December 2001

MERRY CHRISTMAS to each of you from the faculty and staff at Auburn University Horticulture. May the weather be nice and allow you and your families to enjoy an uninterrupted holiday season. As always E-mail, call, write, use carrier pigeon or send a note with your kids if we can help you. Thanks for your support throughout the year.


Tilt Ramblings


What is "The Best" way to grow a tree in a nursery so it will transplant and survive in the landscape? We have been arguing that question for years and will continue to take our stands for our chosen method as long as people get up on different sides of the bed. Early in my career I was on a nursery program with Milton Schaefer, a quality liner grower from Winchester, TN, debating field-grown liners vs. container-grown liners. We stated our cases with knowledge and confidence but in the end I think the conclusions are the same as they are now. There are many different ways to get to the same point in the nursery industry. Our methods are as different as the managers of the nurseries but as we cross the finish line with our plants, everyone has a quality plant that will grow and survive. The method we choose depends on our personalities, location, customer preference, available labor and resources and making the necessary adjustments to make our systems work. What are the arguments today?

The Vision Revealed:

I just returned from the first annual Great Southern Tree Conference in Gainesville, Florida. Dr. Ed Gilman, in cooperation with other Florida Extension Specialists and Nursery and Allied Industry supporters, brought to reality a vision for a regional educational event centered around an outdoor demonstration area. The vision was to take ideas and research from the lab, classroom and industry inventors' dreams, put them side by side in a controlled replicated demonstration and evaluate the pros and cons of all the production and planting methods. It was a great idea (wish I had thought of it) and a successful conference (the parts I heard).

Excuses and Complaints:

Many of you, who like me, were not the model student in earlier years may have heard your teachers say, "If you would listen more instead of talking, maybe you would learn something!" Unfortunately, I did not get to hear the whole meeting but I had a good excuse (that is the same thing I told my teachers). I was manning my post explaining the value of soil amendments and talking about the planned demonstration as everyone else rotated through the various sites hearing about irrigating new trees, planting depths, live oak cultivars, new pruning equipment, marketing in the tree industry, staking, root manipulation, irrigation methods, tree handling, crape myrtle pruning and seeing a host of new, cutting edge equipment demonstrations.

Wow! I was jealous and frustrated that I could not hear all that was going on. However, that is a sign of a good educational program. Sometimes, as the coordinator of an event, you have complaints that you have too much going on. The participants say that you need to change the format so people do not have to be in two or three places at once. That is a compliment. The answer to that great problem is to bring several employees to take notes at the events that you are unable to attend and share them with your other employees when they return.

Bring on the Meat:

Back to the topic at hand, I can share my part on the program at the demonstration area. I presented it 8 times so I know my lines. Again, I discussed soil amendments and reviewed research on production methods. This demonstration had not been installed yet so I was painting the vision for them to see next year and the following 4 years as well as reviewing previous work that had been done on the topic. I will start there.

Finally, the Players and Plot:

Dr. Ed Gilman published a great paper in the Journal of Arboriculture on "Effects of Nursery Production Method, Irrigation, and Inoculation with Mycorrhizae-Forming Fungi on Establishment of Quercus virginiana". Whew!, research articles begin with a mouthful and go downhill from there but if you can drag your way through them to the bottom line, there is some good stuff. Ed took live oak seedlings, grown in 3-gallon containers painted with Spin-out and transplanted them into four above-ground production systems and into a field soil. The four, 15-gallon container systems were: traditional black plastic pots, black plastic pots with Spin-Out (root pruning paint on interior of container), an Accelerator pot (innovative container with holes for root pruning) and a low profile Accelerator pot (wider than tall rather than traditional taller than wide containers with the same volume of media). All good research practices were followed so that direct comparisons could be made between the systems. Half of the trees in the field were root-pruned after 6 months on the north and south sides of the tree. After 12 months, the same trees were root-pruned on the east and west sides followed by a north/south pruning again at 18 months. In February, two years after planting, all the trees were dug B&B using treated burlap and wire baskets. The trees were placed back in the holes for holding until planting in the landscape along with the different container treatments. Half of all the trees were treated with MycorTree TreeSaver in the planting backfill. All the trees were irrigated the same for 9 days and then half the trees received no additional supplemental irrigation while the rest were irrigated 2 times per week until October. So, after all this, everything was painstakingly eyed, measured, crunched and results came out the other end. I am sharing the short version with you. If you want all the details, email or call me for a copy of the article or if you have access to the Journal of Arboriculture, see the January, 2001 issue and turn to page 30.

The Bottom Line:

So, who were the winners and losers in this research and how much does it cost to use each method? One thing I have learned from the nursery producers and landscapers over the years (it has been hammered in regularly and with gusto) is that it does not matter what the statistics say if it does not make any dollars for their business. I heard you and so did Ed Gilman.

Here are his conclusions based on the statistics:

  1. All the live oaks grew at nearly the same rate regardless of production method.

  2. Adding Mycorrhizae-forming fungi to the backfill at planting offered no advantage to growth and survival of the trees 30 months after transplanting.

  3. Nursery production methods had no impact on transplant survival or growth as long as trees were irrigated throughout the season.

  4. North Alabama/Tennessee … this is your part to crow. However, reread #3 so as not to gloat too much. B&B trees that did not receive supplemental irrigation after the first 9 days had the greatest survival of all the treatments. Container trees under the same conditions were reduced by 55% compared to only 14% that died from field transplanted trees.

