AUGUST 2000

Hello everyone!

August is synonymous with the Southern Nursery Association Trade Show in Atlanta. I am on my way. The research conference offers some of the best information for the nursery and landscape trade in the southeast. I never miss it. I get excited about learning what new research is being done at the various universities and then I head to the trade show to see what new products are being introduced. It is also a great place to go to see old friends all in one place. The SNA gives you plenty of great events to meet and enjoy each other.

I know that not many of the nursery producers attend the research section but it would be good if you could. We appreciate your questions and feedback. There is a poster section outside the research meeting room that you can read at your leisure. If you miss it, we will be putting some of the highlights in the newsletter.

The 100 year drought does not seem to have had a major impact on our industry. It has slowed the output at the retail level but the wholesale nurseries continue to work hard to meet the demand.

I have noticed some emerging water quality problems that may get worse if the drought continues. A recent visit to south Alabama showed typical symptoms of high alkalinity problems with calcium precipitating on the leaves and coating of the mist heads on the propagation benches. We have few water quality problems in Alabama but when one does pop up, it can create a very frustrating and costly experience. Note the pictures below to see some of the symptoms on azaleas, especially.

Crapemyrtle, gardenia and nandinas were tolerant of the high pH (7.8) and alkalinity (200 ppm). Injection of acid is one of main remedies for the problem. If you are having what looks like nutritional problems, look at your fertilizer, media and watering practices but also remember to sample your irrigation water to see if it has changed.

I look forward to loading you down with good practical research generated information after I return from SNA. I thank the nurserymen and members of SNA for their annual red carpet, southern hospitality treatment they extend to the researchers each year. There is nothing like it in the country. It has become a tradition for most of the researchers in the southeast and the envy of our counterparts in the rest of the country. We have developed a wonderful relationship and I know the faculty members return to their respective institutions each year with a renewed energy to serve the industry. We thank you for pampering us during this event each year.

As always, email or call if we can be of any service to you. If your kids are reaching college age and leaning toward horticulture, send them for a visit. Our main mission at Auburn is teaching and we are very proud of our teaching program at Auburn. Dr. Harry Ponder just won the American Society of Horticulture national teaching award and Dr. David Williams recently won the College of Agriculture teaching award. Our faculty takes pride in preparing your kids to be competitive in our industry. Join us anytime for a tour and a pep talk, or link to our department home page to see the programs we offer.

See you next month,
Ken Tilt


The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:

ALABAMA NURSERYMEN'S ASSOCIATION BUYER'S GUIDE 2000-2001 NOW AVAILABLE

2000 GREEN NURSERY UPDATES

VISIT Nurseryconnect.com

AG HERITAGE PARK

BUILDING WITH TREES AWARDS

CRAPEMYRTLE PROJECT UPDATE

BARE ROOT SHADE TREE LINER PRODUCTION IN CONTAINERS

SUSTAINABLE SMALL-SCALE NURSERY PRODUCTION

PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

UPCOMING EVENTS

DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


ALABAMA NURSERYMEN'S ASSOCIATION BUYER'S GUIDE 2000-2001
NOW AVAILABLE

The much anticipated first Alabama Nurserymen's Association Buyer's Guide is now available. The attractive spiral bound publication contains a comprehensive listing of wholesale nurseries and growers, member listings and product listings.

You will be able to locate and purchase plant materials (as liners, bareroot, balled and burlapped and in containers) from Alabama growers. You can obtain the guide from ANA by phoning Linda Van Dyke at 334-821-5148 or sending an e-mail to alna@prodigy.net. The guide is free but a $3.00 shipping and handling fee is required. Order your own copy now!!!


2000 GREEN NURSERY UPDATES

Since 1993 the University of Georgia and the University of Florida have worked cooperatively to make available green industry updates that take the form of day long seminars. Nurserymen, flower growers, landscape contractors, maintenance personnel, landscape architects, landscape designers and garden center managers will find the programs beneficial. There are three dates and locations (listed in our UPCOMING EVENTS for November 2000). Pesticide recertification credits are available. For additional information contact the RDC Conference Office at 912-386-3416 or fax 912-386-3822.


