Gulf States Trade Show is history and despite the weather, it was another great Show. Attendance was off a little but everyone that came really wanted to be there and needed to find some products and plants. I am so excited about the quality of the show and the generosity of the sponsors. Every year we are treated by Flowerwood, Martin’s, Tom Dodd and Twin Oaks Nurseries along with Lerio Corporation to a feast of Mobile's finest seafood with the opportunity to reunite with friends in the industry. The relaxed atmosphere is also great for doing some old fashioned Smile and a Handshake business.
Happy February and Valentines Day
Our industry was on display to politicians and University officials. I think we made a memorable impression. Three states came together and conducted business but were able to keep their identity by having their own association and social functions. I can see nothing but increased success in the future.
We had about 480 people attending the educational seminars and workshops. This combined show has also been a great advantage to combining resources with the 3 states to provide quality educational programs. We are able to bring in leading experts in any area that concerns your nursery or greenhouse. We want to hear from you! Please e-mail, write, call or use carrier pigeon to let us know what you want next year. What was obvious months before the show and becamea big concern at the show is the shortage of plant material, especially trees and liners. If you have some things to sell or if you are marketing for the future, I encourage you to list your plants in the new Alabama Plant Locator List. For a few dollars, you can send your nursery out to 1000's of potential customers. When the cutoff date comes and ANA goes to press, you will be kicking yourself if you do not take advantage of this. If you lost your forms to list your plants, call Linda VanDyke (334-821-5148). You will be glad you did. Also, let us know your web sites if you have them so we can post them for others to find.
The Trade show is over. Take a deep breath because this is the time of the year when things start happening very fast. Make sure you are ready for potting so that you can take advantage of the whole growing season. Remember, also, to follow up on your contacts made at the Trade Show. Have a great Spring and feel free to call your county office or contact us at Auburn if we can be of any assistance.
The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:
The Chilling of Hosta
Coir Dust Versus Sphagnum Peat
Personal Garden Websites
The Value of Plants and Landscaping
Another Successful Horticulture Expo
Absolute Value of Landscaping
Fire Ant Quarantine Funding is Disappearing
The Importance of Micronutrient Fertilization of Woody Seedlings
Invasive Species Symposium
Be Aware of the Work of Congress's Present Session
Evaluation of New Fungicides for the Control of Southern Blight on Aucuba
Using Shading to Increase Production and Diversity of Woody Plants
Web Site of Interest: International Society of Arboriculture
When to Plant Red and Sugar Maples
Tree Installation, Care and Maintenance
Plant Diagnostic Lab Report
DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.
THE CHILLING OF HOSTA
Hosta is a very popular herbaceous perennial plant in the United States, used widely in shaded landscapes. With 1,420 registered cultivars, it is clear that there is tremendous diversity in plant size and habit, leaf shape and surface effects, as well as variegation patterns. Perennial plants in the temperate zone require a period of dormancy during the winter. Researchers at Auburn University have been conducting experiments to determine whether chilling plants in the greenhouse could impact on shoot emergence time. Two hosta cultivars, 'Frances William' and 'Francee' were used in the study. Chilled plants emerged more quickly than non-chilled plants.
There appears to be a clear benefit to the chilling of hosta. In general, with a longer chilling period, plants emerged quicker and shoot biomass increased. Information from this study will provide growers with guidelines for forcing hosta for early markets. There may also be opportunities for holding hostas longer in coolers to force a flush of new growth at times of the year when hostas are growing slowly or foliate quality is typically poor, such as July - September in the southeastern United States.
(from "Chilling Effects on Shoot Emergence and Subsequent Growth in Hosta" by Gary J. Keever, Mark S. West, and J. Raymond Kessler, Jr. of Auburn University; published in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture, June 1999).
Mergers in the chemical industry can make it difficult to keep track of pesticide product names. Zeneca and Novartis have merged into something called "Syngenta." Some of the common pesticides that Novartis has labeled are: Avid, Award, Curacron, Diazinon, Fulfill, Precision, and Proclaim. Zenea has such products as: Karate, Warrior, Dual, Gramoxone, Touchdown, Ridomil, and Bravo.. Syngenta will have a wide spectrum of pesticides under their banner.
