August 1998

I will fill in for Ken this month as it is time for the annual SNA (Southern Nursery Association) meeting in Atlanta. Faculty and students are readying presentations and posters for the very large trade and research meeting. It will be an opportunity for academics to share information and for students to showcase their talents and hope for job interviews.

The weather continues to be headline news. We hope that wherever you live conditions will improve and that you are able to enjoy the fruits of summer.

Bernice Fischman


The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:

1. Congratulations to the Birmingham Botanical Gardens

2. Plant Pathology Update

3. 'Chickasaw', Miniature Hybrid Crapemyrtle, released by the U.S. National Arboretum

4. North Carolina study on consumer purchases of fall nursery products

5. Wish list for hosta and day lily breeders

6. The slow release fertilization of hosta

7. The impact of nitrogen and sulfur fertilizers on poinsettia

8. Web site review: Nursery Industry Association of Australia

9. Time saving sleeve application device

10. Upcoming Events

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


CONGRATULATIONS TO THE BIRMINGHAM BOTANICAL GARDENS

The Birmingham Botanical Gardens, in partnership with The Alabama Cooperative Extension System, has just opened a new 25,000 square feet education wing. Housed in the facility will be a Plant Diagnostic Laboratory along with a staff whose mission will be to promote Best Management Practices and Integrated Pest Management throughout the state and region. A plant pathologist, horticulturists, an urban forester, Master Gardener volunteers, agent assistants, and support staff will provide educational opportunities that will specifically benefit an urban audience made up of school and university students, commercial and domestic gardeners, cities and municipalities, and the public in general who live and work in environments that are enhanced by natural elements in their landscape. For more information call the Birmingham Botanical Gardens at 205-879-1227.


PLANT PATHOLOGY UPDATE

A new feature of the newsletter will be a summary of the information that Jackie Mullen, Extension Plant Pathologist/Diagnostician at Auburn University publishes monthly.

This month she noted that several turf grass problem samples received recently do not show evidence of a biologic (fungal, bacterial, virus) disease. Weather conditions may be involved with these samples. Earlier disease or other problems may have left some lawn areas more susceptible to heat/drought damage.