VISIT Nurseryconnect.com

Nurseryconnect.com is a new Internet marketplace and directory of wholesale growers and suppliers organized by region and product category. "Nurseryconnect is unique in that it allows users instant access without having to register or obtain a password as with many other Web sites. People don't want to enter in reams of information about themselves when they are just browsing," said founder Michael Sanok, who launched the site last month. The URL is http://www.nurseryconnect.com

(from David Morgan's NMPRO email, 7/18/00).


AG HERITAGE PARK

Auburn alumni, students and friends of Alabama agriculture - it's time to take note of the Auburn University Ag Heritage Park. A call has been put out for financial assistance in bringing this innovative idea to fruition. Your support can help preserve Alabama's agricultural heritage. The plan is to renovate the old barn on the Auburn University campus for the display and sale of Alabama agricultural and dairy products, and to beautifully landscape the grounds. The site is located across from the football practice field. Ultimately, Ag Heritage Park will be used by alumni and students for outdoor recreational activities. There will be fish ponds, walking trails, an open air pavilion, rose gardens, an amphitheatre, and information center. If you would like to help in any way or would like more information please contact:

Chris Gray
College of Agriculture
Director of Development
317 S. College Street
Auburn University, AL 36849
(334) 844-1136
garycr@alumni.auburn.edu

Martha Patterson
College of Agriculture
Constituency Affairs
107 Comer Hall
Auburn University, AL 36849
(334) 844-3198
mspatter@acesag.auburn.edu

What a great opportunity to pay a tribute to the past and celebrate the future.


BUILDING WITH TREES AWARDS

Conservation-minded builders and developers are invited to enter the 2001 Building With Trees Awards of Excellence competition, sponsored by The National Arbor Day Foundation in cooperation with the National Association of Home Builders. Deadline for entries is August 15, 2000. The Awards of Excellence competition is part of the Building With Trees Recognition program, which was created in 1998 to recognize builders and developers who save trees during construction and land development. The annual Awards of Excellence honor the projects that best exemplify Building With Trees conservation concepts. Residential, commercial, retail, industrial, public, and mixed-use projects of all sizes are eligible. Only completed developments can be entered, with projects of 200 units or more considered complete if at least 75 percent of the homes have been built. Projects must also be submitted within three years of completion. To receive entry information, contact Jeff Bargar, Awards Coordinator at (402) 474-5655.

(from Neil Letson, Alabama Cooperative Extension System, P.O. Box 302550, Montgomery, AL 36130-2550. Phone 334.240.9360; fax 334.240.9390; e-mail to Letsonn@forestry.state.al.us).


CRAPEMYRTLE PROJECT UPDATE

The Decatur crapemyrtle demonstration continues We started a pruning demonstration 3 years ago in Decatur to try to restore butchered crapemyrtles to their natural beautiful form. We cut some to the ground and did some "creative pruning" on some others. Of the ones we cut to the ground, we later selected 3 to 5 evenly distributed sprouts to become the future tree trunks. We removed all other shoots. This it the third growth season and it is going well. The creative pruning appears to be a faster solution to your final end but it also requires much more time and and an artistic eye to do well. It appears that full recovery to a nice looking landscape specimen may take 4 to 5 years, especially if you have some drought years. Below are some pictures illustrating our progress. Go to the KEYWORD INDEX and look under crape murder for a historical view of the project.

Creative Pruning

Three year cut back recovery from crapemurder.

Suckers continue even after three years.

Three years after cut back to the ground.

Crapemyrtle Entrance to Crapemyrtle City

Attempt at single stem.

Crapemyrtle Tree not cut back

(from Ken Tilt).

BARE ROOT SHADE TREE LINER PRODUCTION IN CONTAINERS

by
Ken Tilt, Jeff Sibley, Floyd Woods, Chazz Hesselein, Arnold Caylor and Bernice Fischman
Department of Horticulture, Auburn University, AL 36832
Ornamental Horticulture Substation, Mobile, AL 35055
North Alabama Substation, Cullman, AL 35055

Index Words: Profile, calcined clay, Liberty elm

Nature of Work: In the past 10 to 15 years a major marketing avenue for nursery crops, bare root tree field production, has drastically declined. What was once a profitable mainstream production method for many of our nurseries has declined due to increasing demand for year-round planting and the greater flexibility of container production to meet that demand. Bare root plant production is primarily used for liner production in today's nursery business production scheme. With increased demand for exporting nursery crops, higher fuel prices and shipping costs, as well as increased production cost and shortage of labor, bare root production may find an increased niche in the nursery business. Since field production of nursery tree liners requires cutting of roots to harvest the trees, container production of bare root liners, with roots in tact may be a better alternative. Success in producing bare root shade tree whips using various combinations of sand, sewage sludge and Isolite has been reported (1). In that study media allowed for good growth and the roots could easily be separated from the media when harvested from the containers.

