Be Prepared

I hope your life is slowing down a little so that you can enjoy the holiday season with your families. If you do not have everything prepared for winter, get ready so you can have a peaceful holiday break. Remember that nature is lying in the bushes like a patient cat with her tail slightly twitching. She is intensely watching you to see if you are going to let down your guard and not be ready. It seems like the big 100 year record freezes are always scheduled to hit on Christmas or New Years eve when no one is around. So, cover or be ready to cover when the weather warning comes.

Does Anyone Grow Stewartia malacodendron? Help!

I need a soapbox for this next paragraph. I'm preaching and I hope you are listening. I do not want you to miss a great opportunity.


You have the opportunity to take advantage of one of the greatest benefits that the Alabama Nurserymen's Association has ever offered. They are producing a Buyer's Guide for Alabama Nurseries. Do not be left out. Tennessee, Florida, Virginia and many other states have produced these valuable guides. Landscape and retail industry professionals love them. I use mine frequently and love them too. You have probably been on the plant searching side of the business at some time in your career. I am sure you have had at least one frustrating experience trying to find a particular plant or a liner. If you are like me, you have a box of catalogues that you rummage through until you scream, there has got to be a better way! There is. At a paltry cost of two dollars per entry, you can have your nursery and your plants listed in a buyer's guide that will be available at trade shows or by request from the ANA office. It will also be posted on the Internet. It will list your nursery and any plants you want to spotlight and make it easy for buyers to search and give you a call, fax or email. It lists whether you grow liners, bareroot, B&B or container plants. It will take you no longer than thirty minutes to an hour to fill out the form. If you are a specialty grower of ferns, ground covers or azaleas, one check mark, 2 minutes and $2 later, your nursery is reaching 1000's of people. The book will also be very beneficial to you because nursery and landscape support industries will be offering their listings as well. So, if you have lost your media, fertilizer or manure source, you can pick up this book and quickly find a new vendor to call. If you are a small grower with limited resources for marketing, this is a BEST BUY, NO BRAINER, DEAL OF THE YEAR OPPORTUNITY. Where else can you get so much exposure for so few dollars? If you are not a member of ANA, this is one big reason to join. Please take a few moments to find the Buyer's Guide Worksheet that was sent to you, fill it out and mail it in today. If you have lost yours, call Linda VanDyke at 334-821-5148 or email her to get a new form. Your new customers will be happy you took the time, and from a selfish point of view, so will I (No more scrounging through mountains of catalogues).

Penny Wise, Pound Foolish

I am off my soapbox now and would like to offer you some thoughts on a recurring problem I see, especially with new growers. It has to do with cutting corners on media (potting soil, substrate). Over the years, we have looked at many waste products to recycle into our containers to grow plants. Peanut hulls, rice hulls, cotton seed trash, mushroom compost, sewage sludge, yard waste, carpet remnants, wood shavings, shredded tires, egg shells, chicken or turkey litter, coconut shells, sand, clay and the list goes on forever. We have found that you can grow in almost any medium as long as it is non-toxic to the plant, will hold a good balance of air and water, provide a reservoir for nutrients and offer a good environment for roots to grow. For nursery producers in the Southeast, nothing has been found that is better than pine bark and/or a mixture of pine bark with other amendments such as sand, peat moss, coir, rice hulls and a few other amendments. This is because, other than growth supporting properties of a media, you are also concerned with cost, weight, stability, reliable supplies, uniformity, handling problems, need for composting, excess nutrient problems, pathogens as well as appearance and other factors. Cost often seems to be the deciding factor and probably garners too much weight in the decision for selecting a container media. Depending on your media, a 1-gallon container of media costs about 10 cents. If someone gives you some ground-up thigh masters or some other recycled waste product for the cost of shipping, you will only save about 1 cent a pot if you use it at a 20% rate. Do you have a larger, higher quality plant at the end of the season that is as light and easy to ship? The point is that you should always try to look for ways to cut costs but make sure through thorough trials that you are not losing more in plant growth than you are saving by getting something for FREE.

If you are going to have uniform crops, you must have uniform media to work with. Many of the products listed above have been used successfully but in small quantities. Pine bark with small percentages of peat moss, coir, coarse sand or rice hulls have all been used successfully over the years and are a good place to start. As you go further north, growers are not blessed with the ready supply of pine bark and must look for alternatives like hardwood bark or mushroom compost. If you go bargain shopping, look at ALL the factors involved, set up a trial comparing your new medium with your current medium and try it for a couple of seasons before you change your whole nursery over to a new system. Many nurseries have constant, on-going mini-research projects testing fertilizers, media, herbicides and other products in case they need to switch quickly to different products due to rapid change in supply or price. Always compare your current practice as a control. If you would like some help setting up these projects so that you get meaningful data, contact your local county agent or chemical technical representative. If you have a good medium that is working for you, you can probably save much more money by trying to cut labor rather than concentrating on media components. Labor contributes much more to the cost of the plant than media.

