provides information and tools to natural resource professionals, private landowners and homeowners.

More and more people are being drawn from urban settings to more natural places. In the process, forests are being fragmented and somewhat compromised. Lay and professional people must be mindful of our rich resources and the fact that proper planning will help to protect and enhance them.

This site, http://www.interfacesouth.org/index.html has a searchable data base where you can select a region, topic and keyword. The resource page features a calendar, links, photo gallery, downloadable brochures, and the Southern Group of State Foresters handbook. You can even sign up to participate in a number of forums. Please check it out. It is important for all of us.


SPECIALTY GERANIUMS AND BACTERIAL BLIGHT

Greenhouse growers should be very careful when growing specialty geraniums. There is a demand for these rather interesting plants as they look and smell different from their more common relatives. There are specialty geraniums with variegated or uniquely shaped leaves, unusual flower shapes and sizes and a wide variety of scents, from lemon to chocolate.

The problem is that some of these special geraniums can be a source of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii (Xcp) in the greenhouse. Some of the specialty species have been tested at the Ohio State University lab and found to have high levels of the bacterium in leaf and stem tissue. They do not look affected though. These can then transmit this problemmatic bacterium to seed and zonal geraniums.

It is essential that you segregate the specialty plant materials. Seed geraniums respond very quickly to these bacterium and can be overcome rapidly. When working with scented geraniums care must be taken as there is a very sticky residue left on hands of workers so it could be easily spread to other plants. If workers must handle specialty as well as seed and zonal geraniums hygiene is very critical. Hands must be washed with warm, soapy water before contacting non specialty plants.

Since this disease continues to be the cause of economic loss for growers, it would be wise to have your plants tested by a local university or state testing facility.

(from Stephen Nameth, the Ohio State University, Columbus, OH)

MANAGING FUNGUS GNATS - A COMMON SPRING PROBLEM

Darkwinged fungus gnats thrive in fresh peat or organic-based growing media, especially in the spring in greenhouses. They can spread soil-borne diseases and can damage roots and stems. The tiny white larvae have black heads and are especially delighted by zonal geraniums but they will also attack vinca, lilies, poinsettia, English ivy and petunia. The following is a table that demonstrates the control (by certain products) of fungus gnat larvae in 6 inch potted Easter lilies:

TREATMENTRATE PER 100 gallonsFUNGUS GNATS PER POT
Distance 0.86EC 12 oz. 0.2a
Citation 75W 2.66 oz. 0.4a
Adept 25W 1 oz. 7.0a
Marathon 60W 20g/850 pots 7.0a
Azatin XL 0.265EC 8 oz. 20.8ab
Precision 25W 4 oz. 22.9abc
Nematodes 38,000/sq. ft. 53.5d
DuraGuard ME 25 oz. 68.9de
Gnatrol 64 oz. 78.6def
KnoxOut GH 2FM 5 oz. 92.9efg
Conserve SC 6 oz. 86.6efg
Enstar II 5E 10 oz. 100.9fg
Water drench - 90.6efg

(from Dan Gilrein of GMPro, May 2000)

ANNOUNCING - GARDEN PATHWAYS

Garden Pathways, at http://gardenpathways.virtualave.net/index.html, is the new on-line newsletter of the Alabama Master Gardeners Association. It is written and published by Master Gardeners under the leadership of newsletter editor Liz Duthie (Mobile Co. MG). Garden Pathways allows you to access information about the history of the Master Gardener Program, contact an AMGA Board member by email, read archived articles and news about Master Gardeners around the state, as well as click on links to other useful websites.


CHECK OUT THE PLANT MATERIALS PROGRAM WEBSITE

The United States Department of Agriculture and the Natural Resources Conservation Service's Plant Materials Program can be accessed at http://Plant-Materials.nrcs.usda.gov:90/. The Program was established to develop plant materials and plant technology for the conservation of our nation's natural resources. The site is full of valuable and useful information. The Plant Fact Sheets provide a photo of the plant, description, cultivars and improved releases, uses, adaptation, establishment, management, sources and pests. The information is concise and thorough. Links to newsletters of Plant Material Centers from all over the country are (or will soon be) available.


NOTES FROM KENTUCKY

From Win Dunwell, Extension Horticulturist, University of Kentucky

The University of Kentucky Arboretum officially became the state botanical garden of Kentucky March 21, 2000 when Governor Paul Patton signed Senate Bill 190.