The objectives of this study were to: (1) compare bare root tree production in 5-gallon containers using ProfileTM (a commercial, non organic, calcined clay aggregate, Aimcor, Denver, CO) compared to a pinebark:peat container medium; (2) observe the relative ease of removing trees bare root from containers containing the Profile medium, and; (3) store, transport and transplant trees to a landscape site and compare the growth of traditional container trees with the bare root trees.

On April 1, 1998, 72, 18 to 36 inch, bare root liners of Ulmus americana 'Liberty' L. (Elm Research Institute, Harrisville, NH 03450) were planted in 5-gal RootMakerTM Grounder containers (Lacebark, Inc., Stillwater, OK). Prior to planting of the trees were root pruned with approximately 50 percent of the roots removed to simulate bare root tree liners while the remainder of the tree's roots were left in tact. Elms were planted in 2 media, Profile and a 4:1 by vol, pinebark:sphagnum peat moss. Profile (or calcined clay) was used successfully as an amendment to container media by Warren and Bilderback (3). RootMaker containers were used because the small drainage holes prevented the loss of the Profile particles through drain holes. Media were amended with 1.5 pounds Micromax, (O.M. Scotts, Marysville, Ohio). Containers were arranged on the container area at the Auburn University Mobile Ornamental Horticulture Substation in a random complete block design with 9 blocks, containing the 2 pruning and 2 media treatments with 2 tree samples per experimental unit. Irrigation was applied to each container using Bosmith pressure compensating spray stakes (Maxi-Jet, Acuff Irrigation Company, Cottondale, FL). Irrigation volume was adjusted for each medium by determining the average daily water loss (ADWL) for each medium and replacing that water in equal volumes divided into 3 cyclic applications a day at 10 AM, 1 PM, and 4 PM. (2) Irrigation volumes were adjusted throughout the growing season based on plant growth and environmental conditions.

Plants were harvested and measured for height and caliper on February 26, 1999. Profile was easily removed from roots by gentle shaking. Twelve each of the bare root trees were dipped in water, Terrasorb or Terrasorb plus citric acid, placed in plastic bags and stored in cooler at 38 degrees F for a little over 8 weeks until planting at the North Alabama Experiment Station at Cullman, AL on May 3, 1999. The 12 container and 36 bare root trees were planted on 15 ft spacing in a landscape setting in a random complete block design to evaluate the survival and growth of the trees after transplanting. Height and caliper were taken on January 25, 2000.

Results and Discussion: Elms grown in Profile medium had greater height (7.5 ft Profile, 6.6 ft pinebark:peat) but less caliper than trees grown in the pinebark:peat medium (0.7 in Profile, 1.0 pinebark:peat). Profile medium had a high pH ranging around 7.5. Some chlorosis was noted on the elms grown in Profile so attempts were made to adjust the pH. This included adding 1 tablespoon of iron sulfate and aluminum sulfate to each container. This treatment had little if any effect and needs further investigation. There was 100% viability following transplant at the North Alabama Horticulture Experiment Station of the 36 bare root plants and the 12 container plants. Root dip and storage treatments had no effect on plant survival or growth. Caliper continued to be greater from the container/pinebark:peat (container) transplanted trees (1.2 in) at the end of the 1999 growing season than the bare root/Profile trees (bare root) (1.0 in). Caliper increase was 0.4 in and 0.2 in for the container and bare root trees, respectively. There was no difference in height for the container and bare root treatments. Trees were 8.8 ft and 8.7 ft, representing an increase over the growing season of 2.8 ft and 3.3 ft for container and bare root elm trees, respectively. The results offer evidence of a potential niche market for production of bare root trees in containers which can be successfully stored, exported or transplanted to the landscape with similar growth results. Container size or time-in-production adjustments need to be investigated for several species, including aggressive rooting species, to evaluate the ease of Profile removal with heavily matted roots.