What prompted this attention to media was a sample I received of mushroom compost that was being used as a single component medium for a nursery. I also received requests this month for using peanut hulls. Both these products can be used as amendments (not single components) but they do have their limitations. Both products must be actively composted. Peanut hulls, since they come from the soil, have a potential nematode problem. Mushroom compost has problems of high sodium and salts and must be leached heavily before using as an amendment. Below is a soil test showing the nutritional analysis comparing pine bark and fresh mushroom compost. Note the level of sodium (Na) and salt (SS) levels of the fresh mushroom compost. Optimum SS levels should be between 1400 to 2400 ppm for this particular test. The guidelines for very high levels is 3500 or greater!

ppm in solution

Pine Bark0.795533.56
Mushroom Compost17.00119006.86

The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:










DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


Below is a list of liner producers from Tennessee.I have been having a blitz of new inquiries by people interested in starting a nursery. Liners are in very short supply and it makes it difficult to get started or keep going without a steady, reliable source of plants. I am beginning to collect a source list for liners. Below is a source list of budded liners, seedlings, and rooted liners that Mark Halcomb, Extension Nursery Specialist for Middle Tennessee, sent me. If you sell liners, please let me know so that I can add your name to my liner list.

Liners may be budded, rooted, raised from seed or produced by tissue culture.

A = Accelerated growth, in containers
B = Budded Liners
C = Rooted Liners
D = dogwood
F = fruit trees
L = Liner production is major part of business
M = maple
P = ornamental pear
R = redbud
S = Seedlings
tc = Tissue Culture

This list of Middle Tennessee liner producers may never be complete. More and more nurseries are beginning to propagate liners for their own use, and then sell their surplus. It's difficult to list all the nurseries that might have high QUALITY surplus liners for sale. The nurseries that produce liners as a major part of their business are indicated with an 'L'. No discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the compiler or the University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service is implied.

A & A Nursery
Fred & Ronnie Alonso
891 David Crockett Hwy
Winchester, TN 37398
931-967-9686 Night 931-967-1297

A-Frame Propagation
Woody Hillis
1212 Northcutt Cove Rd.
McMinnville, TN 37110

AJ's Tree Farm
Joyce & Alvin Myers
1407 Smoot Road
Morrison, Tn 37357

Apalachee Nursery
Keith Kilpatrick
1333 Kimsey Dairy Road
Turtletown, Tn 37391
Fax 865-496-1951
S,mostly ericaceae, oak leaf, sourwood

Frank Basham Nursery
PO Box 38
515 Basham Road
Viola, Tn 37394
Fax 931-635-30651 -800-668-9262
cherry, arborvitae

Botanico, Inc.
Bob Flanders
P. O. Box 922, Hwy 56 N
McMinnville, TN 37111
(931)934-2868 Fax (931)934-2844 800-557-5522
C,B,P,cherry,dec. magnolia,crab,fruitless sweetgum

Bottoms Brothers Nursery
Dwight & Johnny Bottoms
83 McGee Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-9158 Fax 931-668-9158 mobile 931-212-7994 800-668-9158 Fax:T 1-888-668-9158

Bouldin Nursey & Ghse
Carl D. Bouldin
5679 Lucky Road
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-9339 Fax 931-668-8720

Cedarwood Nursery
Buddy Patterson
6794 Nashville Hwy
McMinnville, TN 37110
(931) 939-3960 Fax 931-939-3973

Clemons Nursery
Leonard Clemons
2186 Shellsford Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-473-4186 Fax 931-473-7220 ornamental grasses
brokers liners

Commercial Nursery Co.
Iain Hiscock
3654 Knights Church Road
Decherd, TN 37324
(931) 967-5525 Fax 931-967-4650

Crimson Dale Nursery
Gerald Hawkersmith & Karen Kennedy
PO Drawer 709
Winchester, Tn 37398
931-967-2531 Fax 931-967-2599

Dry Shave Mountain Nursery
Anthony & Catrenia Wanamaker
57 Dry Shave Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
Fax 931-692-3499 www.TnNursery.Com/DryShave/

Dykes & Son Nursery
Powell & Jeffery Dykes
825 Maude Etter Road
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-8833 Fax 931-668-2771

Flat Rock Nursery
Ricky Myers
2485 Pleasant Hill Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-939-4319 Fax 931-939-4340

Foothills Nursery
Ms. Debbie Cantrell
2770 Lawson Mill Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-3797 *931-668-8158 Fax 931-668-9582
B,S,D,R,P, river birch

Forest Nursery Company, Inc.
2362 Beersheba Hwy.
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-473-2133 *931-473-4740 Fax 931-473-2133

Gaither Nursery Group
520 Bethany Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110-5361
931-668-4776 Fax 931-668-4890
To order: 1-800-438-8574

Faron Green Nursery
5588 Nashville HwyMcMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-2509 Fax 931-668-1578

Green Hill Nursery
Bill & Jim Sisk
PO Box 558
Winchester, TN 37398
931-967-3747 Fax 931-962-0069

Green Valley Nursery
Steve & Betty Scott
PO Box 221
McMinnville, Tn 37111
931-473-5895 Fax 931-473-7178

Greenwood Nursery
Steve Jones
202 Bradford Road
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-3041 Outside of Tennessee 1-800-426-0958
Brokers liners