(APMH = Alabama Pest Management Handbook) .
PLANTDISEASEDESCRIPTIONCONTROL
AJUGARhizoctonia Aerial Blight)Leaves/stems turn brown. Mycelial webbing may be present.Cleary's 3336.
APPLEBitter Rot on Fruit
(Gloemerella-Gloeosporium)
Small, circular, light brown spots on the fruit. Spots enlarge and become sunken in the center. Concentric rings of pink pustules may occur. Rotted flesh is watery but not mushy.Regular fungicide sprays.
APPLEBlack Rot
(Botryosphaeria)
FRUIT: a brown spot on fruit that enlarges and usually becomes black; rotted flesh is firm. LEAF: brown or yellowish-brown spots (1/8-1/4 inch diam.) with purple margins and irregular shape. CANKER: lesions on branches or trunk are slightly sunken, reddish-brown and show concentric rings of cracked bark.Sanitation; recommend fungicide treatments.
APPLECedar Apple Rust
(Gymnosporangium juniperae-virginiana)
Bright yellow spots on apple leaves. Orange (aecial) cups on lower leaf surfaces in yellow spots; defoliation.See Extension publication ANR-468
APPLEFly Speck on Fruit (Microthyriella)Numerous, tiny, circular, black spots appear grouped together on a section of the apple skin.Regular fungicide sprays.
APPLEScab
(Venturia inaequalis)
Olive-green to brown, slightly raised circular or slightly irregular spots (which may coalesce) on leaves and fruit; tissue distortion may result; early leaf, fruit drop may result from severe infection.Follow spray recommendations in spray guide; sanitation.
APPLESooty Blotch
(Gloedoes pomigena)
Superficial infection which appears as though someone placed a sooty finger print on apple fruit surface.Regular fungicide sprays.
ASHAnthracnose
(Apiognomonia)
Irregular brown blotches of variable sizes occur along leaf edges and along leaf veins mostly.Sanitation.
ASTERSouthern Blight
(Sclerotium)
Decay of stem at soil line; white mycelium (sometimes with brown-black mustard-seed-sized sclerotia may be present) often at soil line.Soil Solarization.
AZALEABacterial Leaf SpotBlack irregular spots; water soaked spot edges.Stict sanitation. Do not water over-head.
AZALEAPhytophthora Root Crown/RotBrown, water-soaked areas on crown and roots; outer root cortex slips easily away from inner tissues.Sanitation; good drainage; fungicide drenches.
AZALEAPhomopsis Dieback
(Stress-Related)
Sunken cankers that cause dieback of individual branches.Pruning; eliminate stress.
BEGONIAPythium Root RotRoots become soft, brown and water-soaked.Sanitation: See APMH.
BEGONIARhizoctonia Aerial BlightLeaves become brown, spotted, blighted and shredded.Cleary's 3336, Domain, benomyl products labeled for ornamentals; sanitation.
CHRYSANTHEMUMBacterial Leaf SpotAngular, small, black leaf spots.See APMH.
CHRYSANTHEMUMFusarium Crown RotLower stem becomes brown and dried; plants wilt and die.Rotate area out of mums for 6-10 years.
CRABAPPLECedar-Apple Rust
Gymnosporangium)
Large (3-5 mm), bright yellow spots; on underside of leaf spots, orange pustules may be present.See County Agent.
DAYLILYSouthern Blight
(Sclerotium rolfsii)
Crown rot; white mold at crown.Sanitation; rotation to turf; solarization.
DELPHINIUMFusarium Root RotRoots become brown and dried.Crop rotate away from Delphinium, Zinnia.
DOGWOODBotrytis Leaf Spot/BlightBrown-gray leaf spots/blotches.Cleary's, Domain.
DOGWOODCercospora and Septoria Leaf SpotsRound-angular, brown spots (2-4 mm).Sanitation; see County Agent.
DOGWOODSpot Anthracnose
(Elsinoe)
Tiny red spots on bracts and leaves.See County Agent.
FERNPythium Root RotBrown, water-soaked roots.See County Agent.
GERANIUMBotrytis BlightBlossoms become gray-brown and limp.Sanitation: see County Agent.
GERANIUMPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown, water-soaked.See APMH
GERANIUMXanthomonas campestris pv pelargoniiLeaves develop black spots. Stems develop black rot areas. The bacterial infection will become systemic and eventually plants will wilt.Sanitation.
HAWTHORNCedar-Hawthorne RustBright yellow spots on leaves and fruit of apple, crabapple, hawthorn. Aecial orange cups develop in spots. (Cedars develop cankers.)See ANR-468.
HYDRANGEACercospora Leaf SpotIrregular brown lesions of variable sizes develop on leaves.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 or Domain protective sprays.
