JULY 2000

Greetings to all,

We are teetering on the 100 degree mark. Plants and people are parched and the weatherman keeps trying to be cheerful (as if it was his fault that we need rain) and optimistic. The most scientific plan I have is to keep our collective fingers crossed and hope that rain clouds gather soon.

Ken is very busy doing his extension duties so I will just quickly say hello and get out of the way. Before I do that, though, I would like to heartily congratulate two Auburn University Horticulture professors who have been honored by their peers. Dr. David Williams was recently named recipient of the Dean's Award for Teaching Excellence in the College of Agriculture. Bravo, Dave! And Dr. Harry Ponder will receive the ASHS Outstanding Undergraduate Educator Award at the organization's meeting in Florida in late July. Bravo, again!

Please let us know if there are any problems we might be able to help you with.

Sincerely,
Bernice Fischman


The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:

GREENHOUSE CATALOG ON LINE

UPDATE ON DURSBAN, LORSBAN ETC.

LOUISIANA NAMES TOP EIGHT CRAPE MYRTLE CULTIVARS

DROUGHT CONDITIONS WEB PAGE

UPCOMING EVENTS

PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


ON-LINE GREENHOUSE CATALOG

The First Online Catalog for Greenhouses has been launched on the Internet. The International Greenhouse Company's World Wide Web address is http://www.igcusa.com, where you will find factory-direct prices on fans, heaters, controls, cooling systems, benches, coverings, and, yes, even complete greenhouses.

(from Hort Ideas).


UPDATE ON DURSBAN, LORSBAN ETC.

While residential use of chlorpyrifos-containing insecticides will be sharply restricted, growers may be only modestly affected. The good news for the green industry is that restrictive re-entry intervals (REI) were not substantially changed. EPA is, however, seeking "risk management ideas" to deal with applicator exposure issues. EPA announced last week that a "memorandum of agreement" had been reached with Dow AgroSciences to voluntarily withdraw popular Dursban, Lorsban and more than 800 other chlorpyrifos-based products from most residential uses by Dec. 31, 2001. Under the agreement, all outdoor residential uses, except by professionals for fire ant and mosquito control, will be phased out, as well as all non-residential uses except for golf courses and roadside medians. Last year the agency banned the use of the pesticide methyl parathion on fruits and many vegetables and restricted the use of azinphos-methyl. Like chlorpyrifos, they are in the organophosphate family. Others under EPA scrutiny are malathion and diazinon.

(from David L. Morgan's Weekly NMPRO e-mail, 6/13/00).

LOUISIANA NAMES TOP EIGHT CRAPE MYRTLE CULTIVARS.

by Allen Owings, Associate Specialist (Horticulture) and Gordon Holcomb, Professor (Plant Pathology)

Crape myrtles (Lagerstroemia indica, Lagerstroemia indica x fauriei) continue to be one of the most widely used landscape trees in the southeastern United States. Over the last several years, the LSU Agricultural Center has evaluated numerous cultivars for susceptibility/tolerance to powdery mildew and Cercospora leaf spot - these are the two most prevalent diseases on crape myrtles in Louisiana. Flowering performance and growth habit also have been observed. The following is a list of the "top eight" crape myrtles for Louisiana as recommended by the Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service.

Natchez
Natchez is recognized as the top performing crape myrtle in the southeastern United States. It was introduced by the U.S. National Arboretum in 1987. White flowers and exfoliating bark are characteristic of this cultivar that reaches heights of 30 feet at maturity. Bloom period is about 110 days in Louisiana, starting in early June. Blooms are very large.

Muskogee
Muskogee was introduced in 1978 and has medium size, light lavender flowers. Blooming period is excellent - beginning in mid-June and lasting 110-120 days. Sometimes flowers are as early as late May in Baton Rouge. Good tolerance to powdery mildew and leaf spot. Exfoliating bark is grey-tan tan medium brown. Bark characteristics are desirable, but not as good as Natchez and Tuscarora. Reaches a mature height of over 20 feet.