Theodore Klein's Yew Dell Farms which includes the 33 acres of arboretum with the castle and homesite is in jeopardy of being broken up through a sale necessary to settle the estate. Friends of Yew Dell and the Oldham County Historical Society have raised enough money, through their "Jewel Worth Preserving" campaign, to put a deposit on the property. They still need to raise more than a million dollars to complete the purchase and make immediate repairs. Paul Clinton, leader of the quickly organized Friends of Yew Dell, can be reached at 502.241.0471 for more information or you can write to the Friends of Yew Dell, c/o Oldham County Historical Society (502.222.0826), 106 N. Second Street, La Grange, Kentucky, 40031.

The Kentucky Arborists' Association (KAA) is the Kentucky Chapter of the International Society for Arboriculture (ISA). The KAA focus is the planting and maintenance of trees. It supports arboriculture industry, consumer and government members. Ruth Erskine has replaced Dave Leonard as KAA Chapter Administrator. Dave Leonard continues as the ISA liaison. This year's KAA officers are George Bell. President, Dave Draper is Vice-President/Membership Chairman, and Ian Hoffman is Treasurer. For more information about the organization contact Ruth at her butler's-pantry-converted-to-an-office address: 548 E. Pike, Cynthiana, KY 41031; phone/fax, 859-235-0106; e-mail, kyarbor@setel.com

In an official ceremony, Saturday, April 22, 2000, Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest dedicated the Holly Collection in honor of Buddy Hubbuch, retired staff member, and Horticulturist. A bronze plaque was placed at the site naming the collection 'The Clarence E. "Buddy" Hubbuch, Jr. Holly Collection'. Buddy also received a plaque for his home. LaDonna Eastman of Bernheim sent with a great picture the following text prepared by Paul Cappiello as part of the press release related to this great event: Buddy Hubbuch came to Bernheim on December 27, 1962 with instructions to "create" the Arboretum and create he did. During his tenure, he introduced, tested, propagated and grew over 2,000 varieties of trees and shrubs he was familiar with and ones he wanted to learn more about. His legacy includes the renowned Holly Collection. At the present time, the collection contains over 700 specimens representing more than 350 individual taxa from all across the Northern Hemisphere. Twenty-two new varieties were added to the collection in 1999. If you want to write to congratulate Buddy, his address is chubbuch@webtv.net or 5103 Woodhill, Louisville, KY 40219


VALENT'S PROFESSIONAL PRODUCTS DIVISION SELLS PRODUCTS ON-LINE

Valent's Professional Products Division reports that it is the first crop protection manufacturer to sell products from its own Web site. Its site http://www.valentpro.com also provides detailed production information and product selection advice. There is also a Problem/Solution module, which allows users to submit a specific pest or weed problem and query the database for a solution.

(From David Morgan's Weekly NMPRO - 4/11/00).

MONTHLY PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT FROM AUBURN AND BIRMINGHAM PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LABS

APRIL

Jackie Mullen
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist

Jim Jacobi
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist

Monthly Plant Problem Report From The Auburn Lab (J. Mullen)

April was unusually dry in most parts of the state. The diseases seen in April included Exobasidium gall on azalea; Cercospora leaf spot on azalea; Pythium root rot (stress related) on boxwood; Botryosphaeria canker on El Carta cypress; Seridium canker on Leyland cypress; powdery mildew on euonymus; slime mold on fern; bacterial blight on geranium; Phytophthora root rot on Indian hawthorn; Pythium root rot on holly; bacterial leaf spot on oak leaf hydrangea; Pythium root rot on New Guinea impatiens, bacterial leaf spot on English ivy; Pythium root rot on 'Blue Rug' juniper; Phyllosticta leaf spot on southern magnolia; Pythium root rot on Japanese maple; Alternaria leaf spot on marigold; fire blight on Asian & Bradford Pear; Cercospora leaf spot on rhododendron.

Azalea gall, caused by the fungus Exobasidium vaccinii, is commonly seen at this time of year. Flowers, leaves and young shoots may become swollen, fleshy galls. As the galls mature, the fungus will produce a white coating of spores on the gall surface. If galls are detected and removed before they become white, disease spread is greatly reduced. New infections this spring will develop into new galls next spring. Usually disease control can be achieved by sanitation. Where sanitation is not possible, protective sprays of Bayleton T/O or Strike 25W may be applied. This fungus will cause gall development on azaleas and camellias.

Cercospora leaf spot on pansy appears as black feathery leaf spots with a very irregular edge. Sanitation is recommended so that the disease does not become a major problem.