  5. Once established, however, growth rate of the surviving trees was equal or there were no statistical differences in growth that could be attributed to the various production methods.

  6. Under the limited irrigation treatment, B&B trees that were root-pruned provided the most live trees per dollar. In other words, root pruning is good!

  7. The least expensive way to produce a live oak and successfully transplant it to the landscape is to field produce B&B root-pruned trees, dig and hold them for10 weeks prior to transplanting, add nothing to the backfill in the hole and irrigate the trees for 6 weeks after transplanting.

Disclaimer and Hedging:

This does not say that transplanting B&B is the best in all situations. Container plants obviously have other factors that make them attractive but it does mean that you have to irrigate a container plant and provide more care for it in the landscape for it to survive and thrive. Also, note the emphasis on digging and HOLDING a B&B tree. Research shows these trees are better able to withstand transplanting if these trees are allowed to acclimate after digging.

The Hard Numbers:

How much did it cost per live 2.5-inch live oak tree successfully transplanted? All the costs of production plus the number of trees that did not survive were used in the calculations for determining cost for each live tree in the landscape.

Plastic container$445 $588
Plastic container with Spin-Out$445$784
Air Root-Pruning(ARP)$445$672
ARP Low Profile$445 $1,176
Root-pruned Field-grown B&B$383$274
Non-root-pruned Field-grown B&B $383$383


Future Demonstration, Just for Good Measure:

As an added note, this research is being repeated at the demonstration site. My station at the site will be installed to evaluate 7 treatments of soil amendments. They include additions of: compost, no amendment, Superthrive, mycorrhiza, a shallow hole dug 3 times the width of the root ball and a hole just large enough to plug in the root ball. Previous research shows that the compost and mycorrhiza will be of little value. Many of you have seen Superthrive advertised in American Nurseryman or have a drawer full of samples from the SNA Trade Show where you took a sample like me with good intentions of trying it out. It is great that someone is going to subject this product to a controlled study. We are always looking for a magic bullet. The testimonials that come with this product sound great. I hope it works. The wide shallow hole treatment intuitively seems like a guaranteed success but sometimes logic does not win out. Even if there is a difference, is there an economic difference? Industry professionals have taught me well. You will be able to watch it over the next four years and draw your own conclusions.

Goodbye and Exit:

Congratulations to the Florida Extension and Research faculty for not only having a great idea but the initiative and the dogged determination and management skills to make it a reality. The whole industry will benefit from this cooperative effort.

The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:









DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


DuPont Crop Protection has reformulated its DuPont™ Oust® herbicide using the company's new XP technology. XP increases the solubility of DuPont products, resulting in more consistent, uniform spray coverage, and ultimately, better weed control. The technology also reduces clogging and pump problems, resulting in less down time. XP also improves the re-suspension of products after tank mixtures are left standing. For more information contact DuPont Crop Protection at 888/638-7668 or

(from Allen Owings' (LSU) Ornamental and Turfgrass email).


The Scotts Company has entered into a licensing agreement with PlantGenix, Inc. to develop new varieties of popular bedding plants with improved characteristics such as extended flower life and more blooms per plant. Scotts will use PlantGenix's patented technology to develop bedding plants with reduced sensitivity to ethylene, which is produced naturally in plants and controls ripening and aging in flowers and fruit. PlantGenix's ethylene modulation technology makes it possible to slow or stop the effects of ethylene, thereby slowing a plant's own aging mechanism to keep flowers in bloom and vibrant in color much longer. Some of this research is being conducted by the LSU AgCenter.

(from Allen Owings' (LSU) Ornamental and Turfgrass email).


(from an article by A.K. Hagan, M.E. Rivas-Davila, J.R. Akrige, and J.W. Olive)

Historically, black spot and other diseases have heavily damaged cultivated roses, particularly in the hot, humid South. In addition, the intensive fungicide regimes typically required to control black spot and other diseases has discouraged the installation of roses in residential and commerical landscapes. The introduction of more disease-resistant roses (shrub and groundcover roses) has the potential to greatly broaden the market for these attractive, versatile and fragrant plants across the South.

The following tables summarize some of the results of the research being conducted at the Brewton Experiment Station:

The Cercospora leaf spot and blackspot severity ratings for the non-fungicide treated roses
at the Brewton Experiment Field, 1998-2000
.Black Spot1Cercospora Leaf Spot1
Betty Prior26.65.4R1.01.0R
Carefree Delight26.21.0R1.05.4R
Carefree Wonder3--54.54.1--1.01.0
Cherry Meidiland6.
Easy Livin'
Fire Meidiland4----4.2----1.0
First Light4.
Flower Carpet2.
Ice Meidiland4----2.6----1.0
Knock Out4----3.6----1.0
Mystic Meidiland5.
Nearly Wild25.85.2R1.01.0R
Pearl Sevillana5.
Petite Pink Scotch1.0ND61.05.6ND3.2
Pink Grootendorst3--3.63.9--1.01.0
R. mutabulis3.
Royal Bonica26.65.2R1.01.0R
Sea Foam5.
Sweet Chariot4----5.9----1.0
The Fairy1.
Therese Bugnet4----3.4----1.0
Wild Flower Carpet4.
Red Cascade3.
R. wichuraiana3.
Happy Trails2.
Ralph's Creeper3.
Magic Carpet3.0NDR1.0NDR
Fushia Meidiland4.
Jeeper's Creeper5.
Double Delight3--4.9R--1.0R
LSD (P=0.05)
1Black spot and Cercospora leaf spot were rated on a 1 to 10 scale using a Florida peanut leaf spot rating system
2R = cultivar removed in 2000
3Cultivar added in 1999
4Cultivar added in 2000
5---Cultivar was established at a later date
6No data