Larry A. Gribble Nursery
Larry A. Gribble
393 Hennessee Bridge Road
Rock Island, Tn 38581
931-686-8167 Fax 931-686-2718

Guthrie Nursery, Inc
Larry Green
1843 Mike Muncey Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-934-2401 Fax 931-934-2014

Hawkins Nursey
Barry Hawkins
PO Box 7152
McMinnville, Tn 37111
931-934-2508 Mobile 931-212-5357 Fax 931-934-3201 P,cherry

Heather Farms Nursery
Tom, Terry & Tim Gallagher
2961 King Road
Morrison, TN 37357
931-635-2826 Fax 931-635-2375

Heritage Farms
Jimmy Barnes
1462 Ivy Bluff Trail
Morrison, Tn 37357
931-939-3367* 931-939-3414 Fax 931-939-3034 800-721-2135
F,D,P,S,crab,patio peach,cherry,birch,shades,shrubs

Hidden Hollow Nursery
Harald Neubauer
5367 Buncombe Road
Belvidere, Tn 37306
931-967-0533 Fax 931-962-0420
B,D,P,R witchhazel

High Country Nursery
Everett Richardson
PO Box 521
Beersheba Springs, Tn 37305
931-692-3122 Fax 931-692-3210

Highland Rim Nursery
Neil Schultz
PO Box 232
McMinnville, Tn 37111

Hildreth Nursery
Tommy Hildreth
12301 Green Hill Road
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-934-2344 Fax 931-934-2917

Hillis Nursery Company, Inc.
Harold B. Hillis
92 Gardner Road
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-4364 Fax 931-668-7432

F.W. Hillis Nursery
PO Box 374
McMinnville, TN 37111
931-668-3194 Fax 931-668-3096

Hills Creek Nursery
Bobby Panter
826 Hills Creek Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-8071 931-668-2638 Fax 931-668-2062

Milo & Tyffie Hobbs
3723 Northcutt Road
McMinnville, TN 37110
C,L,M,cherry,dec.magnolia,vib,maplesBlaze /Flame

Howard Brothers Nursery
Jackie Howard
4805 Crisp Springs Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-939-2901 Fax 931-939-2904

Ideal Nursery & Orchard Co.
Jim Milstead
869 Underwood Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-473-6513 Fax 931-473-2594 Nursery

Jansch Enterprises Nursery
Jim Whaley & Becky Jansch
PO Box 1010
Wartburg, Tn 37887
865-346-8733 Fax 865-346-5219

Troy Jenkins Nursery
Troy Jenkins
96 Holly Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-2154* 931-668-8323 Fax 931-668-3840

Jones Nursery Co.
Billy Jones
538 Billy Jones Road
Morrison, Tn 37357
931-635-3205 Fax 931-635-3381

Keel Nursery
2300 Hennessee Bridge Road
Rock Island, Tn 38581
C,arborvitae,juniper,boxwood,euonymus,hydrangea,magnolia, nandina,holly,viburnum,yew

Krauth Nursery
Keaton Krauth
7905 Sewanee Hwy.
Cowan, TN 37318

Kuykendall Nursery
Mark & Sam Kuykendal
l108 Oak Hill Drive
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-473-2927 Fax 931-506-5013

Larkin Farms
George, Bill, Anthony Larkin
10268 David Crockett Hwy
Belvidere, TN 37306
931-469-7382* 931-469-7374 931-469-7285

Lee's Nursery
P O Box 489
McMinnville, TN 37111
931-668-4870 Fax 931-668-3681

Little Rest Nursery
Mickey Adcock
1419 Meiser Lane
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-8699 mobile 931-212-5968
B,D,P,R,cherry,patio peach

Little River Nursery
David Hillis
16400 Beersheba Hwy.
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-692-3771 Fax 931-692-2255

David C. McGregor Nursery 5134 Manchester Hwy
Morrison, Tn 37357
931-668-4018 Fax 931-668-9197

Merritt Nursery
Otis & Brett Merritt
PO Box 763
McMinnville, Tn 37111
931-668-8647 Fax 931-668-3076 1-800-441-8384

Mid South Nursery
Windell Tate
718 Randall Hitchcock Road
Rock Island, Tn 38581
931-686-7044 Fax 931-686-8954 mobile 931-607-2480

Moore's Nursery
Troy Moore
90 Mrs. Blanche Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110

Mountain Creek Nursery
Michael Hallum
941 Scenic Hills Dr.
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-934-2192 Fax 931-934-2271

Mountain Land Liners
Joe King
PO Box 211
Beersheba Springs, Tn 37305

Mountain Top Nursery
Avery Curtis
53 Mountain Top Lane
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-815-3895 Fax 931-815-3895

Myers Cove Nursery
Andrew C. Myers
PO Box 191
McMinnville, Tn 37111
931-668-3155 Fax 931-668-3207 Kenneth Myers & Sons Nursery
Kenny Myers
240 Tree Farm Lane
Morrison, TN 37357
931-939-3892 931-473-8150 Fax 931-939-3269

Steve Myers & Son Nursery
211 Peers Street
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-473-6241* 931-939-3303 Fax 931-939-3083