Aventis Cropscience is the result of Rhone-Poulenc Ag Co. and AgrEvo merging.
Monsanto and Pharmacia is a merging of a biotechnology company with a large pharmaeutical company. The new company, whose name has not yet been selected, will quickly separate the ag division from the pharmaceuticals.
(from Wheeler Foshee, Pesticide Education Specialist).
COIR DUST VERSUS SPHAGHNUM PEAT
Sphagnum peat is the most popular medium for most potted tropical foliage plants for indoor use. It has many desirable characteristics, however, it is difficult to re-wet after it dries and when it is wet it provides an environment that is conducive to fungus gnat development. Its harvest may contribute to degradation and loss of wetlands. Its supplies are limited during severe weather conditions and the quality of peat is very variable. Coconut coir dust has many characteristics that make it equal or superior to peat. To compare the two a study was done on Canadian sphagnum peat and Philippine coconut coir dust as growing medium components for the greenhouse production of Dracaena marginata and Spathiphyllum. Three soilless foliage plant growing mixes were prepared with either peat or coir. Scientists concluded that coir dust appears to be an adequate substitute for sphagnum peat in the three growing mixes.
(from "Growth of Dracaena marginata and Spathiphyllum 'Petite' in Sphagnum Peat- and Coconut Coir Dust-based Growing Media" by Robert H. Stamps and Michael R. Evans, University of Florida, published in the J. Environ. Hort., March 1999).
PERSONAL GARDEN WEBSITES
It's time to add another category to our USEFUL LINKS page which you access from our Landscape Horticulture home page. If you have a personal garden website that you think might be of interest please let us know. We can announce it in our newsletter and add it to our Useful Links page. This month we'd like to introduce you to www.bittersweetgardens.com
THE VALUE OF PLANTS AND LANDSCAPING
The following information on the value of plant material and landscaping is provided by the American Nursery and Landscape Association:
- Landscaping can add between 7 and 15 percent to a home's value.
- Homes with "excellent" landscaping can expect a sale price about 6 to 7 percent higher than equivalent houses with "good" landscaping, while improving landscaping from "average" to "good" can result in a 4 to 5 percent increase.
- Landscaping can bring a recovery value of 100 to 200 percent at selling time. Kitchen remodeling brings a 75 to 125 percent recovery rate, bathroom remodeling a 20 to 120 percent recovery rate, and addition of a swimming pool a 20 to 50 percent recovery rate.
- A mature tree can often have an appraised value of between $1,000 and $10,000. In one study, 99% of real estate appraisers concurred that landscaping enhances the sales appeal of real estate.
- In one study, 83% of realtors believe that mature trees have a "strong or moderate impact" on the salability of homes listed for under $150,000; on homes over $250,000, this perception increases to 98%.
- Landscaping can reduce air conditioning costs by up to 50 percent, by shading the windows and walls of a home. Trees can reduce bothersome noise by up to 50 percent and can mask unwanted noises with pleasant sounds. Trees can reduce temperatures by as much as nine degrees Fahrenheit.
- A single urban tree can provide up to $273 a year in air conditioning, pollution fighting, erosion and storm water control, and wildlife shelter benefits.
- Top reasons people garden: To be outdoors (44%); to be around beautiful things (42%); relax and escape the pressures of everyday life (39%); stay active and get exercise (35%).
(from Allen Owings, Extension Horticulturist, LSU).
The inclement weather of the last weekend in January only kept a few people from participating in the Gulf States Horticulture Expo at the Mobile Convention Center. The trade show and educational seminars were well attended. Lots of hands were shaken, business cards passed around, and a great deal of information was disseminated. Many of the booths were packed with products and lovely plants and some were finely put together. Below are pictures of the four blue ribbon winners - from top to bottom: Double D Nursery; Southern Growers; Florida Potting Soils; K&M Imports:
218 single family homes in Greenville, South Carolina, were the basis of this study to examine how landscape quality impacts on the value of a home. When the homes were comparable in terms of size, location and characteristics, it was found that selling prices were 6-7% higher if landscaping quality was judged excellent. If the quality was judged to be good (better than average), prices were 4-5% higher. This study obviously is very place specific.