The effect of fungicide treatments on the yearly average for the severity of black spot
on selected cultivars of shrub and ground cover roses at the
Brewton Experiment Field, 1999 and 20001
.Spray Interval.Spray Interval.
Cultivar2 wk4 wkUTC5LSD62 wk4 wkUTCLSD
Betty Prior24.
Carefree Wonder3.
Cherry Meidiland3.
Double Delight23.
Fire Meidiland3------.
First Light2..
Ice Meidiland3------.
Jeeper's Creepers3.
Knock Out3------.
Mystic Meidiland1.
Nearly Wild23.
Pearl Sevillana3.
Pink Grootendorst1.
R. mutabulis2.
R. wichuraiana1.
Ralph's Creeper2.
Red Cascade1.
Royal Bonica23.
Sea Foam2.
Sweet Chariot3------.
Therese Bugnet3------.
1The average disease rating for black spot was calculated by adding the disease ratings for each cultivar and dividing by the number of observations recorded in that year.
2Cultivar was removed in early 2000.
3Cultivar was added to study in late winter 2000.
4Black spot was rated on a 1 to 10 scale using a modified Florida peanut leaf spot rating system.
5UTC=Untreated control plants were not sprayed with a fungicide.
6Mean separation within rows was tested according to Fisher's Protected Least Significance (LSD) test (P=0.05).
7NS=not significant.

The effect of fungicide treatments on the yearly average for the severity of Cercospora leaf spot
on selected cultivars of shrub and ground cover roses at the Brewton Experiment Field, 1999 and 20001,2
.Spray Interval.Spray Interval.
Carefree Delight3.
Flower Carpet2.
Fushia Meidiland2.
Happy Trails2.
Petite Pink Scotch--4----.
The Fairy2.
White Flower Carpet2.
1The average disease rating for Cercospora leaf spot was calculated by adding the disease ratings for each cultivar and dividing by the number of observations recorded in that year.
2Cercospora leaf spot was rated on a 1 to 10 scale using a modified Florida peanut leaf spot rating system.
3Mean separation within rows was tested according to Fisher's Protected Least Significance (LSD) test (P=0.05).
4--no data.
5NS= not significant.


The Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) is participating in two national programs to promote tree planting and publicize the benefits of landscaping. Plant It Green 2002 is the Salt Lake Olympic Committee's international advocacy program to promote urban forestry and its contribution to quality of life. It is hoping to register more than 2 million new tree plantings by the start of the Winter Olympics on February 8, 2002. You can register new trees on the Plant It Green Web site. In addition, ALCA is partnering with for a five-year, $30 million-per-year marketing program that includes national television commercials, print advertising and radio spots. The campaign will publicize the benefits of trees in a landscaped environment and how landscaping increases home values, lowers crime rates and improves health.

(from Allen Owings' (LSU) Ornamental and Turfgrass email).


For those of you who enjoy learning about the past you might really appreciate looking at Bertram's Travels. It was published in 1791. He traveled through North and South Carolina, Georgia, east and west Florida. His book is filled with careful observations of the soil and natural productions of those regions as well as what he learned about certain Indian tribes. There are lists of plants that he observed and some lovely drawings. It is available in electronic form at the Documenting the American South site: (an effort by North Carolina University at Chapel Hill Libraries).


Listed below are new flower/bedding plant cultivars available for 2002. The majority of the information is provided by the National Garden Bureau and seed companies introducing the particular cultivars. LSU AgCenter evaluations have been conducted on some of the cultivars. Comments are noted.

Abutilon F1 'Bella Red'
Exceptionally floriferous and compact delivering great branching. Perfect for in garden containers or as an indoor houseplant. Also new: Coral, Apricot Shades, and Salmon Shades.

Ageratum 'Leilani Blue'
The 14-16 inch height and clusters of blue flowers stand out, creating a soft pillow of blue for the background of your garden bed or centerpiece for your container. Full sun or partial shade.

Alonsoa 'Rebel' (Mask Flower)
Herbaceous annual with bright scarlet asymmetrical flowers on reddish, four-angled 15-19 inch stems. Ideal for direct sowing.

Aquilegia F1 'Spring Magic Mix'
This beautiful new mid height 14 inch Aquilegia is very uniform and well branched. Prolific bloomer with colorful 2-inch flowers and beautiful rounded plant habit. New series of 5 colors.

Asclepias 'Garden Leader Scarlet'
Only clean rubbed seed from very vigorous and large flowered plants go into this series. Prefers a warm, sunny, well-drained location. Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Cut flower or patio plant.

Begonia F1 'Dragon Wing Pink'
Outstanding heat tolerance and lush growth. Exceptional branching, vigor and flower power. Large pendulous flowers combine with glossy green leaves in a showy display.

Begonia F1 'Fortune Golden Shades'
Uniformity, a well-branched, compact habit and its prolific blooming make Fortune the choice tuberous begonia. Series of 12 colors plus a mix including new Apricot-Orange.