Significance to Industry: Liner production is in great demand in these days of prosperity in the nursery industry. This research shows potential for bare root production of trees in containers where 100% of the roots are left intact for storage and shipping. Shipping and handling costs of less bulky and lighter weight trees could be expected along with expectations of establishment ease and growth of the plants in the landscape or nursery from bare root plants grown in containers with Profile medium.. Finally, the growing medium could be collected in a central area for reuse in the next production cycle, thus amortizing the expense of the growing medium over several growing seasons.

Literature Cited:

1. Struve, Daniel K. 1996. Bare Root Shade Tree Whip Production in Containers. J. Environ. Hort. 14(1):13-17.

2. Tyler, H.H., S.L. Warren, and T.E. Bilderback. 1996. Reduced leaching fractions improve irrigation use efficiency and nutrient efficacy. J. Environ. Hort. 14:199-204.

3. Warren, Stuart L. and T.E. Bilderback. 1992. Arcillite: Effect on chemical and physical properties of pine bark substrate and plant growth. J. Environ. Hort. 10(2)63-69.


SUSTAINABLE SMALL-SCALE NURSERY PRODUCTION

"Sustainable Small-Scale Nursery Production" is a recently updated publication that is available from a non-profit organization called Appropriate Technology Transer for Rural Areas. The publication focuses on sustainable production of nursery plants in the field and in containers. It is complementary information for experienced growers that concentrates on sustainable production techniques. Their web site is located at http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/nursery.html

(from David Morgan's NMPRO e-mail dated 7/5/00).

PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

MONTHLY PLANT PROBLEM REPORT FROM
THE AUBURN AND BIRMINGHAM PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LAB - JUNE 2000
Jackie Mullen, Extension Plant Pathology Specialist (Auburn)
Jim Jacobi - Extension Plant Pathology Specialist (Birmingham)

Auburn Plant Disease Report - June

June continued to be painfully dry for most of the state. Surprisingly, our plant sample submissions were about equal to last year at this time, but field crop submissions were almost non-existent. Most of our samples were from irrigated landscapes and gardens.

Tomato spotted wilt was observed and ELISA confirmed on peony. Yellow ring spots, line patterns, and black spots are often characteristic of this virus. Thrips transmit the virus from diseased to healthy plants. Insecticide application for thrips control may help but often times some virus spread will continue after insecticide application. Just a few surviving thrips may be sufficient to continue disease spread. This fungus is not soil-borne.

Diseases Seen at the Auburn Plant Diagnostic Lab in June.
PLANT DISEASE COUNTY
Amaryllis Colletotrichum Leaf SpotCalhoun
BentgrassRing Nematode (Very High) (Criconemella)Jefferson
BoxwoodVolutella BlightCullman
CoreopsisAnthracnose(Colletotrichum)Cullman
HollyColletotrichum-Associated Crown Rot *
HollyPythium Root Rot*
JuniperPhoma Needle BlightPickens
JuniperPythium & Rhizoctonia Root RotDeKalb
LiriopePythium Crown RotMobile
MapleAnthracnose (Colletotrichum)Cullman
Periwinkle, AnnualColletotrichum Leaf SpotJackson
Periwinkle, AnnualPhytophthora Crown RotJackson
OakOak Leaf Blister (Taphrina)Cleburne, Cullman, Lawrence
PapsalumBrown Patch (Rhizoctonia)Baldwin
PeonyTomato Spotted Wilt VirusCullman
PetuniaPhytophthora & Pythium Crown & Root RotCalhoun, Cherokee,Cullman
SpireaBacterial Leaf Spot*
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery diseases.

Birmingham Plant Disease Report- June

June continued the recent trend of warm dry weather. Trees and shrubs are suffering the effect of drought stress. Several new plantings have been lost in the past month due to the drought. We recorded 53 samples during the month of June.

2000 June Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab.
PLANT DISEASE COUNTY
BoxwoodLow pH (4.2)Jefferson
BoxwoodMacrophoma BlightShelby
Cherry LaurelShot Hole (Xanthomonas spp.)Jefferson
DianthusPythium Root rotJefferson
ElmDutch Elm DiseaseShelby
ImpatiensRhizoctonia Stem RotJefferson & Blount
LeucothoePythium Root RotJefferson
MapleAnthracnose (Kabietella spp.)Jefferson
Oak-Leaf HydrangeaSuspect Iron DeficiencyJefferson
PetuniaPhytophthora BlightJefferson & Shelby
VincaPhytophthora BlightJefferson & Shelby

Disease Possibilities For July

In July we usually continue to see our 'June' summer diseases. The following table lists some of the diseases which arrived in our lab during previous Julys. Brief comments on disease symptoms and control recommendations are included. For specific disease control recommendations, see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook or 2000 Spray Guides. Also remember that sanitation is a necessary component of most disease control programs.