Nunley Nursery
Robert Nunley
68 Scott Road
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-692-3665 Fax 931-692-3431

O'Neal Nursery Co.
Dwight O'Neal
4420 Harrison Ferry Rd.
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-7749 Fax 931-668-7855'Neal/

Oak Grove Nursery
Kevin & Yvonne Smith
1366 Maxwell Road
Belvidere, Tn 37306
931-469-7466 Fax 931-469-7466

Old Hickory Nursery
Michael Panter
773 Dry Creek Road
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-8961 Fax 931-668-2319

Palmer Nursery
David Palmer
389 Palmer Lane
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-9145 Fax 931-668-9190

Panter & Sunderland
Charlie Sunderland
982 Northcutt's Cove Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-8658* 931-473-2359

Patrick Nursery
Eric Patrick
2119 Beersheba Hwy
McMinnville, Tn 37110-7523

Pennington Nursery
Terry W. Pennington
3269 Bybee Branch Rd
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-3591 Fax 931-635-3591
B, new dec. magnolias

Phytotektor, Inc.
Paul Bauer
730 Rattlesnake Br. Cir.
Huntland, TN 37345
931-469-7286 Fax 931-469-7318

Pleasant Cove Nursery
John, David, Frank & Robert Collier
2400 Old Rock Island Rd.
Rock Island, TN 38581
931-686-2480/2215 Fax 931-686-2362

Powell Nursery Co.
Ronald & Diana Powell
121 Powell Nursery Dr.
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-9477 Fax 931-668-9352 mobile 931-808-5615
B,ash,locust,fruitless sweetgum,C,cherry,D,P,R,S

Pro-Gro Nursery
David M. Greene
6303 Smithville Hwy.
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-934-2942 Fax 931-934-2942
L,B,P,R,patio peach,fruitless sweetgum,locust,cherry

Pyramid Nursery
Lloyd & Lorell Mills
153 Nola Lane
McMinnville, Tn 37110
P, burning bush

R & B Nursery
Andy Black & George Roller
109 Braswell Lane
Smithville, Tn 37166
615-597-5135 Fax 615-597-5333

River Bend Nurseries
Steve Bennett & Jerry Blankenship
PO Box 216
Thompson Station, Tn 37179
615-790-7900 Fax 615-790-6649 800-554-8379

River Farm Nursery
Pat Brown
354 Lillie Lane
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-4813 Fax 931-668-7248

Scenic Hills Nursery
Garry & Tracy Adcock
PO Box 454
McMinnville, TN 37111
931-934-2540 Fax 931-934-2403

Schaefer Nursery
Milton Schaefer
P. O. Box 62, Cowan Hwy.
Winchester, TN 37398
931-967-4415 Fax 931-967-6549

Shadow Nursery
Don Shadow
254 Shadow Nursery Rd.
Winchester, TN 37398
931-967-6059 Fax 931-967-6079
L,B,C, dogwood

Sleepy Hollow Nursery
George Dodson
3506 Harrison Ferry Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-3902* 931-668-2462 Fax 931-668-2443 mobile 931-212-4730

Smartt's Nursery & GH
Mike Smartt
675 Grizzell Road
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-9475 Fax 931-668-9475 mobile 931-607-0920's
M,P,R,cherry,oak,patio peach,plum

Sons Nursery & Landscaping
Jerry Sons
5236 Lynchburg Road, Hwy 50
Winchester, Tn 37398
931-967-0595* 931-967-3535
B, dogwood

Spring Valley Nursery
Billy Hildreth
570 Parkhurst Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-934-2417* 931-934-2531

Stewart's Nursery
Veronica Stewart
PO Box 752
McMinnville, Tn 37111
931-934-2620 Fax 931-934-2098

Sticks & Stones Nursery
Gary Clendenon
4528 Hills Creek Road
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-2409 Fax 931-668-2409
S, for wildlife

Stoner Nursery
Glen Stoner
11982 W. Green Hill Rd.
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-934-2169 Fax 931-934-2263

Summer View Nursery
Connie J. Hillis
183 Summerview Lane
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-4431 Fax 931-668-3238

Sunrise Nursery Liners
Jimmy & Annette Kell
282 Airport Dr.
McMinnville, TN 37110
C, groundcovers

Tennessee Trees, LLC
Jan Johnson or Jerry Verner
10321 Nashville Hwy
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-939-3239 Fax 931-939-2886

Tennessee Valley Nsy.
Fred Shadow
145 Tenn. Valley Dr.
Winchester, TN 37398
931-967-4541 Fax 931-967-4542
L,B,C,D,Heritage birch,cherry,P

Tennessee Wholesale Nursery
hcr77 box 125
Altamon, TN 37301

Thompson's Nursery & Greenhouse
Bobby & Carrie Thompson
P. O. Box 47
Beersheba, TN 37305-0047
l,C,cherry,foster holly,vib,burning bush

Triangle Nursery, Inc.
David Hill or Ricky Minton
8526 Beersheba Hwy
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-8022 Fax 931-668-3297 800-808-4769