IMPATIENSTomato Spotted Wilt Virus
(Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus)
New growth is dwarfed and stunted; foliage may show yellowing spots/patterns or black spots/patterns. Sanitation: Thrips control with insecticides.
IVY, ENGLISHAlternaria Leaf SpotLarge, brown-black, sometimes zonate, circular-oval spots (3-5 mm. diam.)See APMH.
IVY, ENGLISHBacterial Leaf SpotAngular, black, water-soaked spots (2-3 mm. Diam.)Sanitation; see APMH .
IVY, ENGLISHPhyllosticta Leaf SpotBrown, circular to oval leaf spots.See recommendations for Alternaria.
JUNIPERPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown, soft, and water-soaked.Sanitation; see the APMH.
JUNIPERTwig Blight
Phomopsis)
Brown twig tips; small cankers at base of small twigs.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336, Domain or a benomyl fungicide labeled for ornamentals.
LILACPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked.Subdue 2E may be used as a protective treatment. First test a few plants to be sure phytotoxicity is not a problem.
LIRIOPEColletotrichum Leaf SpotBrown, circular-irregular leaf spots (2-10 mm diam.). When spots coalesce, a large portion of leaf may turn brown and die. Often leaf tips are affected.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336, Domain or a benomyl fungicide labeled for ornamentals.
MAGNOLIA, JAPANESEBacterial Leaf SpotBrown, irregular leaf spots with water-soaked margins.Strict sanitation.
MAPLEAnthracnose
(Kabatiella)
Large, light-brown irregular spots and blotches may kill whole leaves; spots often follow leaf veins.Sanitation; fungicide sprays.
MAPLEPhyllosticta Leaf SpotSpots are circular-irregular, and have brown centers with purple margins (1/8" - 1/2" diam.).Sanitation; fungicide sprays.
MAPLEGanoderma Wood/Root RotDieback; brown wood rot.Sanitation.
OAKAnthracnose
(Apiognomonia)
Brown blotches often along leaf veins or leaf edges.Sanitation; see APMH for small oak trees.
OAKOak Leaf Blister
(Taphrina)
Round, slightly convex-concave light brown leaf spots (4-5 mm diam.).Sanitation; see APMH.
OAKPhyllosticta Leaf SpotCircular, brown spots (2-4 mm diam.).Sanitation.
OAKSlime FluxA foul smelling ooze runs down trunk surface. Initial infection of fungi, bacteria, and yeast develops in wound area.Sanitation of infection area when it is still localized.
PAMPAS GRASSPiricularia Leaf SpotGray-brown circular leaf spots.Cleary's 3336.
PERIWINKLEAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Brown, sunken cankers on stem sections.Cleary's 3336, Domain, or WP benomyl; sanitation.
PERIWINKLEPhomopsis BlightBrown, sunken cankers on stem sections.Cleary's 3336, Domain or WP benomyl; sanitation.
PERIWINKLEPhytophthora Aerial BlightDark brown, black cankers encircle stems and cause wilt and dieback.Sanitation.
PETUNIAPhytophthora Foliage Blight/Root RotFoliage develops spots, blight, collapse.Sanitation.
PHOTINIABacterial Leaf SpotBrown, irregular leaf spots with water-soaked edges.Strict sanitation.
PHOTINIAEntomosporium Leaf SpotRed-black circular leaf spots.See APMH.
PINE, VIRGINIAPitch Canker
(Fusarium)
Sunken lesions on branches; trunk with resin flow.Sanitation.
POINSETTIAPythium Root RotRoots become soft, brown, water-soaked.See the APMH.
PYRACANTHASouthern Blight
(Sclerotium)
See Aster.Solarization.
RHODODENDRONBotryosphaeria CankerSunken, brown, dried, cracked, elliptical lesions develop on branches.Sanitation. Protective spray of Cleary's 3336 or Domain.
ROSECercospora rosicola
Leaf Spot
Circular brown spots.See APMH.
SNAPDRAGONPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked.See APMH.
SYCAMOREPowdery MildewWhite powdery substance on leaves.See APMH.
VERBENAFusarium Crown RotBrown lower stem rot.Cleary's drenches may help.
VINCA MINORAnthracnose
Colletotrichum)
Brown, irregular spots develop on leaves.Sanitation. Cleary's 3336, Domain or a benomyl product labeled for ornamentals.
VINCA MINORPhythium Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked.Aliette protective treatments or Subdue 2E. (Test a few plants for phytotoxicity).
VINCA MINORRhizoctonia Stem BlightBrown lesions near soil line.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 or benomyl protective sprays.