Tuscarora
This cultivar was introduced in 1981 and is characterized by coral pink flowers. It is less susceptible to powdery mildew and leaf spot than most cultivars. Flowering begins in late June or early July and will continue for 70-80 days. The trunk has mottled, light brown bark that exfoliates increasingly as the tree ages. This cultivar can easily reach heights of 25 feet in the landscape and has performed well in landscape plantings across Louisiana.

Tonto
Tonto is a semi-dwarf to medium crape myrtle reaching heights of 12-14 feet. It was released by the U.S. National Arboretum in 1990 and has been recognized as a Georgia Gold Medal winner (1996) and Mississippi Medallion plant (1999). Excellent resistance to leaf spot and powdery mildew. Good foliage retention into the fall months. Flowers are deep red. Satisfactory exfoliating bark.

Basham's Party Pink
Basham's Party Pink is a tall growing hybrid cultivar introduced to the nursery trade by Texas nurserymen Lynn Lowery in 1965. Blooms are lavender-pink and compete with Natchez for size. Very comparable and similar in performance to Muskogee. Good performance in resistance to leaf spot and powdery mildew in LSU Agricultural Center evaluations. Cold hardiness is not as good as Muskogee.

Acoma
Acoma was introduced by the U.S. National Arboretum and reaches a height of 10-14 feet, similar in size to Tonto. Weeping/cascading type growth habit. White flowers appear in mid to late-June and last around 90 days. Powdery mildew resistance is good. Some years, leaf spot is observed on this cultivar - defoliation is not a problem. Light grey bark exfoliates as plant nears maturity. Good cold hardiness.

Sioux
Sioux has been recognized as a Georgia Gold Medal winner (1996) and Mississippi Medallion plant (1999). Good powdery mildew resistance in LSU Agricultural Center trials. Some susceptibility to leaf spot. Flowers are vivid pink and last from June through September. Mature height ranges from 10-15 feet, but can be widely variable.

Tuskegee
Tuskegee was introduced in 1986. Flowers are dark pink. Typical average height is 15-20 feet. Excellent resistance to powdery mildew and Cercospora leaf spot.


DROUGHT CONDITIONS WEB PAGE

In light of the current weather conditions of the past few months, the Alabama Extension System has posted a new site of interest to those people who rely on rain for domestic or commercial plants. You can reach that page by going to http://www.aces.edu/drought/ The site includes the most up-to-date information on drought conditions. At this point, changes are being made daily, so be sure to use the RELOAD option if you continue to get the same information on the site day after day. Relevant news releases, timely information sheets, and publications are posted to the site.

Specialists and agents in Alabama with information to submit for inclusion on the site should forward same to Maggie Lawrence (mlawrenc@aces.edu) with copies to Jim Langcuster (jlangcus@aces.edu) and Arlie Powell (apowell@aces.edu). If you wish to fax information, please fax it to 334-844-5090, attention Maggie Lawrence.

(from Carol Whatley, Alabama Cooperative Extension System at Auburn University).


PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

MONTHLY PLANT PROBLEM REPORT FROM
THE AUBURN AND BIRMINGHAM PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LAB - MAY 2000
Jackie Mullen, Extension Plant Pathology Specialist (Auburn)
Jim Jacobi - Extension Plant Pathology Specialist (Birmingham)

Auburn Plant Disease Report - May

May has been extremely dry and, consequently, most of our plant samples were greenhouse, garden, and landscape. Even so, our number of May plant samples was 214. This is about normal for May. Fireblight was especially common on Bradford pear. Since this tree is resistant to fireblight, the dieback and cankers usually do not progress to the point of plant mortality. Dieback usually stops when 1 1/2-2 ft. of dieback occurs. At this time of year, streptomycin is not recommended. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.

Rhizoctonia lower stem rot on periwinkle was unusual in that lately periwinkle disease has been caused by Phytophthora.