Triple "S" Nursery
Manuel Statham, Sr.
3571 Knights Church Road
Decherd, Tn 37324

Turner and Son Nursery
John & Terri Turner
13233 West Green Hill Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-934-2692* 931-934-2355 Fax 931-934-3119
F,B,C,D,P,cherry,crab,patio peach

Viburnums by George
George P. Krauth
136 BJ's Landing
Estill Springs, Tn 37330
931-967-5983 Fax 931-649-2080
C, viburnums

Walker Nursery Co.
Eric Walker
3809 Manchester Hwy
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-4622 Fax 931-668-7365

Ware's Nursery
Jerry Ware
45 Chapel Hill Drive
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-9360 Fax 931-668-5954's

Warren County Nursery
Jeff, Michael,& Richard Hobbs
6492 Beersheba Hwy
McMinnville, TN 37110
931-668-8941 Fax 931-668-2245

Wilcher's Nursery
Clayton Wilcher
227 Wilcher Lane
Rock Island, TN 38581
931-668-2666 Fax 931-668-2666

Walnut Hill Nursery
Robert A. Wilkinson, Jr.
947 Walnut Hill
Belvidere, Tn 37306
B,D,R,P,make ginkgo,fruitless sweetgum, cherry, plum

Williams Nursery
Joe & Velvia Williams
142 Jacks Road
Elora, Tn 37328
931-937-6291* 931-937-6138

Don Yancy & Sons Nursery
Don, Bill & Charles Yancy
186 Old Shellsford Road
McMinnville, Tn 37110
931-668-8033 Fax 931-668-2789
S, gingko

Bob Young Nursery
Bob Young
3053 Hennessee Bridge Road
Rock Island, Tn 38581
931-686-2496* 931-686-8687 Fax 931-686-8894 931-607-3565's


If you are in the market for horticultural tools the following websites may be just what you are looking for. Both have lines of commercial pruners, grafting equipment, sprayers, spreaders, power equipment and more. The URL's are: and

(from David Morgan's Weekly MNPRO e-mail 11/9/99).


*Floriculture and nursery crop production industries are increasing at over $500 million annually in grower cash receipts - this makes it the fastest growing segment of U.S. agriculture.

*The nursery/floral crop production industry is the 2nd leading employer in U.S. agriculture.

*"Environmental horticulture" ranks among the top five agriculture commodities in twenty-eight states.

*Recent statistics indicate that the average nursery/greenhouse producer can expect an annual return of $53,589. This is more than any other agriculture commodity - cotton is #2 at $42,396.

*0.6% of the ARS budget is spent on nursery/floral crop research.

(From Home Grounds/Commercial Nursery Crops Update, Dec. 1, by LSU Agricultural Center Extension Horticulturist Allen Owings).


The University of Georgia's College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences has developed a computer program to assist landscape managers with the daunting task of estimating fixed and variable costs so that they can bid on jobs in an informed manner. Accurate cost estimating is critical in running a profitable business. The program was also developed for county agents so that they can assist landscape managers in their counties.

Worksheets cover Labor Cost, Overhead, Machine Cost and a Site Estimator. A Bid Estimator deals with estimating equipment, labor and material costs. The program will NOT do job tracking, cost accounting or payroll; neither will it estimate landscape, hardscape or irrigation installation costs as there are commercially available programs that address these subjects.

For more information write to Extension Agricultural and Applied Economics, Attn: HORT Management, 201 Conner Hall, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (the cost is $49.95).


For those of you who have been reading our newsletter for awhile you are no doubt familiar with the container gardening competitions between students in the Herbaceous Plant course at Auburn University. There are many photos of those containers in past newsletters. Click on this link for the first year photos and here for the second year. The gardens are prepared in the spring and spend the next few months in the courtyard of Funchess Hall (home of the Horticulture Department). Out of curiosity I walked through the courtyard last week (the last of November) with our digital camera and took the photos below. It's nice to know that some flowers are still thriving at this late date.


Disfiguring powdery mildew on beebalm was the focus of Richard Bir's recent study in North Carolina. Research on powdery mildew on beebalm had previously been conducted in Illinois and Vermont, but conditions in the southeast (warm, humid, rainy) are even more favorable to the growth of powdery mildew than the northeast and midwest.

Twenty-three monarda cultivars, as well as a wild type, Monarda didyma, were planted in 1997 in North Carolina. When the data was evaluated it was found that none of the cultivars were immune to powdery mildew. None had less than 45% defoliation. It was concluded that even the most resistant of the cultivars should be reserved for the back of the flower border. If they are placed elsewhere the landscape will display leafless stems along with the beebalm flowers. Flowering was normal in all test plants but less prolific in those most severely troubled with the powdery mildew.

Resistance to powdery mildew defoliation under severe disease pressure existed. Cultivars 'Claire Grace,' 'Marshall's Delight,' and 'Stone's Throw Pink' were most resistant early in the flowering season while 'Beauty of Cobham,' 'Blue Stockin,' 'Cambridge Scarlet,' 'Elsie's Lavender,' 'Mahogany,' 'Marshall's Delight' and 'Vintage Wine' were most resistant late in the season.

(from Richard Bir, North Carolina State University).