For specific disease control recommendations contact your County Extension Agent.


'CHICKASAW', MINIATURE HYBRID CRAPEMYRTLE, RELEASED BY THE U.S. NATIONAL ARBORETUM

Glossy, dark green, densely branched foliage and lavender flowers are features of this hybrid miniature that can be grown in a pot or as part of a garden. The foliage is disease resistant (especially to powdery mildew) and is very adaptable to containers, as a summer flowering perennial in the garden or as a specimen plant in a special location. It is the first true miniature Lagerstroemia indica x. L. fauriei hybrid, that will reach a height of 20 inches and a width of 26 inches after six years in a container. Twenty-one wholesale nurseries received rooted cuttings in 1997 and plants should be available in 1999-2000. This new hybrid may change the look of southern landscapes.


NORTH CAROLINA STUDY ON CONSUMER PURCHASES OF FALL NURSERY PRODUCTS

A study was done to determine the effectiveness of advertising on customers relative to specific purchases made. An attempt was made to characterize the customers (re: economic and socioeconomic factors) as well as recommend changes to garden center managers that would enhance their business. During the 1996 season customers filled out entrance and exit surveys and businesses retained copies of promotional mailings and television and radio commercials.

Primary reasons for customer decisions to stop at a garden center:
1. Family or friend referral (30.1%)
2. Convenient Location (27.8%)
3. Spontaneous decision (15%)
4. Seen advertisement (12.8%)
5. Customer service (3%)
6. Plant quality (2.3%)
7. Plant selection (2.3%)

Regarding types of advertising that enticed customers to come to garden centers, it appeared that newspapers had the biggest impact, followed in distant second by newsletters and radio advertisements. Television adds seemed to have no impact.

The following are the types of purchases that were made: Major perennials purchased: Mums (82.3%), Day lilies, Hosta, Coreopsis, Purple Cone Flowers and a few others each sold less than 3.6%. Major annuals purchased were Pansy (89.3%) followed by Vinca and Marigold and others with less than 1% each.

No one tree dominated the purchases as was the case for annuals and perennials. Percentages of the most popular trees are as follows: Crapemyrtle (18.3%); Leyland Cypress (16.1%); Maple (14.0%); Dogwood (11.8%); Magnolia (10.8%). In the shrub category Azalea accounted for 20.9%; Holly (18.9%); Camellia (7.6%); Juniper (6.6%); Rhododendron (6.1%); with Ligustrum, Abelia, Hydrangea and Barberry having less than 5% each. Ivy was the most popular ground cover with 49.2%, followed by Liriope (25.4%), Ajuga (4.8%) and Periwinkle (4.8%). Most of the house plants purchased were unclassified (73.5%); African Violets (11.3%); Philodendron (5.7%). Daffodils were the most popular bulbs accounting for 37.5% purchased. Tulips followed at 35.9%, then crocus (14.1%) and Iris (12.5%).

Location of garden centers appears to be much more important than it was in past studies. Customers seem to expect all independent garden centers to be plant specialists with a wide variety of products and information available so when choosing they are often most swayed by convenience. Customers did respond to print ads that highlighted plant sales, particularly if they dealt with the most popular plants as listed above. In terms of demographic findings two trends emerged: average expenditures in the garden centers decreased dramatically if both the husband and wife either worked less than 40 hours a week and/or were retired. The other finding is that people spend most money on trees, ground covers, bulbs, etc. if they had lived in their house for less than 5 years. And people who stayed in the garden centers for more than an hour spent considerably more money than those patrons who shopped quickly.

(This study was prepared, published and issued cooperatively by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina Association of Nurserymen and the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.)


WISH LIST FOR HOSTA AND DAY LILY BREEDERS

The features that breeders would most like to see in day lilies are large, full, single flowers (doubles are currently out of fashion) with better pink, white and lavender color. They prefer a compact growth pattern (24-30") that is well branched with healthy foliage. The current top selling day lily in this county is 'Stella d'Oro'.

For hosta they would like the elimination of the requirement of winter dormancy so that plants would be more adaptable in the south and would have more sun tolerance. Fragrant flowers and red foliage are also desired. 'Albomarginata' is the top selling hosta cultivar in the U.S.

(from Allen D. Owings, Home Grounds/Commercial Nursery Crops weekly e-mail, Louisiana)


THE SLOW RELEASE FERTILIZATION OF HOSTA

Hosta is an extremely popular shade-tolerant herbaceous perennial. It is often propagated in nurseries by the tissue culture method (their natural method of reproduction by division is slow). This can be an expensive proposition so researchers set about to determine how best to fertilize this crop. Because of the inherent differences in plant species it is necessary to find, by experimentation, which system works the best specifically for each cultivar. Method of application of slow release fertilizers was either by top dressing or dibbling (putting a hole in the medium, inserting fertilizer and then inserting plant). It is not yet known if one method is superior.

This study used tissue cultures from popular industry cultivars: Elegans, Aphrodite, Jade Scepter, Hadspen Blue and Francee. Plants were treated with a slow release fertilizer (Osmocote 14-6-11.5 or Sierrablen 17-2.6-10) and were kept in a temperature controlled greenhouse and treated once with a micronutrient fertilizer (STEM). Fertilizer rates clearly impacted shoot size. Generally, 3g of either fertilizer produced larger shoots than 6 or 12g. After studying the results from different treatments on different cultivars it appears that the best overall method is Osmocote (14-6-11.5) at 3g/pot which is half the recommended rate for general nursery stock. Sierrablen (17-2.6-10) is comparable at the same rate of application.