(from "Landscape Quality and the Price of Single Family Houses: Further Evidence from Home Sales in Greenville, South Carolina" by Mark S. Henry, Clemson University).
The "imported fire ant" line item in the USDA-Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) budget for FY2000 has been drastically cut. This cut means an immediate shortfall in federal funds that assist infested states in conducting regulatory activities. It also threatens the future of the federal quarantine itself. The nursery industry in the Southeast and South needs to build consensus on a response.
For many years, the federal domestic imported fire ant quarantine has established uniform rules for movement of nursery stock and other regulated articles from infested areas to uninfested areas. For nurserymen, the quarantine has meant a consistent set of rules for treating and certifying stock. It has also brought compliance and recordkeeping burdens. Still, the industry has historically supported one consistent set of rules rather than a patchwork quilt of different, even conflicting, state regulations.
APHIS funding for all domestic programs has declined dramatically. Over the last ten years, the fire ant budget went from $3 million $1 million. The nursery industry has actively and successfully lobbied to maintain a base of $1 million for about five years. For FY2000, the budget was cut to just $100,000. About half of that money is committed to a research project in New Mexico. The cuts will directly affect state departments of agriculture by eliminating federal funds used for survey and regulatory enforcement. Unless funding is restored, pressure will increase to rescind the federal quarantine.
What would happen if the federal quarantine were rescinded?
1. Many uninfested states in the East, Midwest and West would impose their own quarantines. History with pests like Japanese beetle shows that many states will implement different, and tougher, requirements than we have currently. Imagine having to jump through ten different hoops in ten states! Also, the cost of funding quarantine activities may shift to the nursery industry, through user fees or other mechanisms.
2. The Imported Fire Ant Station (Gulfport, MS) research program headed by Homer Collins may stop conducting fire ant research. This lab is working on the "next generation" of chemicals and control strategies. Support for that work would disappear with the quarantine.
How should the industry respond? First, we need to ensure consensus on industry support for the federal quarantine. Assuming broad industry support for maintaining the quarantine, we need to take action early in 2000. First, USDA-APHIS plans to hold several public hearings on the quarantine. Most of these will be in southern states. We need to mobilize industry and state regulatory program speakers to deliver the message at those hearings. Secondly, we need to work with Congress, and especially members of the agriculture appropriations subcommittees, to let them know the importance of the fire ant line item in APHIS budget. This work must be completed during January, February, and March. It will take a concerted effort with everyone's help to restore and maintain this important program.
(Information provided by Craig Regelbrugge, Senior Director of Government Relations, American Nursery & Landscape Association to Allen Owings, LSU).
Horticulturists at Virginia Polytechnic Institute studied the effect of micronutrient amendments to pine bark on seedling growth over a wide pine bark pH range. Koelreuteria paniculata was container grown from seed in pine bark with dolomitic limestone or Micromax, a micronutrient fertilizer. After ten weeks the seedlings were harvested and shoot dry mass and height were measured. The lime had no effect on shoot dry mass or height while the addition of Micromax resulted in better growth. Eight other wood species (in a previous study) performed similarly so the researchers are ready to suggest with confidence that these results would apply to a wide range of container grown landscape tree species that are grown in a pine bark substrate.
(from "Micronutrient Fertilization of Woody Seedlings Essential Regardless of Pine Bark pH" by Amy N. Wright, Alex X. Niemiera, J. Roger Harris, and Robert D. Wright, VPI, published in the J. Environ. Hort. June 1999).
A symposium on invasive species will be held Feb. 29 at the N.C. Arboretum in Asheville. Speakers include plant explorers, arboretum directors, native plant specialists, ecologists, naturalists, and plant scientists. The program is called "Stewardship Through Plantsmanship." For program and registration information, contact Cindy Blankenship at (828) 665-2492, or email@example.com
(from David Morgan, Weekly NMPRO e-mail, January 18, 2000).
Congress is scheduled to reconvene Jan. 24. They will face several issues that are being closely watched by the nursery industry: AGJOBS legislation, which could help ease a tight labor market for some nurseries; estate tax relief; and the Fair Act, which would force OSHA or the Nat'l. Labor Relations Board to reimburse a firm's attorney's fees in any action in which the party prevails.