Fire blight was noted repeatedly on Bradford pear. Also, one incidence was observed in Asian pear. Usually, blossoms become infected and become black. The blackened condition typically spreads from the blossoms down into the petioles and from there into the small twigs. Eventually water-soaked cankers form on the tree trunk. Disease control requires strict sanitation. Blighted and cankered limbs should be pruned, making cuts 10-16 inches beyond the edge of the lesion. Streptomycin 17.1W, Kocide 101 77W; or Phyton 27 protective sprays are effective when applied to the blossoms.

John Olive at the Mobile Ornamental Horticulture Substation reported seeing the following diseases in the Mobile area: downy mildew (Peronospora sp.) on rose at slight to moderate levels; powdery mildew on dogwood; a higher incidence than normal of fire blight on Bradford pear; foliar nematode on lantana, Buddleia, and weigela; take-all on St. Augustine grass. John also noted that recently thrips appear to be particularly abundant.

April 2000 Plant Diseases Seen In The Plant Diagnostic Lab at Auburn
PLANT DIAGNOSIS COUNTY
Azalea Cercospora Leaf Spot Franklin
Azalea Exobasidium vaccinii Lee
Boxwood Pythium Root Rot Elmore
Cypress, El Certa Botryosphaeria Canker Walker
Cypress, Leyland Seiridium Canker Covington
Euonymus Powdery Mildew Dale
Fern Slime Mold Marion
Geranium Bacterial Blight *
Hawthorn, Indian Phytophthora Root Rot Montgomery
Holly Pythium Root Rot Cullman
Hydrangea, Oak Leaf Bacterial Leaf Spot Tuscaloosa
Impatiens, New Guinea Pythium Root Rot *
Ivy, English Bacterial Leaf Spot (Xanthomonas sp.) Tuscaloosa
Juniper, Blue Rug Pythium Root Rot Clarke
Magnolia, Southern Phyllosticta Leaf Spot Calhoun
Maple, Japanese Pythium Root Rot Elmore
Marigold Alternaria Leaf Spot Bullock
Pear, Asian Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) Barbour
Pear, Bradford Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) Butler, Geneva, Russell
Pansy Cercospora Leaf Spot *
Rhododendron Cercospora Leaf Spot Lee
*County locations for nursery/greenhouse problems are not reported.

Monthly Plant Problem Report From The Birmingham Lab (J. Jacobi)

April started out cool and wet and ended warm and dry. We recorded nineteen disease samples and nine insect samples during the month of April.

Frost injury was seen on both ornamentals and turfgrass following freezing temperatures on April 9. Damage was observed on ornamental plants and trees including boxwood, various hollies, chestnut, and sycamore. We have continued to get in dieback samples on a wide range of evergreen ornamentals. In some cases, stress diseases including Macrophoma blight and Botryosphaeria canker, were found associated with the disease plants. In other cases, no disease organisms were found, and the dieback was believed to have been caused by drought stress last summer and fall. Hollies and junipers were the most common plants with dieback symptoms.

2000 April Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab
PLANT DISEASECOUNTY
Boston Ivy Guignardia Leaf Spot Jefferson
Boxwood Macrophoma Blight Jefferson
Boxwood Winter Injury Jefferson
Euonymus Powdery Mildew Jefferson
Iris Heterosporium Leaf Spot Shelby
Iris Bulb Rot Jefferson
Japanese Maple Anthracnose (Kabietella spp.) Jefferson
Loblolly Pine Leaf Rust Jefferson
Rose Powdery Mildew (Podosphaera) Jefferson

Disease Possibilities For May

The list below includes some common disease problems received in the lab during May of the past few years. Comments on control practices are brief. Refer to the Alabama Pest Management Handbook or appropriate fact sheet or disease notes publications for details on disease control.