Anthracnose on dogwood (spot anthracnose), silver maple, marigold, peony was noted. Other fungal foliage diseases seen included oak leaf blister and tar spot on marigold. Fusarium wilt on marigold caused the usual lower leaf yellowing, wilt, and vascular browning. Culture work confirmed Fusarium. Pythium root rot was also diagnosed on marigold. Roots were soft decayed and brown. Culture work identified Pythium. Pythium disease requires the presence of excessive soil water. In a homeowner situation, usually damaged plants must be removed, irrigation should be reduced. Replanting with a different bedding plant is often recommended. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.

John Olive reported seeing southern blight on herbaceous container plants in homeowner situations. Also he noted seeing Cercospora leaf spot on azalea as round dark spots often with a gray center which penetrate through the leaf. By comparison, Colletotrichum (Gloeosporium) leaf spot, which usually appears later in the summer, is a lighter color and it does not penetrate through the leaf. Colletotrichum leaf spot will develop on upper and lower azalea leaf surfaces.

Diseases Seen at the Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab in May.
PLANT DISEASE COUNTY
Butterfly Bush (Buddleia) Pythium Root RotLee
DogwoodSpot Anthracnose (Elsinoe cornii)Lee, Tuscaloosa
Gerbera DaisyPowdery MildewLee
Maple, SilverTar Spot (Rytisma)Marshall
MarigoldAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Marshall
MarigoldFusarium WiltElmore
MarigoldPythium Root RotElmore
OakOak Leaf Blister (Taphrina deformans)Choctaw, Franklin, Lee, Marion, Washington
Pear, BradfordFireblight (Erwinia amylovora)Choctaw, Dallas
PeonyAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Lauderdale
PeriwinkleBotrytis BlightCullman
PeriwinkleRhizoctonia BlightCullman
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery diseases.

Birmingham Plant Disease Report- May

May was warm and abnormally dry throughout the Birmingham area. We recorded 55 samples during the month of May. The news of the plant diagnostic clinic in Birmingham is spreading and we are quickly increasing the number of samples received at the lab.

We received several turf samples during the month of May. The majority of these samples were of 'Emerald' zoysiagrass that had been installed during the spring or summer of 1999. The most common symptoms were dead turf that had failed to green-up this spring. Several of these yards were completely dead this spring. We are unable to find a pest or disease on this specimen to explain the problem. Since the turf was installed last summer the lack of green-up could be caused by several factors. The most likely factor is damage from one or more stresses, which injured the turf before or during winter dormancy. Environmental factors like the drought stresses last fall and early winter may have reduced its ability to withstand winter temperatures and other stresses. In at least one case, the turf remained green until cold temperatures in late January caused severe injury. The rest of the samples consisted of various insects and diseases on a wide range of woody ornamentals.

2000 May Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab.
PLANT DISEASE COUNTY
BoxwoodWinter InjuryJefferson
EuonymusPowdery MildewJefferson
Japanese Black PineNeedlecast (Ploioderma spp.)Jefferson
Japanese Holly 'Compacta'Bot CankerJefferson
MapleAnthracnose (Kabietella spp.)Jefferson
RoseBlack SpotJefferson
RoseMosaicJefferson
Sasanqua CamelliaAnthracnose (Glomerella spp.)Jefferson
Southern MagnoliaAlgal Leaf SpotJefferson

Disease Possibilities For June

The following table lists some of the plant diseases which arrived in our lab during previous Junes. Brief comments on disease symptoms and control recommendations are included. For specific disease control recommendations, see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook or individual 2000 spray guides. Also, remember the importance of sanitation.