(from David Morgan, Weekly NMPRO e-mail, January 18, 2000).
Southern blight, caused by a fungus in the soil, can be found in southeastern nurseries on container and field grown trees and shrubs, as well as in residential and commercial plantings of some woody landscape crops, particularly aucuba. To prevent significant plant loss timely fungicide treatments are necessary.
This study examined the effectiveness of ProStar 50W, Fluazinam 500F, Lynx 3.6F, Terraguard 50W, and Curalan DF with the current industry standard Terraclor 75W for the control of southern blight on container grown aucuba 'Variegata'. ProStar 50W and Fluazinam 500F offered complete protection from the fungus. Lynx 3.6F was as effective as ProStar 50W and Fluazinam 500F in controlling southern blight but only at the highest drench rate tested. Terraguard 50W and Curalan DF were ineffective against southern blight on aucuba.
(from "Assessment of New Fungicides for the Control of Southern Blight on Aucuba" by A.K. Hagan and J.W. Olive, Auburn University, published in J. Environ. Hort., June 1999).
Rooting trials were conducted to ascertain whether the duration of exposure to low levels of solar irradiance during root initiation influenced rooting and survival of semi-hardwood cuttings of six tree species (4 oak and 2 maple). Cuttings were treated with IBA (Indole-3-butyeric acid) and set in a fog humidified poly-tent rooting chamber (93% shading relative to outdoor full sunlight) for ten days or more. These conditions resulted in the optimal rooting of cuttings for 4 of the 6 species. Optimal duration of shading was species specific.
The results do indicate that this treatment with low irradiance while rooting is a low-cost, simple, environmentally responsible technique that would enable growers to increase their production of selected woody plants.
(from "Low Irradiance During Rooting Improves Propagation of Oak and Maple Taxa" by J.J. Aaczek, C.W. Heuser, Jr. and K.C. Steiner, Southern Illinois University, published in J. Environ. Hort., September 1999).
Need tree information? Try the new International Society of Arboriculture's web site, http://www.isa-arbor.com. You will find abstract articles from ISA publications; ISA Trust reports from researchers; and resources on plant health care, phytosphere research and state urban forestry; and links to other related sites. ISA, (217) 355-9411.
(from David Morgan, Weekly NMPRO e-mail, January 11, 2000).
Knowing when to plant and transplant trees is important for nursery growers and landscape professionals. For this study, red maple (Acer rubrum 'Franksred') and sugar maple (Acer saccharum 'Green Mountain') trees were grown in a 15 gallon pot-in-pot system for two years. Root growth was carefully monitored. It began in early March (one month before budbreak) and slowed after budbreak to resume again as the shoots grew. There was a dramatic slowing down of root growth in the fall when temperatures dropped to 40-45F. Red maple root growth stopped in the winter, while there was some nominal root growth for the sugar maple.
Nursery owners can time their planting schedule with these results in mind. Trees must be planted no later than very early spring for full spring budbreak. As root growth begins again in the spring that would be a more optimal time for transplanting trees.
(from "Root and Shoot Growth Periodicity of Pot-in-Pot Red and Sugar Maple" by J Roger Harris and Jody Fanelli at VPI, published in J. Environ. Hort., June 1999).
• Regardless of plant species, growing conditions, soil type, etc, lateral roots of trees are 1.5 to 4 times the canopy width and are contained in the top 2 inches of soil. A tree's root system is not a mirror image of a tree's shoot system.
• Planting holes should be 2 to 3 times wider and the same depth as the root ball of the tree to be placed in the planting hole. This procedure favors the lateral root growth previously described. Excessive planting hole depth results in settling and sinking of the root ball.
• Adding organic amendments to the backfill of a planting hole does not promote root growth. In most research conducted over the last 15 years, this practice actually inhibited top and root growth. Do not amend backfill soil.
• Pruning shoot growth at planting reduces initiation of new roots. The first priority after planting is root growth. It has been erroneously thought for many years that pruning at planting reduced transplant stress and aided in establishment.
• Pruning paints and wound dressings have no value. These materials allow moisture accumulation and are phytotoxic to beneficial fungi. The natural compartmentalization of decay in trees is inhibited by paints and wound dressings.