Brief Disease Descriptions and Control Recommendations for Diseases Often Seen in May.
PLANT DISEASE DESCRIPTION CONTROL
Any Slime Mold Not actually a disease; gray, black, pink, or yellow slimy or powdery masses on plants or soil; plasmodium or slime stage may be a mass of paper-thin ruffled 'sheets' the consistently of a thinnish layer of 'Jello'; the spore stage is often powdery with the coloration of black, pink, yellow or orange from spore production. Wash off with a strong stream of water; physical removal.
Armaryllis Stagnospora Leaf Spot Fairly large (1/4-1/2 inch long) oval or elliptical or irregularly shaped red spots. Sanitation. Protective sprays of Cleary's 3336 or Domain.
Ash Anthracnose (Discula) Brown irregular spots blotches. Sanitation of fallen leaves.
Azalea Aerial Blight (Rhizoctonia) Mostly seen in greenhouse-nursery situations; lower leaves become blighted and fall. Sanitation; protective fungicide sprays.
AzaleaExobasidium Gall Swollen blossom, leaf, and shoot galls. From mid April - mid May, galls change from a green to a white or pink-white color. Sanitation; removal of galls while they are still green. Protective fungicide application may be made.
Azalea Phytophthora Root Rot Roots brown and water-soaked. Sanitation. Protective fungicide drenches in nursery situations.
Bee Balm Powdery Mildew Powdery white dusting on leaves; blight; distorted new growth. Cleary's 3336; sanitation.
Begonia Bacterial Leaf Spot (Xanthomonas) Dark brown angular spots (about 5 mm diam. or less). Outer edges of spots may appear wet (water-soaked); centers of spots may dry and crack. Spots may coalesce. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook; Sanitation.
Boxwood Volutella Blight Sunken cankers on stems and branches. Surface areas of cankers may be covered with orange spore masses of the fungus. Pruning of cankered stems. After pruning operations are complete, a protective spray treatment of Cleary's 3336 may be helpful. Avoid stressful situations.
Buddlea Sclerotium rolfsii Crown Rot Brown decay at soil line. Brown, mustard seed-like structures of fungus may be present at soil line. Sanitation. See A. Hagan.
Camellia Exobasidium Gall See azalea. Sanitation.
Cherry Peach Leaf Curl & Plum Pockets (Taphrina spp.) Firm irregular galls or concave-convex gall-swellings on leaves. Fungicide applications in late winter before bud-swell, and at budbreak.
Cherry Phomopsis Canker Gray-brown, sunken, elliptical lesions on twigs, small branches. Sanitation.
CherrySeptoria Leaf Spot Brown, irregularly shaped spots (1/4 - 1/3 inch diam.) on leaves. Sanitation.
Cleyera Phytophthora Root Rot Dieback, wilt; roots become water-soaked & rotted. Sanitation. Reduce irrigation &/or improve soil drainage.
Coleus Phytophthora Root Rot Roots are brown and watersoaked. Tops collapse. Sanitation. Avoid poorly drained sites.
Coleus Pythium Root Rot Plants show poor growth, dieback; roots are discolored to a light brown; root cortex separates easily from the central cylinder. Sanitation; Improve soil drainage.
Crabapple Botryosphaeria Canker and Frogeye Leaf Spot Brown circular-irregular leaf spots with dark margins; sunken brown lesions on twigs, branches. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336, Domain, or a benomyl labeled for ornamentals may help.
Crabapple Cedar Apple Rust (Gymnosporangium) Bright yellow circular spots (1/4-1/2 inch diam.) on leaves; orange spore masses (circular projections) develop on leaves (lower leaf surfaces) and fruit. Remove junipers or apply protective fungicide sprays to crabapples. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Crabapple Scab (Venturia inaequalis) Olive, slightly raised small spots develop on leaves and fruit. Sanitation. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook for fungicides.
Daisy, Gerbera Powdery Mildew White powdery dusting on leaf and blossom surfaces; blight. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Dogwood Anthracnose (Discula) Large brown circular-irregular spots (1/4-1/2 inch diam.) with dark brown-purple borders develop first on foliage of lower branches. Leaf spots merge. Dieback will result. Cankers develop. Sanitation. Protective fungicide sprays.
Dogwood Botrytis Blight Foliage shows grey-brown blotches, spots. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook under spot anthracnose.
Dogwood Phyllosticta Leaf Spot Small (1/4 inch or less) circular brown spots with dark brown margins. Sanitation of fallen leaves in the fall. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook under Septoria.
Dogwood Phytophthora Crown & Root Rot Crown and root rot tissues brown discolored and water soaked. Sanitation. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook for fungicide recommendations.
Dogwood Spot Anthracnose (Elsinoe) Small (1/16 inch or less diam.) circular reddish spots develop on bracts; spots on leaves are similar in size but brownish red in color and some leaf spots may be irregular in shape. Sanitation in the fall. Protective fungicide sprays recommended only for specimen trees.
Elm Powdery Mildew (Phyllactinia) White powdery patches develop on leaves; some leaf deformity. Sanitation of fallen leaves. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Forsythia Crown Gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) Irregular, rough, somewhat sperical galls on branches and lower trunk. Sanitation; crop rotation.
Geranium Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas) Black leaf spots and stem rot lesions. Yellow-brown wedges may develop in spotted areas of leaves. Lower leaves may wilt and die due to systemic infections. Sanitation. Bordeaux Mixture.
Ginseng Fusarium Root Rot Plants wilt and dieback or show poor growth. Crop rotation.
Hawthorne, Indian Entomosporium Leaf Spot Black, red bordered, circular spots. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Holly Phytophthora Root Rot Dieback; roots become water-soaked & rotted. Sanitation. Reduce irrigation &/or improve soil drainage. See the Ala. Pest Manage-ment Handbook.
Hosta Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Leaf Spot Brown, irregularly-shaped leaf spots. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 or Domain protective sprays.
Hydrangea Botrytis Blossom Blight Irregular brown spots and blotches on flowers. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336, Domain, or benomyl product.
Hydrangea Colletotrichum Blossom Blight Irregular brown spots blotches on flowers, sometimes orange patches of spores are present. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 or Domain, or benomyl.