Begonia F1 'Queen Pink'
The first seed-produced double flowering begonia series having consistently double blooms. Rose-like flowers are fully double. Performs well in all weather extremes with superior vigor and spreading habit in the garden and hanging baskets.

California Poppy 'Milkmaid'
Pretty creamy-white, fluted blooms and 'ferny' blue-green foliage. Easy to grow, they are delightful in the border or used in tubs and window boxes. This dainty annual will reach 8-10 inches in height.

Canna 'Tropical Salmon'
The Tropical series is grown from seed and are extra dwarf, growing only 24-30 inches. Expect flowers 85-120 days after sowing in spring. Excellent for the garden and in pots.

Cleome F1 'Sparkler Blush' AAS Flower Winner
This first F1 hybrid Cleome has pastel pink blooms covering full, bushy, upright 3 foot tall plants.

Cuphea 'Summer Medley'
An unusual addition to pots and tubs, these weather tolerant plants produce masses of flowers in an attractive array of pretty colors, from pale pink to scarlet with shades in between. Equally stunning in beds and borders.

Delphinium 'Sky Lights Mix'
Compact bushy plants, covered with large spurred flowers. Well-balanced mixture of Deep Blue, Light Blue and White. First year flowering perennial, spectacular in the second and later seasons for its flower abundance.

Dianthus 'Heritage White'
Extra early bedding plant, knee-high cut flower, excellent garden performance. Does not require low temperatures to initiate flowers. Heritage series has 3 additional colors.

Gazania 'Gazoo Clear Vanilla'
Gazoos offer extra-large flowers and unique, non-striped colors. Extra-large blooms and vigorous plant habit are ideal for landscape use or larger containers. New series of 6 colors and a mix.

Gazania 'Kiss Mix'
Large 4 inch brightly colored daisy flowers bloom atop a mounded controlled plant habit. Tender perennials ideal for containers, garden beds, borders, or ground cover. New seven colors and mix.

Gazania rigens 'Talent Orange'
Large 3 inch flowers against a background of striking silver foliage. Use in bedding, containers, and especially in combination planters. Height 8 inches. Series offers 3 new colors.

Geranium F1 'Black Magic Rose' AAS Bedding Plant Winner
Unique bicolor leaves; dark brown centers with green margins. Large rose umbels; free flowering plant. Height 10-14 inches, spread 14-18 inches. Geranium 'Ringo 2000 Coral' Bright salmon-orange with deep green foliage. The earliest-flowering series on the market that still offers exceptional garden performance. Ringo Series includes 13 separate colors.

Gerbera F1 'Festival Neon Rose with Eye'
Uniform plant habit and outstanding flower count. Festival series is offered in light-eyed, dark-eyed, semi-double, spider and mini varieties, superior selection of colors and mixes. Also new Cherry w/Eye, Peach w/Eye.

Impatiens 'Dazzler Blue Pearl'
Compact, uniform habit generates masses of 1.5 inch rich bluish-lilac blooms on rich green foliage. Thrives in landscapes and pots. All 22 color choices in series are well matched, coming into bloom together and flowering freely until frost.

Impatiens F1 'Fanciful Tropical Mix'
All-new Fanciful series offers many bright, multi-petaled blooms. Terrific in mixed containers and in the garden. 10-12 inches tall and 14-16 inches across. Excellent branching and uniform habit. Colors: Coral, Orchid Rose, Red, and Salmon.

Impatiens 'Garden Leader Sun & Shade Lipstick'
'Lipstick' is new for 2002, a new Sun & Shade addition - the most complete series available: 35 colors plus 12 designer mixes. Every variety and mixture is garden tested for superior outdoor performance.

Impatiens F1 'Tempo Cinnamon'
Hot red color on compact plant habit. Tempo's still boast the largest flower. The series includes 29 colors and 8 mixes. Tempos continue to win over followers because of their excellent germination and improved compact plant habit.

Lobelia 'Aqua Lavender'
New species for Takii. Nice compact plant habit. Stays as low as 4-6 inches in height. Excellent pot variety. Series also includes Blue w/Eye, Sky Blue and Violet.

Ornamental Pepper F1 'Chilly Chili' AAS Flower Winner
The first non-pungent Ornamental Pepper with exceptional garden performance. Two inch-tapered peppers are yellow, orange and red upon maturity.

Pansy F1 'Ultima Morpho' AAS Flower Winner
Bicolor patterns of blue upper petals and bright yellow lower petals with whiskers. Excellent garden performance. Abundant 2.5 inch flowers on a compact plant.

Pansy F1 'Happy Face Purple Smile'
The 'Happy Face' series has been dramatically improved for flowering under short days, while maintaining a fuller plant habit. Flower stems have been shortened. Garden height 4-6 inches.

Pansy F1 'Ultima Scarlet & Yellow'
Deep scarlet upper petal and golden yellow lower petal with a deep scarlet ray. This unique color combination will brighten gardens planted to flower this fall or spring.

Penstemon 'Dwarf Navigator'
One of the hardiest Penstemons available! Prominent spikes of trumpet flowers rise above the low mound of green foliage. Ideal for borders, wildflower gardens attracting hummingbirds.

Petunia 'Avalanche White, Lavender'
Their spreading habit will fill a garden bed or make an excellent, long lasting container.