• Never make flush cuts with the tree trunk. Prune outside the branch bark collar. It contains naturally occurring chemicals that protect the tree from disease and decay.
(Extension Horticulturist Allen Owings)
By Jackie Mullen, Plant Pathologist, Auburn University
MONTHLY PLANT PROBLEM REPORT
Our 24 December plant samples were mostly landscape environmental stress problems. We did see Seridium canker on Leyland cypress; Anthracnose on holly fern; and Botryosphaeria canker on willow oak.
Seridium canker on Leyland cypress is a serious canker disease. Trunk and branch lesions are sunken and elongated. Often resin oozes from the cankers and runs down the trunk or branch surface. Pruning is needed to control this disease. Make cuts 4-5 inches beyond the edge of the canker decay. Check under the bark to find the edge of the decay area. Dip shears into alcohol or other disinfectant between cuts. After pruning and clean up are completed, protective sprays of Cleary's 3336 may be applied.
Botryosphaeria cankers often develop on trees that have been weakened by environmental stress or other problems. Cankers are usually sunken, cracked around the edges, and the decay may extend beyond the obvious superficial bark lesion. Usually pruning is required to control this disease. Make cuts 4-5 inches beyond the edge of the decay area. Dip shears into alcohol or other disinfectant solution between cuts. Cleary's 3336 may be applied as a protective treatment to the near-by bark areas, if desired.
DISEASES SEEN IN THE PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LAB IN DECEMBER 1999
PLANT DISEASE COUNTY Cypress, Leyland Seridium Canker Lee Fescue Drechslera Leaf Spot(D. dictyoides) Madison Holly Fern Anthracnose (Colletotrichum) Montgomery Oak, Willow Botryosphaeria Canker Jefferson Pine, Loblolly Sooty Mold Baldwin
*Locations are not reported for nursery and greenhouse samples.
DISEASE POSSIBILITIES FOR JANUARY
Black root rot (Thielaviopsis basicola) may occur on pansies and container hollies. Botrytis is a common problem on greenhouse crops.
The list below includes some common disease problems received in the lab in January of the past few years. Comments on control practices are brief. Refer to appropriate fact sheets, timely information, and the 1999 Alabama Pest Managaement Handbook.
DISEASE DESCRIPTIONS AND BRIEF CONTROL COMMENTS
ON SOME COMMON DISEASES OFTEN SEEN IN JANUARY
PLANT DISEASE DESCRIPTION CONTROL AFRICAN VIOLET Pythium Root Rot Roots become brown and wet-rotted. Sanitation and reduce watering practices. AZALEA Cercospora Leaf Spot Medium brown circular-irregular leaf spots (about 1/4 inch diam.). See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook; sanitation. CAMELLIA Anthracnose
Circular-irregular brown-gray spots on leaves. Sanitation. Cleary's 3336. FERN Botrytis Blight Brown discoloration of fronds and a gray fungal growth when conditions are cool and damp. Daconil is labelled for use on fern and it will control Botrytis. FERN Rhizoctonia Aerial Blight Brown, irregular lesions on fronds. Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook. FOLIAGE PLANTS Bacterial Leaf Spot Small, angular, black, water-soaked spots (1-3 or more mm diam) on foliage. As spots age, centers become dry, papery and may fall apart. Some centers may become light in color. Spots may be surrounded by yellow "halo". Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook. FUCHSIA Botrytis Blight Brown-gray spots/blight. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336. GERANIUM Bacterial Leaf Spot
See Foliage Plant Description. Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook. GERANIUM Fusarium Stem & Root Rot Lower stem and roots become black colored with a dry decay. Sanitation. Cleary's protective drenches/sprays will help. GERANIUM Oedema Small (1/8 inch diam. or less), light brown, corky slightly raised spots scattered over lower leaf surfaces. Corresponding areas on upper leaf surfaces are yellowed spots. Reduce watering on cool, cloudy days. GERANIUM Pythium Stem and Root Rot Black cankers (rotting) of lower stem, crown and roots. Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook. GERBERA DAISY Bacterial Leaf Spot
See Foliage Plants. See Foliage Plants. GREENHOUSE CROPS Botrytis Blight Gray-brown spots and blotches on the foliage. During moist, cool conditions, this fungus will produce a delicate gray web of fungal growth. Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook. GREENHOUSE CROPS Downy Mildew
Faded, yellow blotches on upper leaf surfaces. Lower leaf surfaces showed gray-purple, powdery masses of fungal growth. Reduce humidity; raise temperatures; refer to the Alabama Pest Management Handbook. GREENHOUSE &