Hydrangea Phyllosticta Leaf Spot Brown circular spots, sometimes with dark border. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 or Domain or benomyl product.
Impatiens Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus Irregularly shaped black spots/blotches (1/8-1/4 inch diam.-usually) which may be confused with bacterial infection. Black ring spots may be present. Control thrips. Sanitation.
Impatiens Rhizoctonia Stem Rot Lower stems develop brown sunken lesions; plants dieback. Sanitation; Cleary's protective sprays; crop rotation.
Iris Heterosporium Leaf Spot Small-large (1/4-1/2 inch long), elliptical or oval shaped medium brown leaf spots. Sanitation. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Iris Rust (Puccinia) Small, red-orange, powdery, raised spots. Sanitation.
Ivy, English Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Irregularly-shaped brown leaf spots. Sanitation; See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
Juniper Kabatinia Tip Blight Juniper twigs dieback; appears similar to Phomopsis tip blight. Sanitation; refer to fungicides listed for control of Phomopsis tip blight.
Juniper Pestalotiopsis Blight Blight of inner foliage of stressed plants. Sanitation. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook under Phomopsis Twig Blight for protective fungicides.
Juniper Phomopsis Blight Tips of twigs on lower branches become brown. The blight spreads down the twig and upward in the plant. Sanitation. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Juniper Phytophthora Root Rot Roots brown, water-soaked. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Leyland Cypress Botryosphaeria Canker Elongate sunken trunk and branch brown lesions. Sanitation.
Leyland Cypress Seiridium Canker Elongate sunken trunk and branch brown lesions. Sanitation.
Leyland CypressPestalotiopsis Canker Elongate sunken trunk and branch brown lesions. Sanitation.
Ligustrum Cercospora Leaf Spot Medium brown, irregularly shaped spots (1/4-1/2 inch long). Sanitation. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Lupin Rhizoctonia Crown Rot Brown dried lesions on stems near the soil line. --
Magnolia, Southern Algal Leaf Spot (Cephaleuros) Usually circular, greenish, slightly raised spots. Spot edges slightly more raised than spot center. Edges are irregular. Sanitation. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Magnolia, Southern Bacterial Leaf Spot Small, angular, water-soaked spots. Sanitation. Kocide 101 or bordeaux mixture.
Magnolia, Southern Black Mildew (Meliola) Black surface mold on lower leaf surface. - -.
Maple Anthracnose (Kabatiella) Brown-black spots/blotches which often follow along leaf veins; sometimes blotchy areas occur along leaf edges. Sanitation. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook, for small trees.
Maple Purple Eye Spot (Phyllosticta) Purple circular spots (about 1/4 inch diam.) with dark purple, black border. Sanitation. See the Ala. Pesticide Handbook.
Maple Tar Spot (Rhytisma) Black irregularly-shaped spots. Sanitation of fallen leaves this fall. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Maple, Japanese Phyllosticta Leaf Spot Brown circular spots with dark brown or purple margins. Sanitation of fallen leaves this fall. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Mondograss Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Gray-brown spots, blotches, often at leaf tips, margins. Sanitation. Cleary's or Domain.
Oak Anthracnose (Apiognomonia) Medium-brown blotches along leaf veins, in interveinal areas and along leaf margins. Sanitation. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook for small trees.
Oak Oak Leaf Blister (Taphrina) Concave-convex spot areas that are slightly swollen and slightly discolored. Sanitation. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Petunia Phytophthora Aerial Blight Brown lesions on leaves and stems; dieback. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Petunia Phytophthora Root Rot Roots brown, wet, easily pulled apart. Sanitation. Avoid wet soils.
Phlox Alternaria Leaf Spot Dark brown irregularly-shaped spots. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 or Domain or an ornamental benomyl product.
Photinia Entomosporium Leaf Spot Red-black circular-irregularly shaped spots which often coalesce; leaf drop. Sanitation. Protective fungicide sprays.
Pine Needlecast Diseases Older needles turn brown, drop. See Ala. Pesticide Handbook.
Pine Needle Rust (Coleosporium) Cream-orange-colored pustules up to 1/8" or 2-3 mm in size occur on needles only of pine. Remove asters from the area.
Pine Pitch Canker Sunken, cracked lesions on branches, trunks where resinosis is common. Sanitation. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook for comments.
Rhododendron Exobasidium Gall Fleshy, swellings of leaves, flowers. Swellings initially are green but become white or pink when spore production occurs. Sanitation; Bayleton in some circum-stances. See Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Rose Black Spot (Diplocarpon) Black spots (1/8 - 1/4 inch diam., 4-8 mm) with feathery margins. Follow a regular spray schedule; sanitation.
Rose Botrytis Blossom Blight Blossoms develop small-large brown blotches. A gray delicate webbing of the fungal mycelium and spores may develop over blotches. Sanitation. Protective fungicide sprays.
Rose Brand Canker (Coniothyrium) Gray, cracked, irregular canker on canes. Sanitation; funigicides that are recommended for black spot will help.
Rose Mosaic Distinct pattern of dark green & light green or yellow on leaves. Control weeds; control insects; remove diseased plants.
Rose Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca) White powdery patches on foliage; some leaf deformity may occur on new growth. See the Ala. Pest Management Handbook.
Rose Tobacco Ringspot Virus Plants stunted, mottled. Sanitation; Control nematodes.
Spirea Powdery Mildew White, powdery dusting on surface of leaves; some leaf distortion; leaf blight. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336.
Sycamore Anthracnose (Apiognomonia) Gray-brown blotches on leaves; sometimes blotches follow leaf veins or leaf margins. Sanitation. Protective fungicide sprays for small trees.
Sycamore Scorch (Xylella) Leaves become brown and dried at the margins; dieback during summer months. Tree pruning or removal.
Willow Leaf Rust (Melampsora) Yellow orange pustules on leaves. Sanitation.