Petunia 'Double Madness Satin Pink'
Outstanding double Floribunda Petunias are compact, floriferous plants delivering masses of 3 inch flowers all summer. Thriving in pots, baskets and landscapes, they bounce back within hours of a rainstorm. Also new: Sheer and Pink.

Petunia F1 'Explorer Rose Pink'
Among earliest to flower in spring, continuing to flower under short fall days. Tremendous flower power and quick recovery after a storm. Series colors include white, coral and lavender.

Petunia 'Frillytunia Rose'
Early grandiflora petunia with stunning, large ruffled flowers. Compact and uniform habit, mid-green leaves, earliness to flower, and an outstanding display of bright rose, ruffled flowers.

Petunia F1 'Lavender Wave' AAS Flower Winner
Large two-inch rich, deep lavender blooms on ground- hugging 5-7 inch tall plants spread up to 4 feet. Exceptional garden and container performance. Blooms freely all season, tolerates heat and cold conditions.

Petunia F1 'Tidal Wave Silver' AAS Flower Winner
Distinct bicolor flower; silvery white with dark purple center. Plant height depends upon plant spacing, attaining 2-3 feet if spaced 6 inches. Hedgiflora type.

Petunia 'Ramblin Peach Glow'
This new Petunia series offers a fascinating crawling habit. Grows 8-10 inches high and crawls 2-3 feet! Best grown in full sun or partial shade. Try in containers, window boxes or hanging baskets. New series is available in 4 colors.

Ranunculus 'Bloomingdale Series'
Dwarf plants 8-10 inches tall with very small foliage. Large 3-inch diameter full double flowers are borne on short, sturdy stems. New colors are Rose Pink Bicolor Shades, Blue Bicolor Shades, and Orange Bicolor Shades.

Rudbeckia 'Cherokee Sunset' AAS Flower Winner
Double and semi-double blooms in sunset colors; bronze, mahogany, golden yellow, orange. Mature plants are 24-30 inches tall.

Salvia 'Marble Arch Mix'
Produces a robust floral display of rose pink, deep blue and white. These impressive floral spikes provide color from July to end of August. Classified as an annual, these plants will go to seed to produce the following year.

Salvia 'Sahara'
Compact plant with vivid red flower spikes over dark green foliage. Sahara gives a striking color impact in the garden all season. Bred particularly for improved heat tolerance.

Scabiosa S. columbaria 'Nana'
Compact and long flowering Scabiosa. This fully first year flowering perennial produces many blue violet flowers from summer till frost. Border and landscape plant.

Scabiosa 'Salmon Pink'
An old fashioned favorite, producing flat quilled flowers ideal for cutting, perfect for attracting butterflies. Landscape uses include borders and massing, but ideally these plants provide color to any part of your garden.

Snapdragon 'Crown Red'
Crown Snapdragons are semi-dwarf with lots of secondary branching for the most color on a full plant. Up to 10 days earlier, they combine easy growth with outstanding garden performance. Additional new color is Crown Yellow.

Snapdragon F1 'Solstice Mix'
Winter-flowering knee-high Snaps flower 30-60 days earlier under short days than other intermediate winter flowering varieties. Great home garden cutflower growing 16-20 inches. Colors: Burgundy, Orange Tricolor, Pink, Purple & Yellow.

Stock 'Vintage Antique Mix'
Copper, Peach and Yellow mix provides an unusual and striking display. Excellent garden performance. Prefers cool growing conditions. Early to flower, 15-20 inches high.

Sunflower F1 'Double Dandy'
First ever dwarf, double-flowered red Sunflower. Well-branched habit reaches only 1.5-3 feet tall with 4-5 inch velvety wine red blooms. Great companion to Burpee's dwarf 'Elf' Sunflower.

Sweet Pea 'April in Paris'
The perfect match of fragrance, form and color. Large wavy blossoms are soft primrose cream with a lilac edge that deepens and increases with age. Brings intense scent into exhibition blossoms - long-stemmed, vigorous and prolific.

Vinca 'First Kiss Ruby'
An especially unique color with beautiful wine red blooms. The new 'First Kiss' series offers 7 colors and a mix. Flowers early and uniformly with large round blooms that have wide, overlapping petals. Excellent basal branching and superb garden performance.

Vinca 'Garden Leader Cascade Beauty Salmon, Rose Eye, Purple'
This new and exclusive Vinca grows in the toughest climate, thriving in heat and drought. Full sun loving. Trailing mounds with overlapping petal flower form are 6 inches high and spread to 18 inches.

Vinca 'Jaio Scarlet Eye' AAS Bedding Plant Winner
Rose-scarlet blooms with a small white eye on uniform 12- inch tall plants that proved exceptional garden performance and flower production all season.

Viola 'Cottage Mix'
An ultra-mini Viola with a very neat mounded habit which perfectly displays the tiny flowers which are produced in abundance. 'Cottage' is available in three subtle pastel shades to give an old-fashioned 'Cottage Garden' look.

Viola F1 'Sorbet Series'
Early and uniform, excellent vigor, remains compact, exceptional over-wintering. New 'Black Duet' has black upper petals with deep lavender on sides and bottom of each bloom. The petite 'Babyface White' has a dark purple-blue center.

(from Allen Owings' (LSU) Ornamental and Turfgrass email).