(From "Selecting the Optimum Slow-release Fertilizer Rate for Five Cultivars of Tissue-cultured Hosta" by W. Britton, E.J. Holcomb and D.J. Beattie, published in HortTechnology, April-June 1998, vol. 8, no. 2).


THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN AND SULFUR FERTILIZERS ON POINSETTIA

Determining the salability of a plant has to do with how it is perceived. 'Dark Red Annette Hegg' poinsettias (treated with different amounts of sulfur and nitrogen fertilizers) were evaluated by commercial producers, retailers and customers. Scientifically, plants were evaluated by a chromometer which indicated the distinct color differences in leaves. There was a measurable correlation between the acceptance of a plant and which treatments were applied.

Plants were grown in a soil-less medium of 1 peat: 1 perlite: 1 vermiculite. Eight different levels of nitrogen and 6 different levels of sulfur were used on the plants. Everything else was done as per standard commercial recommendations. The amount of sulfur produced distinct color differences in the leaves between 0 and 12.5 mg.L and a slight difference between 12.5 and 25 mg.L. The more nitrogen, the darker and more dull the leaves became. Plants that received more than 100 mg.L were rejected as unmarketable.

Plants used to get sulfur from certain pesticides, fertilizers and soils. Those methods have changed. Ornamentals with sulfur deficiencies are somewhat compromised. Research was conducted to ascertain how much sulfur and nitrogen need to be added. Less nitrogen would benefit the industry in 3 ways: less contamination of greenhouse effluent, lower fertilizer bills, and improved plants.

A Minolta Chromometer was used to observe growth (leaf size, break number and color-floral development). The human evaluators were 24 commercial growers and 42 customers. They were asked to evaluate 56 pinched single-stem poinsettias. Growers were asked to determine if plants were of exceptional quality (florist grade), salable (average grade) or unsalable. Comments and reasons were solicited on the form. Customers were asked to decide if plants were of florist or discount store quality and whether or not they would buy them.

Researchers concluded that 'Dark Red Annette Hegg' poinsettias require sulfur at a minimum rate of 12.5mg.L for success. For commercial applications 25mg.L is what is usually added when sulfur is not available through irrigation sources. When there is sufficient sulfur the industry recommendation for nitrogen can be reduced from 275 mg.L to 125mg.L, that will result in a 55% reduction.

(From "Determining Poinsettia Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilizer Application Rates Based on Chromometer and Sensory Panel Ratings" by S.A. Adams, E.T. Paparozzi and W.W. Storup, published in HortTechnology, April-June 1998).


WEB SITE REVIEW: NURSERY INDUSTRY ASSOCIATON OF AUSTRALIA
www.niaa.org.au

The NIAA is an umbrella organization with a very clear research and development plan for those in the Australian industry. The plan includes business management, communication and technology, export development, environmental concerns, customer needs, production and handling. There is a section on industry news as well as a list of categorized links. A great deal of the information, obviously, has to deal with Australia and New Zealand where the industry appears to be a vibrant one. It is always an adventure, though, to look at the world through someone else's perspective.


TIME SAVING SLEEVE APPLICATION DEVICE

Albert Vanhoogmoed of Overlook Nursery in Mobile, Alabama has built a device that enables one person, instead of two, to place plants in protective sleeves. The device is made of 2 x 4's and a piece of 1/2" plywood. The sleeves (in groups of 100) are stacked and nailed loosely to an 8" piece of 2 x 4 which fits into a slot at 36" from the ground for 3 gallon sleeves and at 30.5" for 1 and 2 gallon containers. He has constructed a "funnel" from a 15 gallon pot with the bottom cut out to use on large 3 gallon plants. Another "funnel" made from a 7 gallon pot is used for 1 and 2 gallon containers.


UPCOMING EVENTS

August 2-5, 1998:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference.
Birmingham, England. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411 or www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

August 5-8, 1998:
National Christmas Tree Association Annual Meeting.
Asheville, North Carolina, P.O. Box 1937, Boone, North Carolina 28607

August 5-9, 1998:
American Nursery and Landscape Association Annual Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org or ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

August 20, 1998:
Eastern Region IPPS Midwest Area Meeting (Chicago area).
Contact Mike Kolaczewski at 847-931-5285; fax 847-931-5325.