Lab Notes

As we move into our busiest time of year, please take care when filling out the blue sheet or when advising clients in filling out the information. Soil analysis (pH, minerals) results will come back to the client more quickly if sent directly. If the client would like us to forward soil to the Soil Test Lab--if we believe a soil problem exists--he(she) must indicate yes on the form. We will not forward soil when a charge is involved unless the client gives approval. Also, please indicate whether the sample is a client charge or an educational (ACES) charge by checking the appropriate blank in the box at the top of the form.

UPCOMING EVENTS

March 18, 2000 - September 17, 2000:
Japan Flora 2000 'Communication Between Man and Nature'.
Awaji Island, Japan. See
http://web.pref.hyogo.jp/jpnflora/english/index.htm or Meg VanSchoorl at MVANSCHOOR@agr.wa.gov

June 1-3, 1999:
Mid-South Greenhouse Growers Conference.
Ramada Inn - Southwest Conference Center in Jackson, MS. More information will be available soon or you can contact Allen Owings, Extension Horticulturist at LSU.

July 8-12, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail ofa@ofa.org; web: http://www.ofa.org

July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

July 16-19, 2000:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference.
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail ashs@ashs.org

July 20, 2000:
Horticulture Tours of the UKREC 2000 Field Day
Contact Winston C. Dunwell, Nursery Crops Development Center, UK Research & Education Center, P.O. Box 469
1205 Hopkinsville Street, Princeton, KY 42445-0469
wdunwell@ca.uky.edu Phone: 270.365.7541, Fax: 270.365.2667 http://www.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/Win1.html

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researchers' Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 15-16, 2000:
Alabama Christmas Tree Association Meeting.
Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Contact Ken Tilt (334-844-5484) or email (ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu) for further information.

October 1-4, 2000:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Hyatt Regency Oak Brook, Chicago, IL. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail mbippser@neca.com

October 6-7, 2000:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

September 30 - October 3, 2001:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Lexington, KY. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail mbippser@neca.com

October 12-13, 2001:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

October 11-12, 2002:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

Send horticultural questions and comments to ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu.

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.