Auburn Plant Disease Report - October
Jackie Mullen
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Auburn

NEWNEWNEW NOVEMBER PLANT DISEASES FROM THE AUBURN PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LAB NOVEMBER PLANT DISEASES FROM THE BIRMINGHAM PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LAB DISEASE POSSIBILITIES FOR DECEMBER Jackie Mullen Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Auburn Jim Jacobi Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Birmingham Auburn Plant Disease Report-November (J. Mullen) Fall continued to be very dry for much of November until the end of the month when welcomed rain arrived on two different occasions. Plant samples were more numerous than usual (We received 44 samples.), but most of the samples appeared to be related to environmental stress. Nine samples were diagnosed with infectious diseases.

Pythium root rot was diagnosed on American boxwood and holly. On woody ornamentals, Pythium root rot usually develops only on previously weakened plants in wet situations. The decay is typically confined to small feeder roots. This feeder root decay can slowly damage the plant and cause a slow dieback to develop. Control of Pythium requires removal of the wet conditions. Healthy, vigorous plants in well drained situations do not have problems with Pythium. Fungicide drenches are sometimes recommended in greenhouse and nursery situations.

Botryosphaeria cankers often occur on weakened plants. The cankers are typically sunken and cracked around the edges. Control requires removal of the cankered areas. Branches should be pruned off, making cuts 3-5 inches beyond the edge of the canker.

The powdery mildew on Leucothoe was severe with whole leaves appearing white on the upper leaf surfaces. With older infections, leaves become brown-black and necrotic. See the AL Pest Management Handbook for fungicide recommendations.

Cercosporella blight on Leyland cypress usually begins as a blight of the lower, inner foliage where humidity is higher. Needles turn brown and some needle drop will occur. This fungus has been called by three different names - Cercospora, Asperisporium, and Cercosporella, the most recent taxonomic name revision. Disease control usually involves protective sprays of Cleary's 3336. Some recent reports indicated that Kocide may be more effective.

Pansy diseases seen were anthracnose, and Phytophthora crown and root. Anthracnose appears as circular white spots. Tiny black specks, the fruiting bodies of the fungus, may be seen on the surface of the leaf spots. Disease control involves sanitation and protective fungicide sprays. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook for fungicide recommendations. The Phytophthora crown and root rot is a common problem on pansy where conditions are wet. Infected tissues become brown and water-soaked such that the outer tissue layers easily slip away from the central cylinder of the root. Disease control involves sanitation (plant removal) and application of protective fungicide drenches (see AL Pest Management Handbook) to prevent disease spread. Replanting pansies in the damaged area is not a good idea unless root associated soil is removed and soils are not kept continually wet. Fungicides are usually recommended for commercial operations only, unless a landscape has an extensive planting of pansies.

2001 November Plant Diseases Seen In The Plant Diagnostic Lab at Auburn. PlantDiseaseCounty Boxwood, AmericanMacrophoma Blight * Boxwood, AmericanPythium Root Rot * HollyPythium Root Rot * Italian CypressBotryosphaeria CankerDallas LeucothoePowdery Mildew * Leyland CypressCercosporella Blight * PansyAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Montgomery PansyPhytophthora Crown & Root RotMontgomery St.AugustineTakeallPatch(Gaeumannomyces)Montgomery *Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery samples. Birmingham Plant Disease Report-November (J. Jacobi) Thirty-eight samples were received during November. The weather was warmer and drier than normal for most of the month. With the mild, dry weather, lacebugs and mites remained active throughout the month. Many of the pest problems including Shothole borers on Southern magnolia and yaupon holly, Botryodiplodia dieback on Southern magnolia, and Pestaliopsis tip blight on arborvitae were secondary to various stress factors. One of the magnolia samples had stem girdling caused by the failure to remove the strapping and the wire basket at planting. Always make sure that synthetic or plastic cord and strapping is removed prior to planting. These synthetic materials will not decompose and pose a significant threat to the long-term survival of the tree or shrub. Correct planting is one of the key steps to disease prevention. More planting tips are available in extension publication ANR-958, Care and Maintenance of Landscape Plants. number of samples received in November decreased significantly due to the normal seasonal slow 2000 November Diseases Seen in the Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab. PlantDiseaseCounty Allspice (Pimenta dioica)RustJefferson ArborvitaeHigh Soluble Salts, Spider Mites Pestalotiopsis Tip Blight. AzaleaIron ChlorosisJefferson AzaleaLacebugs (3)Jefferson Boxwood Leaf MinerJefferson (2) BoxwoodMacrophoma DiebackJefferson BoxwoodPhytophthora Root RotJefferson (2) Cypress, LeylandSeridium Canker, Spider MitesJefferson FicusScaleJefferson Gardenia, DwarfPythium Root RotJefferson Holly, YauponShothole BorerJefferson Cherry Laurel 'Otto luyken'Eastern Red MiteJefferson Cherry Laurel 'Otto luyken'White Peach ScaleJefferson(2) LigustrumCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson Magnolia, SouthernBotroydiplodia DiebackJefferson Magnolia, SouthernShothole Borer (2)Jefferson Oak, RedPowdery Mildew (Phyllactinia spp.)Jefferson RoseChemical InjuryJefferson Ryegrass, PerennialPythium BlightJefferson St. AugustinegrassBrown PatchJefferson Disease Possibilities for December December is usually our month of least plant samples and most paper work catch-up as well as lab inventories and re-organization. Our usual December diseases include black rot (Xanthomonas campestris) and Cercospora or Cercosporella leaf spots on crucifers in the southern sections of the state. Also, Drechslera and/or Bipolaris leaf spots are seen on small grains and forages including oats, wheat, fescue, rye and also ryegrass. Of course, greenhouse plant diseases develop every month of the year. On the whole, October has had variable amounts of rainfall in the state. Some sections received adequate to ample rains and some areas have been dry. Areas around Auburn have been mostly dry.