August 22-23, 1998:
ACTA Annual Christmas Tree Meeting.

Holiday Inn, Opelika, AL. Contact Ken Tilt at 101 Funchess Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849; e-mail: ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu; phone 334-844-5484.

September 3-4, 1998:

TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville TN. Contact TNA, 931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail nurseryassn@blomand.net

September 22, 1998:
Nursery Crop Production/Landscape Horticulture Field Day.
Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station, Fletcher, NC. Phone 828-687-7197.

October 7-10, 1998:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; 860-429-6818; e-mail: mbippser@neca.com

October 9-10, 1998:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN. Contact MTNA, Ann Halcomb, Exec. Secr. 615-668-7322; Fax: 615-668-9601; e-mail: MTNA@juno.com or MTNA@blomand.net

October 18-21, 1998:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators Society.
Tulsa, OK. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101.

November 5-7, 1998:
Annual Meeting of The Holly Society of America Annual Meeting.
Colonial Williamsburg, VA; contact 757-363-3906

November 7-8, 1998
Annual Meeting of the American Bamboo Society.
The Harry P. Leu Gardens and Disney World, Orland, FL; contact Delores Holland, Registration Chariman, Yellow City Road, Amenia, NY 12501; tel and fax: 914-373-9020; e-mail: eastwest.connecton@worldnet.att.net
Website: www.bamboo.org/aba/ABSNational1998.html

November 20-22, 1998:
Meeting of the Middle Atlantic Chapter of the American Rhododendron Society.
Chamberlain Hotel, Hampton, VA; Contact 304-765-5551

January 13-15, 1999:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Donn W. Sanford at 847-526-2010; fax 847-526-3993; e-mail midam@mc.net

January 30-February 3, 1999:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Memphis, TN. Contact Paul Smeal, 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656; phone 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

February 4-7, 1999:
The Management Clinic.
Galt House, Louisville, KY. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;http://www.anla.org

July 22-27, 1999:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Philadelphia, PA. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

July 28-31, 1999:
96th American Society for Horticultural Science.
Minneapolis Convention Center, Minneapolis, MN. Contact ASHA: 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024; e-mail: ashs@ashs.org

July 30-August 1, 1999:
SNA 99 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

August 1-4, 1999:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference.Stamford, CT. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 10-11, 1999:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at 931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail nurseryassn@blomand.net

September 23-25, 1999:
6th Biennial Southern Plant Conference.

Richmond, VA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

October 3-6, 1999:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Mobile, AL. Contact David Morgan: 817-882-4148, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

January 11-13, 2000
Kentucky Landscape Industries Winter Educational Conference and Trade Show.
The Lexington Center, Lexington, KY. Contact Debbie Cain, KNLA Exec. Dir. at 502-899-3622; fax 502-899-7922

January 19-21, 2000:
Mid-AM Trade Show.
Navy Pier, Chicago, IL. Contact Donn W. Sanford at 847-526-2010, fax 847-526-3993; e-mail midam@mc.net

January 29-February 2, 2000:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Lexington, KY. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805; e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

February 3-6, 2000:
The Management Clinic.
Galt House, Louisville, KT. Contact ANLA at 202-789-2900;http://www.anla.org

July 8-12, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention Center. Contact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail ofa@ofa.org; web: http://www.ofa.org

July 11-16, 2000:
American Nursery & Landscape Association Annual Convention.
Location TBA; contact ANLA at 202-789-2900; http://www.anla.org

July 14-18, 2000:
Ohio Florists' Association Short Course and Trade Show.
Greater Columbus Convention CenterContact OFA at 614-487-1117; e-mail ofa@ofa.org; web: http://www.ofa.org

July 16-19, 2000:
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference.
Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, FL. Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606; fax 703-836-2024; e-mail ashs@ashs.org

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

August 11-18, 2000:
International Society for Arboriculture Annual Conference.
Baltimore, MD. Contact ISA at 217-355-9411; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 15-16, 2000:
TNA's "Tennessee America's Nursery" Trade Show and Conference.
Opryland Hotel Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact TNA at931-473-3971; fax 931-473-5883; e-mail tnurseryassn@blomand.net

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.