The award is sponsored by the Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association, the Univiversity of Kentucky, and the Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest. Last month we shared the year 2000 winners. How time flies - here are the winners for 2001:

Viburnum utile 'Eskimo,'

Malus 'Donald Wyman,'

Amelanchier x 'Cumulus,'

Epimedium x versicolor 'Sulphureum.'

For more information about these plants phone (502) 899-3622.

(from David Morgan's Weekly MNPRO e-mail 11/9/99).


Webb and Joy Thornhill, of Thornhill Farm in Pisgah, Alabama, are the proud winners of The 1999 Governor's Christmas Tree Contest. Their tree, seen below, will grace the Governor's Office during the Christmas season. Trees for the contest could not exceed 8 feet in height. Entries were judged by select Auburn University faculty, students and staff.





October was mostly dry. Many of the samples received in October were landscape woody plants that were stressed from the hot & dry summer just past. Some of the plants showed a dieback which is typical for root-injured plants. Some of the dieback foliage also had an association with some weak or secondary disease agent fungi which will become established when plants have been previously weaken. We believe many of the landscape plants with fungal associated dieback symptoms were root damaged primarily and initially by drought/heat stress last summer. Irrigated plants may also suffer as a result of the droughty conditions. It is often difficult to judge what is appropriate irrigation during drought periods. Some irrigation is not enough to replace the effect of a good rain event. And, in some heavy soil conditions, irrigations may result in overly wet soils which also cause root damage.

Diseases identified in October include the following: Phoma (secondary) blight on arbor-vitae; Volutella blight of boxwood; Pleurotus wood rot of dogwood; Botryosphaeria cankers on Compacta and Helleri holly; Pythium crown rot on impatiens; Fusarium and Pythium bulb rot of iris; Phytophthora & Pythium stem, root, leaf, and cutting rot of English ivy; Stagnospora twig blight of juniper; Pythium and Fusarium crown rot of pansy; Pythium stem and root rot of poinsettia; anthracnose of poplar; Fusarium and Pythium graft union decay of rose; Cercospora leaf spot and rust of willow.

As mentioned earlier, we have received a number of woody landscape shrub/tree samples (arbor-vitae, boxwood, dogwood, hollies, ivy, pittosporum, poplar, willow where decline symptoms were present. With some of the samples dieback was accompanied with the obvious presence of Phoma, Pestalotia, Volutella, Botryosphaeria, Stagnospora or similar weakly pathogenic agents of branch and twig cankers and dieback. Colletotrichum spp. may be strong or weak fungal disease agents. With some cases, there was no evidence of foliar pathogen in association with the foliage dieback. In both of the above situations we believe that root problems have played a major role with the dieback problems. And, with most situations, root disease was not present. Considering the droughty and hot conditions of the past summer (and the previous summer), we strongly suspect environmental stress root injury has occurred. To help the plants recover from this injury, we recommend that the plants be pruned back early next spring. The reduced root system will be better able to support a smaller foliage area and the new growth that will develop. Pay close attention to droughty periods this fall and winter. Water plantings during prolonged dry periods of 7-10 days. Fertilize as appropriate next spring. In those situations where weak fungal disease agents have been involved with the dieback, some light fall pruning may be helpful. Removal of disease areas in the fall is usually recommended so that disease will not spread during warm periods of fall and winter.

At this time of year with deciduous trees and shrubs, we often see fungal leaf spots caused by Cercospora, Septoria, Phyllosticta, Phoma, or Alternaria. These fungi typically cause leaf spots on senescing leaves. Damage is minimal as leaves will normally fall very shortly. Removal of fallen leaves will help prevent or lessen the re-occurrence of these late-season leaf spots next year.

Other problems that could be associated with stressed trees and shrubs are wood rots caused mostly by mushroom-type (Basidiomycete) fungi. These fungi develop in the wood usually where a wound is present. Often, the tree or shrub has been somewhat weakened, possibly by adverse environmental conditions, inappropriate soil pH or abnormal nutritional situation. This fall the fungus Pleurotus was identified as causing a wood rot on dogwood. Also, Armillariella mellea conks were identified. Armillariella is closely related to Armillaria. See ANR-907 for more information on this wood and root rot fungus.

The greenhouse English ivy sample observed last month contained a severe level of Phytophthora and Pythium stem, root, leaf decay. Cuttings were also similarly infected. These two fungi require the prolonged existence of wet media conditions in order for disease to become established. But, cutting propagation areas are often wet areas. Media composition may need to be modified. Damaged plants and cuttings should be removed from the area and destroyed. Media should not be re-used unless it is chemically or heat treated to sterilize it. Planting areas or houses should be thoroughly cleaned. Near-by healthy plants may be treated with fungicide protective treatments. With English ivy in the greenhouse, Truban, Subdue Maxx, Subdue 2X, or Subdue GR may be used to help prevent infection from Phytophthora or Pythium disease.