PLANTDISEASEDESCRIPTIONCONTROL
ARBOR-VITAEPhomopsis DiebackTip browning and dieback.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
BAHIADollar Spot
(Sclerotinia)
Individual grass blades show white spots/blotches with dark borders. Small areas of the field are initially affected.Maintain proper fertility.
BEGONIAPythium Crown RotLower stem tissues brown and soft.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
BUDDLEAPhyllosticta Leaf SpotNumberous small brown circular spots.Sanitation. Cleary's 3336or Domain.
CRABAPPLECedar-Apple Rust
(Gymnosporangium)
See Apple- Cedar-apple rust--
CRAPEMYRTLECercospora Leaf SpotBrown leaf spots (circular-irregular) of approximately 1/2 inch diameter.--
CRAPEMYRTLEPowdery Mildew
(Erysiphe)
Leaves show white dusting; yellowing; new growth distorted.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DAISY, GERBERAPowdery Mildew
(Erysiphe)
Leaves show a white dusting; yellowing followed by browning.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DAYLILYRoot Know Nematode
(Meloidogyne)
Round-irregular galls on roots.Crop rotation to grasses or other suppressive plants. SeeANR-856.
DOGWOODAnthracnose
(Discula)
Small-large irregular brown spots/blotches often with purple margins. Dieback usually follows.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DOGWOODPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked. With slight pressure, the outer cortex or the root will slip away from the central root core.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DOGWOODPowdery Mildew
(Microsphaera)
White dusting on upper leaf surfaces.Cleary's 3336 or Domain.
DOGWOODSpot Anthracnose
(Elsinoe)
Small reddish circular spots develop on blossoms and leaves. Defoliation may result when spotting is severe.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
GINSENGFusarium Root RotRoots become decayed and dark brown-black. Decay is a dry rot.Crop rotation for 10 or more years.
GERANIUMAlternaria Leaf SpotBlack, small, angular leaf spots.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
GERANIUMBotrytis BlightBlossoms and leaves develop brown blotches.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
GERANIUMPythium Stem RotDark brown, water-soaked lesions (cankers) develop on stems.Sanitation.
HAWTHORNEEntomosporium Leaf SpotBlack spots develop on the foliage. Spot coalescence may occur.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
HOLLYPhytophthora Root RotRoots are black or brown and water-soaked.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
HYDRANGEAColletotrichum Petal BlightOrange-brown circular spots, blotches.Cleary's 3336 or Domain.
HYDRANGEAPhytophthora Crown RotRoots develop a wet brown decay that becomes dried with age.Sanitation.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IMPATIENSImpatines Necrotic SpotVirusBlack, circular spotting occurs on the foliage. New growth becomes stunted.Control thrips; sanitation.
IMPATIENSPythium Root RotRoots become soft, brown and water-soaked.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IVY, ENGLISHAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Brown, circular-irregular spots on the foliage.Spot coalescence may occurSee Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IVY, ENGLISHBacterial Leaf Spot
(Xanthomonas)
Black, angular, water-soaked spots on foliage.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IVY, ENLGISHRhizoctonia Leaf & Stem RotBrown, dry lesions on leaves/stemsSanitation; Cleary's protective sprays.
JUNIPERCercospora BlightInner sections of branches turn brown and needles drop.Benlate protective sprays. Sanitation.
JUNIPERPhomopsis BlightBranches dieback beginning at twig tips.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
JUNIPERPhytophthora Root RotRoots become browned, water-soaked.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
LIRIOPEAnthracnoseBrown spots, blotches on leaves and leaf tips.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
MAPLEAnthracnose
(Kabatiella)
Brown circular-irregular spots/blotches occur on leaves; large leaf areas may be involved. Defoliation may result.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
MAPLEPhyllosticta Leaf SpotCircular (sometimes) irregular leaf spots. Leaf spot borders are often distinctive. Severe spotting will result in defoliation.Sanitation.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
MONDO GRASSAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Brown spots, blotches develop on leaves, often at/near leaf tips.Sanitation. Cleary's or Domain protective sprays or a benomyl product labelled for ornamentals.
OAKAlgal Leaf Spot
(Cephaleuros)
Red-green circular spots.Sanitation.
OAKAnthracnose
(Apiognomonia)
Brown, irregular shaped and sized spots/blotches on leaves. Often, blotches will follow along leaf veins. Early leaf drop will occur when disease is severe.Sanitation of leaves in fall. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
OAKOak Leaf Blister
(Taphrina)
Brown, puckered spots (1'8-1/2 inch diameter) develop. Spots may merge. Leaf drop will occur when disease is severe.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
OAKXylella ScorchOaks develop brown leaf edges; dieback.Tree removal.
PETUNIAPhytophthora Foliage
Blight/Root Rot
Brown, sometimes wet-looking lesions; dieback.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PINELophodermium Needle Cast
(Ploioderma)
Needles turn brown and drop; very small (1-2 mm or 1/32 inch) footballshpaed, black fruiting bodies.Protective fungicide sprays during the spring and fall.
PITTOSPORUMCercospora Leaf SpotBrown, circular-irregular blotches about 1/2 inch diameter.Sanitation of fallen leaves; portective Daconil or Bravo sprays.
PRIVETCercospora Leaf SpotMedium brown circular spots.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
RHODODENDRONPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
ROSEBlackSpot
(Diplocarpon)
Black spots with fringed borders develop on leaves.Defoliation will result from severe spotting.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
ROSEMosaic VirusYellow line patterns, mosaics.Plant removal.
ROSEPowdery MildewWhite dusting on leaf surfaces; new growth distortion.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
ROSERhizoctonia Crown RotBrown lesions at soil line.Sanitation; Cleary's protetive drenches.
SALVIAPhytophthora Root RotRoots brown, water-soaked.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
SNAPDRAGONPhytophthora parasitica
Crown Rot
Crowns become water-soaked, brown, rotted.Sanitation. Avoid excessive irrigation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
SYCAMOREPowdery Mildew
(Microsphaera)
White coating develops on leaves; new leaves are deformed.Sanitation of leaves in the fall.
SYCAMOREXylella Scorch DiseaseLeaf edges become browned; dieback.Tree removal.
THRIFTRhizoctonia BlightFoliage become brown.Cleary's 3336 or a benomyl labeled for ornamentals will give protective control; sanitation.
VERBENAPowdery MildewWhite dusty coating on leaves; leaves yellow and later turn brown.A benomyl product labelled for ornamentals or Cleary's 3336 or Domain.
VINCA, CARACANTHUS
(Annual Periwinkle)
Anthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Brown cankers on lower stems.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
VINCAFusarium Crown RotBrown, dry rotting on stem at soil lineRotation or solarization.
VINCAPhomopsis Stem BlightA brown canker develops on stemsSanitation. Apply protective sprays of Cleary's 3336. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
VINCAPhytophthora Foliage BlightDark brown lesions on stems and leaves; dieback.Sanitation. Avoid wet situations. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
VINCAPythium/Phytophthora Crown/Root RotRoots become brown, watersoaked.Sanitation. Avoid wet situations. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook
VINCARhizoctonia Aerial BlightLeaves become dull green and then brown. Large areas of leaves become browned.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
VINCA MINORAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Small-large brown blotches on leaves.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook under perennial vinca.
GrassesSlime MoldsWhite, gray, or brown jello-like sheet-like bodies on turf or other areas; turf may be covered by black, gray, or green powdery spores.Physical removal; See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.