The 88 plant samples received in October contained a large portion of abiotic and insect problems. Most biotic disease problems occurred on turf grasses, ornamentals, and fall vegetables.

Take-all patch, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis pv graminis was detected on centipede, St. Augustine, and zoysia. Characteristic dieback and dark decay lesions on stolons were observed on the samples. Microscopic study showed the presence of the diagnostic fungal structures. See ANR-823 for further comments on this disease and control recommendations.

Helminthosporium (Drechslera) leaf spots were noted on bermuda as very small elliptical, brown leaf spots. This disease is often common on grasses in the spring and fall. Fertility adjustments and sometimes fungicides are used for control of this disease. See ANR-621.

Phytophthora root rots were diagnosed on Leucothoe and dwarf gardenia. The Leucothoe fungus was identified as P. cinnamomi, and the dwarf gardenia Phytophthora is suspected to be P. nicotiana. See ANR-571. Sanitation, water management strategies, and protective fungicide drenches may be applied in nursery situations. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook or Austin Hagan for more information.

Microdochium leaf spots, petiole spots, and fruit lesions were noted in DeKalb County as a new state observation. Lesions are rough textured, irregular in shape, and white in color. For disease control comments, check with Ed Sikora.

October Plant Diseases Received at the Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab
Arbor-vitaePhoma Needle BlightMontgomery
BentgrassPythium BlightMadison
BentgrassSpiral Nematode DamageMadison
BermudaDrechslera Leaf SpotRandolph
BermudaHelminthosporium Leaf SpotWashington
Boxwood, KoreanPythium Root Rot *
CentipedeBrown Patch Rhizoctonia)Russell
CentipedeTake-All (Gaeumannomyces Graminis pv. graminis)Barbour, Montgomery, Tuscaloosa
ChestnutRhizopus & Penicillium MoldDallas
CleyeraMacrophoma and Colletotrichum Leaf Spot *
Cypress, LeylandCercosporella (Cercospora) BlightHouston, Talladega
Gardenia, DwarfPhytophthora Root Rot *
Holly, JapaneseBotryosphaeria CankerLee
LeucothoePhytophthora cinnamomi Root RotBaldwin
Magnolia, JapanesePestalotia Leaf SpotWashington
Magnolia, JapanesePowdery MildewWashington
Magnolia, SouthernPythium Root RotGeorgia
Magnolia, SouthernRhizoctonia Root RotGeorgia
Maple, RedTar Spot (Rhytisma)Montgomery
OakFusiform Rust (Cronartium Quercuumfusiforme)Madison
PansyMyrothecium Crown Rot *
St. AugustineTake-All Patch (Gaeumannomyces Graminis pv graminis)Mobile
ZoysiaBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Coffee
ZoysiaTake-All (Gaeumannomyces Graminis pv. Graminis)Elmore
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery diseases.

Birmingham Plant Disease Report - October
Jim Jacobi
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist-Birmingham

What a difference a year makes. Last October we were suffering through water restrictions in parts of our area. This year we have received above normal rainfall for most of the growing season and watering restrictions were not required. Several organizations (Alabama Nurserymen's Association, Birmingham Green Industry Alliance, Alabama Cooperative Extension System) are working hard to reduce the impact of future water restrictions on homeowners and the green industry.

The lab received 51 samples for the month of October. Some of the diseases seen last month included daylily rust, boron deficiency in pansy, Cercospora leaf spot in turnip, and leaf spot and wilt on Clematis. The case of daylily rust was found in a collection of several hundred cultivars of daylilies. The disease had spread to adjacent properties by the time it was detected. This situation indicates the large potential for spread of this newly introduced pathogen.

Japanese holly was diagnosed with black root rot (Thielaviopsis basicola). The black root rot fungus primarily affects the root system and reduces plant vigor. In advanced stages, above ground symptoms include stunted growth, shortened internodes and leaf chlorosis. Brown to blacked root tips and black bands on roots are below ground symptoms of this disease. Resistant hollies, including Chinese hollies, and other shrubs should be planted in beds where this disease was found. Additional information on this disease is available in circular ANR-1087, " Common Diseases of Holly and Their Control".

October Plant Diseases Received at the Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab
ArborvitaeSpider MitesJefferson
BegoniaCrown RotJefferson
BegoniaPythium Root RotJefferson
BentgrassPythium Root RotJefferson
BoxwoodMacrophoma Leaf SpotJefferson
BoxwoodVolutella DiebackJefferson
Camellia JaponicaCanker(Glommerella cingulata)Jefferson
Cherry LaurelWhite Peach ScaleJefferson
Clematis ArmandiLeaf Spot and Wilt (Ascochyta) *
DaylilyDaylily Rust (Puccinia hemerocallidis) *
DogwoodLeaf Spot (Phyllosticta)Jefferson
EleagnusPhytophthora Root Rot *
EuonymusEuonymus ScaleJefferson
Holly, JapaneseBlack Root Rot (Thielaviopsis basicola)Jefferson
Hydrangea, FrenchCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson (2)
HydrangeaSpider MitesJefferson
Iris, Japanese RoofRhizoctonia Root RotJefferson
Ivy, EnglishPhytophthora Root RotJefferson
JuniperSpider MitesJefferson
Maple, RedPhyllosticta Leaf SpotJefferson
Maple, SilverPhyllosticta Leaf SpotJefferson
Oak, RedHypoxylon CankerJefferson
Oak, WaterBotryodiplodia CankerJefferson
Oak, WaterLeaf BlisterJefferson
PalmNutrient DeficiencyJefferson
PansyBoron Deficiency *
PeonyLeaf Blight (Cladosporium)Jefferson
RhododendronCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
RoseBlack SpotJefferson
RoseCercospora Leaf SpotJefferson
RosemaryAdventitious RootsJefferson
ZoysiagrassBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Jefferson
ZoysiagrassLeaf Rust (Puccinia)Jefferson