Pansies with Pythium and Fusarium crown rot were seen in three separate situations in October. The rotting was water-soaked, but with very little discoloration. Pythium and Fusarium were identified on the basis of ELISA and culture work. Problems were first noted with the total collapse of the pansy foliage. Damaged plants should be removed. In a greenhouse, media should be removed or treated for sterilization. Also in a greenhouse, protective fungicides should be applied to near-by pansies. See the AL Pest Management Handbook for a list of fungicides available. In a landscape, damaged plants should be removed. Soil drainage should be checked and improved if appropriate. Irrigation should be regulated so that soil areas do not remain wet for prolonged periods of time. Some soil replacement may be helpful.


Arbor-vitae Phoma (Secondary Suspect) Blight Montgomery
Blackberry Coniothyrium Cane BlightChilton
Blackberry Septoria Leaf Spot Chilton
Boxwood Volutella Blight*, St. Clair
Boxwood Pythium Feeder Rot Decay*, St. Clair
Cactus, Christmas Fusarium Crown Rot*
Dogwood Pleurotus Wood RotColbert
Holly, Compacta & Helleri Botryosphaeria CankersCullman
Impatiens Pythium Crown Rot Lee
Iris Fusarium & Pythium Bulb Rot Jefferson
Ivy, English Phytophthora & Pythium Stem, Root & Leaf Rot*
Ivy, English Phytophthora & Pythium Cutting Rot *
Juniper Stagnospora Twig BlightJefferson
PansyPythium & Fusarium Crown RotLee
Poinsettia Pythium Stem & Root Rot *
PansyPythium & Fusarium Crown RotLee
PoinsettiaPythium Stem and Root Rot*
PoplarAnthrqacnose (Colletotrichum)Montgomery
RoseGraft Union Decay Fusarium & PythiumJefferson
WillowCercospora Leaf SpotLee
*Locations are not reported for nursery and greenhouse samples.


Entomosporium leaf spots on photinia may develop and spread if conditions are cool and wet. Pansy diseases (especially black root rot) are often seen in November. Greenhouse poinsettias may develop disease problems. Pythium stem rot has been a problem in the past.

Recently, John Olive (Springhill Ornamental Horticulture Substation) reported seeing an Alternaria leaf spot problem on poinsettia. Spots were typically gray and irrregular-circular or oval. Also at this time of year, powdery mildews may be a problem on a variety of plants. Warm days with cool nights and high humidity but no rain are favorable conditions for powdery mildew. Powdery mildews have been diagnosed on Salvia and some other bedding plants. Our warm days, cooler nights and dry conditions have been favorable for this disease.

The list below includes some common disease problems received in the lab during November of the past few years. Comments on control practices are brief. Refer to the Alabama Pest Management Handbook or appropriate fact sheet for details on disease control.