Root tissues become brown and water-soaked. Foliage shows yellowing, wilt and/or dieback. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook; sanitiation; reduce watering schedules. HOLLY, HELLERI Thielaviopsis Root Rot Black spots and areas on roots and root tips; foliage yellows, wilts, and/or shows dieback. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336, Domain drenches may help as a preventative measure; see the Alabama Pesticide Handbook. HYDRANGEA Powdery Mildew White powdery dusting on leaves and shoots; dieback; blight. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook. IVY, SWEDISH Bacterial Leaf Spot See Foliage Plants. See Foliage Plants. NANDINA, DWARF Colletotrichum Leaf Spot Medium brown circular to irregular spots (about 1/4 inch diam.). Sanitation. Cleary's 3336 or Domain may help. (Test on a few plants first.) OXALIS Rust (Puccinia sp.) Rusty orange powdery spots develop on leaves; eventually leaves wither and die. Sanitation. PANSY Alternaria Blight Small, brown, irregular lesions. Sanitation. Daconil may help.. PANSY Botrytis Blight Gray or gray-brown circular-irregular spots/blotches on foliage. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook; sanitation or ANR-596a. PANSY Pythium Root Rot Plants unthrifty, wilt, yellow and die. Roots become brown and watersoaked. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook; sanitation or ANR-596a. PANSY Rhizoctonia Foliage Blight Spots/blight of brown color. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook. PANSY Thielaviopsis Root Rot Black spots and areas on roots and root tips. Plants wilt, yellow and die. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 or Domain drenches, as a preventative measure, may give some control. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook or ANR-596a. PHOTINIA Colletotrichum Leaf Spot Brown, circular leaf spots develop. Sanitation; See Alabama Pest Management recommendations for Entomosporium. PHOTINIA Entomosporium Leaf Spot Red-black circular-irregular spots on foliage, spots may coalesce; leaf fall will result. Sanitation; protective fungicide sprays. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook or ANR-392. POTHOS Anthracnose(Colletotrichum) Small-large brown lesions. Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook. SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA Algal Leaf Spot
Green or reddish circular spots, usually 3-5 mm diam., slightly raised. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook. VINCA Botrytis Leaf Spot Gray-brown blotches on foliage. Increase the temperatures to 70 degrees F or above. Decrease humidity. Apply protective fungicide treatments. VINCA Pythium Root Rot Roots become brown, water-soaked. Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook. VINCA Thielaviopsis Root Rot Black spots and areas on roots and root tips. Plants wilt, yellow, and die. Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 or Domain drenches may help.
February 3-6, 2000:
The Management Clinic.
Galt House, Louisville, KT. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org
March 18, 2000 - September 17, 2000:
Japan Flora 2000 'Communication Between Man and Nature'.
Awaji Island, Japan. See http://web.pref.hyogo.jp/jpnflora/english/index.htm or Meg VanSchoorl at MVANSCHOOR@agr.wa.gov
June 1-3, 1999:
Mid-South Greenhouse Growers Conference.
Ramada Inn - Southwest Conference Center in Jackson, MS. More information will be available soon or you can contact Allen Owings, Extension Horticulturist at LSU.
July 8-12, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org; web: http://www.ofa.org
July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org
July 16-19, 2000:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference.
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail email@example.com
August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researchers' Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa
September 15-16, 2000:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
October 1-4, 2000:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Hyatt Regency Oak Brook, Chicago, IL. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail email@example.com
October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail email@example.com
August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org
January 27 - January 31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24065-5656; phone 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
August 2-5, 2001:
Southern Nursery Association Resarcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline: 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline: 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org
September 30 - October 3, 2001:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Lexington, KY. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail email@example.com
October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Send horticultural questions and comments to email@example.com.
Send questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.