Disease Possibilities for November

To look at diseases for a typical October please go to the Plant Pathology button on our home page and click on November. You will find brief comments on disease symptoms and control recommendations. For specific disease control recommendations, see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook or 2001 Sprays Guides. Also remember that sanitation is a necessary component of most disease control programs.

LAB NOTES: Soil samples for nematode analysis should be submitted soon before freezing temperatures occur. Clients in the northern sections of the state, especially, should not delay in collecting these samples.


November 30 - December 1, 2001:
The Great Southern Tree Conference.
Contact Heather Nedley at; 1-800-375-3642.

December 12-13, 2001:
Native Plant Propagation and Restoration Strategies.
Eugene, OR. Contact: Kai at 503-226-4562; e-mail,>br> URL:

January 8-11, 2002: INLA P.L.A.N.T.S. 2002: Professional Landscape And Nursery Trade Show.
Indiana Convention Center and RCA Dome, Indianapolis, IN.
Contact: Paula L. Williams, Exec. Dir. INLA at 800-443-7336; 317-955-0628
Fax: 317-955-3163; e-mail

January 12, 2002:
Garden Gurus IV
Paducah, KY.
Contact: Kathy Keeney at 270-554-9520; or Carolyn Roof, 270-554-4466 or

January 16-18, 2002: Mid-AMTrade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL.
Contact: Rand Baldwin at 847-526-2010, Fax 847-526-3993, e-mail:

January 20-22, 2002:
The Tennessee Nursery & Landscape Association Trade Show and Conference.
Chattanooga Convention Center, Chattanooga, TN.
Contact: TNLA at 931-473-3951, Fax 931-473-5883

January 21-23, 2002:
Central Environmental Nursery Trade Show “CENTS”.
Greater Columbus Convention Center, Columbus, Ohio.
Contact: Bill Stalter, ONLA, at 800-825-5062, Fax 800-860-1713, e-mail

January 24-26, 2002:
Gulf States Horticultural Expo. Convention Center in Mobile, Alabama
For more information: phone 334-502-7777, fax 334-502-7777;

January 31 - February 03, 2002:
ANLA Management Clinic.
Louisville, KY.
Contact: ANLA, 202-789-2900; Fax 202-789-1893

April to October, 2002:
Floriade 2002.
See the AmeriGarden (5,400 square feet), part of the world horticulture exhibition in the Netherlands.
For more information call 808-961-6660 or visit or

July 12 - 15, 2002:
ANLA Convention & Executive Learning Retreat.
San Diego, CA. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; Fax, 202-789-1893

August 1-4, 2002:
SNA 2002 - Southern Nursery Association Researcher’s Conference and Trade Show
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact SNA at 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636; e mail:

August 11-17, 2002:
American Society for Horticultural Science and XXVI International Horticultural Congress & Exhibition.
Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024, E-mail:

September 29-October 2, 2002:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society NA and IPPS Southern Region NA Annual Meeting.
Hunt Valley (Baltimore), MD.
Contact Margot Bridgen at 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; 860-429-6818, E-mail: or Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; ph. 817-577-9272; e-mail,

October 4-5, 2002:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail:, or

January 15-17, 2003:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact: Rand Baldwin at 847-526-2010, Fax 847-526-3993, e-mail

January 30 - February 02, 2003:
ANLA Management Clinic.
Louisville, KY.
Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; Fax, 202-789-1893

February 23-26, 2002:
Plasticulture 2002.
30th American Agricultural Plastics Congress
Contact ASP at 717-238-9762, Fax 717-239-9985, e-mail

July 15 - 20, 2003:
ANLA Convention & Executive Learning Retreat.
Location TBA. Contact: ANLA, 202-789-2900; Fax, 202-789-1893.

July 30-August 2, 2003:
SNA 2003- Southern Nursery Association Researcher’s Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact SNA at 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636.

September 30 - October 4, 2003:
American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Meeting and 100th Anniversary.
Providence, RI.
Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024, E-mail:

October 3-4, 2003:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail:, or

October 5-8, 2003:
IPPS Southern Region NA.
San Antonio, TX.
Contact: Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; phone 817-577-9272; e-mail,

July 29 - 31, 2004:
SNA 2004 - Southern Nursery Association Researcher’s Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact: SNA 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636

October 1-2, 2004:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail:, or

October 3-6, 2004:
IPPS Southern Region NA
Greenville/Spartanburg, S.C.
Contact: Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; phone 817-577-9272; e-mail,

Send horticultural questions and comments to

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Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.