ARBOR-VITAEPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown, decayed. When disease is active, roots are water-soaked.Sanitation; protective fungicide drenches. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
AZALEAPowdery Mildew
Whitish powdery dusting on leaves; some leaf deformity if infection occurs on new growth; infected leaves eventually become yellowed.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
AZALEA (Cuttings, Liners)Aerial Web Blight
Lower leaves become brown spotted or blighted; when conditions are humid, a delicate mycelial webbing may occur on infected leaves, eventually, infected, blighted leaves drop. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
AZALEAPhytophthora Root RotSee Arbor-vitae.See Arbor-vitae comments.
AZALEA (Cutting)Rhizoctonia Cutting End Rot.Cutting ends develop brown lesions which may completely encircle the stem. Plant death results.Sanitation.
BOXWOODNectria cinnabarina
Sunken lesions on branches, sometimes with orange pin-point bodies of he fungus; dieback.Pruning at least 3 inches beyond the canker edge.
CAMELIAPhyllosticta Leaf SpotDark purple-brown circular-oval leaf spots.Sanitation in the fall. Protective fungicide sprays (Cleary's 3336) if disease appears early in the season.
CHRYSANHEMUMPythium Root RotRoots brown and water-soaked. Foliage yellows and shows poor growth, dies.Sanitation; protective fungicide drench treatments; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DIANTHUSBacterial Leaf Spot
Small, black, angular, wet-looking spot.Sanitation; Kocide may help.
DIANTHUSColletotrichum Leaf SpotIrregular brown, sometimes circular spots.Sanitation; protective sprays of Cleary's will help.
GARDENIAPhytophthora Root RotBrown, discolored, decayed, water-soaked roots.Sanitation; reduce soil moisture; Banrot or Banol may be used - usually in a nursery situation.
GERANIUMOedemaCorky brown spots (2-3 mm) on lower leaf surfaces. Corresponding upper leaf surfaces become yellow spotted.Reduce watering schedule when weather is cool and cloudy.
HELLERI HOLLY liners and containersBlack Root Rot
Roots develop black tips and black lesions and sections.Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
HELLERI HOLLY liners and containersRhizoctonia Aerial BlightLower leaves become spotted and blighted. Leaf fall occurs. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
HOLLY, COMPACTA AND HELLERIPhytopthora Root RotFeeder and major roots show a brown, wet decay. The outer cortex can be easily slipped off of the inner central root cylinder.Sanitation; see the Alabama Pesticide Handbook.
HOLLY, COMPACTA AND HELLERIColletotrichum Leaf SpotBrown-black circular spots.Sanitation. Cleary's 3336 may be used as a protective treatment.
INDIAN HAWTHORNEEntomosporium Leaf SpotBlack spots with red borders develop on the foliage.Sanitation; protective fungicide sprays. See the Alabama Pesticide Handbook.
IVY, ENGLISHNectria CankerSunken lesions on branches/stems; sometimes diagnostic red pin-point fruiting bodies are present.Pruning lesions making cuts at least 3 inhes beyond lesions edges. Cleary's may help.
JUNIPERPhomopsis Tip blightDieback.Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
JUNIPERPhytophthora Root RotSee Arbor-vitae.See Arbor-vitae comments.
KALANCHOEPowdery Mildew
Leaves and stems are covered with a white powdery dusting. Some distortion of new growth may be present. Some foliage yellowing and browning may be present.Sanitation. Maintain even day-night temperatures if possible. Apply protective sprays of a recommended fungicide. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
LUPINRhizoctonia Root RotRoots become brown and dried.--
LUPINPythium Root
Rot/Seedling Disease
Roots become brown and watersoaked.--
Green or reddish-colored, slightly raised, usually circular or oval spots with wavy margins develop on upper leaf surfaces.Sanitation.
MARIGOLD PlugsAlternaria Leaf SpotSmall, dark brown, irregular spots (1-3 mm) on leaves and stems.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
OAKGanoderma Wood/Root RotTree dieback. Conks developing on the trunks of infected trees are non-gilled, poroid, with or without a lateral stalk, with a distinctive reddish-brown or gray-brown varnish-like crust on the upper surface.Sanitation. Remove wet conditions.
Small, cream-colored, circular spots with dark borders. Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PANSYBlack Root Rot
Black root tips and black root lesions and areas. Cleary's 3336; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PANSYCercospora Leaf SpotGray-black round leaf spots about 1/4-1/2 cm. Sanitation. Daconil or Cleary's 3336 may be used for protective disease control.
PANSYMyrothecium Crown RotCollapse of petioles or lower stems. Tiny black and white pinhead sized bodies on collapsed tissues. Sanitation. Daconil protective sprays.
PANSYPhytophthora Crown RotCrowns, roots become brown and watersoaked. Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PANSYPythium Crown/Root RotCrowns, roots become brown and watersoaked. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PERIWINKLERhizoctonia Crown RotCrowns, roots become dried, brown, rotted. Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PHLOXBlack Root Rot
See Pansy.See Pansy.
PHOTINIAEntomosporium Leaf SpotBlack spots with dark red borders; spot coalescence; leaf drop.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 protective drenches.
Needle Cast
Older needles become yellow and then brown in spots; eventually whole needles turn brown and drop. Small, black football shaped lesions (1-2 mm long) develop on brown needles.Protective fungicide sprays. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PINE, VIRGINIAFusarium Pitch CankerElongated cankers. Some resin flow.Sanitation. See comments in the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PINE, VIRGINIARhizosphaeria Needle CastNeedles turn brown. Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies) occur in a linear arrangement on browning needles.--
POINSETTIAPhytophthora Root RotSee Pythium Root Rot.See Pythium Root Rot.
POINSETTIAPythium Stem and Root RotLower stem and roots become brown, soft, water-soaked, and rotted.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook; sanitation.
POINSETTIABotrytis BlightBracts and leaves develop gray lesions and areas. Elongated lesions may occur on stems. A gray web may develop on suface of lesions when conditions are humid.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
POINSETTIARhizoctonia Crown Rot
and Root Rot
Lower stems develop dry, medium-dark brown surface lesions; roots may become brown and dried.See See Alabama Pest Management Handbook; sanitation.
ROSE, MiniaturePhytophthora Root RotBrown, water-soaked dying roots.Sanitation.


January 19-21, 2000:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Don W. Sanford at 847-526-2010, fax 847-526-3993; e-mail

January 27-29, 2000:
The Gulf States Horticultural Expo
Mobile Convention Center.
Educational Seminars and Trade Show
Call 334-502-7777 for more information.

January 29-February 2, 2000:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Lexington, KY. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail

February 3-6, 2000:
The Management Clinic.
Galt House, Louisville, KT. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;

March 18, 2000 - September 17, 2000:
Japan Flora 2000 'Communication Between Man and Nature'.
Awaji Island, Japan. See or Meg VanSchoorl at

June 1-3, 1999:
Mid-South Greenhouse Growers Conference.
Ramada Inn - Southwest Conference Center in Jackson, MS. More information will be available soon or you can contact Allen Owings, Extension Horticulturist at LSU.

July 8-12, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail; web:

July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;

July 16-19, 2000:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference.
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researchers' Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;

September 15-16, 2000:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail

October 1-4, 2000:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Hyatt Regency Oak Brook, Chicago, IL. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636;

January 27 - January 31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24065-5656; phone 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail:

August 2-5, 2001:
Southern Nursery Association Resarcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline: 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline: 770-973-4636;

September 30 - October 3, 2001:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Lexington, KY. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail

October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail:

Send horticultural questions and comments to

Send questions and comments to

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.