UPCOMING EVENTS

March 18, 2000 - September 17, 2000:
Japan Flora 2000 'Communication Between Man and Nature'.
Awaji Island, Japan. See
http://web.pref.hyogo.jp/jpnflora/english/index.htm or Meg VanSchoorl at MVANSCHOOR@agr.wa.gov

July 8-12, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail ofa@ofa.org; web: http://www.ofa.org

July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

July 16-19, 2000:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference.
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail ashs@ashs.org

July 20, 2000:
Horticulture Tours of the UKREC 2000 Field Day
Contact Winston C. Dunwell, Nursery Crops Development Center, UK Research & Education Center, P.O. Box 469
1205 Hopkinsville Street, Princeton, KY 42445-0469
wdunwell@ca.uky.edu Phone: 270.365.7541, Fax: 270.365.2667 http://www.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/Win1.html

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researchers' Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 15-16, 2000:
Alabama Christmas Tree Association Meeting.
Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Contact Ken Tilt (334-844-5484) or email (ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu) for further information.

October 1-4, 2000:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Hyatt Regency Oak Brook, Chicago, IL. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail mbippser@neca.com

October 6-7, 2000:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

September 30 - October 3, 2001:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Lexington, KY. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail mbippser@neca.com

October 12-13, 2001:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

October 11-12, 2002:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

Send horticultural questions and comments to ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu.

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.