PLANTDISEASEDESCRIPTIONCONTROL
AJUGARhizoctonia Aerial BlightLeaves/stems turn brown. Mycelial webbing may be present.Cleary's 3336.
ASHAnthracnose
(Apiognomonia)
Irregular brown blotches of variable sizes occur along leaf edges and along leaf veins mostly.Sanitation.
ASTERSouthern Blight (Sclerotium)Decay of stem at soil line; white mycelium (sometimes with brown-black mustard-seed-sized sclerotia may be present) often at soil line.Soil Solarization.
AUCUBABotryodiplodia
Canker/Dieback
Black cankers on stems.Pruning; Cleary's 3336.
AZALEABacterial Leaf Spot Black irregular spots; water soaked spot edgesStrict sanitation. Do not water over-head
AZALEAColletotrichum Leaf SpotSmall, circular brown leaf spots.Sanitation; protective sprays of Cleary's 3336.
AZALEAPhytophthora Root
Crown Rot
Brown, water-soaked areas on crown and roots; outer root cortex slips easily away from inner tissues.Sanitation; good drainage; fungicide drenches.
AZALEAPhomopsis Dieback
(Stress-Related)
Sunken cankers that cause dieback of individual branches.Pruning; eliminate stres.
BAHIAGRASSDollarspot
(Sclerotinia)
Bleached-out lesions with dark borders develop on grass blades; disease begins in small patches which can enlarge.Maintain adequate fertility.
BEGONIAPythium Root RotRoots become soft, brown and water-soaked.Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
BEGONIARhizoctonia Aerial BlightLeaves become brown spotted, blighted and shredded.Cleary's 3336, Domain, benomyl products labelled for ornamentals; sanitation.
BOXWOODPhomopsis Leaf BlightBrown, leaf blotches & brown leaves.Sanitation; alleviate stresses; Cleary's 3336, if desired as a protective treatment.
BOXWOODVolutella BlightLeaves and branches dieback from canker lesions on branches; orange masses of spores may be present on cankers.Sanitation; alleviate stresses; Cleary's 3336, if desired as a protective treatment.
CHRYSANTHEMUMBacterial Leaf SpotAngular, small, black leaf spots.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
CHRYSANTHEMUMFusarium Crown RotLower stem becomes brown and dried; plants wilt and die.Rotate area out of mums for 6-10 years.
CRABAPPLECedar-Apple Rlust
(Gymnosporangium)
Large (3-5 mm), bright yellow spots; on underside of leaf spots, orange pustules may be present.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DAYLILYAnthracnoseIrregular brown blotches that occur throughout leaf area.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336 would give protective diease control.
DAYLILYSouthern Blight
(Sclerotium rolfsii)
Crown rot; white mold at crown.Sanitation; rotation to turf; solarization.
DELPHINIUMFusarium Root RotRoots become brown and dried.Crop rotate away from Delphineum, Zinnia.
DOGWOODBotrytis Leaf Spot/
Blight
Brown-gray leaf spots/blotches.Cleary's, Domain.
DOGWOODCercospora & Septoria
Leaf Spots
Round-angular, brown spots (2-4mm).Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DOGWOODPythium/Phytophthora
Root Rot
Root infection begins as water-soaked root decay. Dead roots dry out.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
DOGWOODSpot Anthracnose
(Elsinoe)
Tiny red spots on bracts and leaves).See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
FERNPythium Root RotBrown, watersoaked roots.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
GERANIUMBotrytis BlightBlossoms become gray-brown and limp.Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
GERANIUMPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown, water-soaked.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
GERANIUMXanthomonas
campestris pv.
pelargonii
Leaves develop black spots. Stems develop black rot areas. The bacterial infection will become systemic and eventually plants will wilt.Sanitation.
HAWTHORNECedar-Hawthorne RustBright yellow spots on leaves and fruit of apple, crabapple, hawthorne. Aecial orange cups develop in spots. (Cedars develop cankers).See ANR-468.
HIBISCUSFusarium Stem/
Root Rot
Dark brown, dry stem decay lesion.Sanitation. Protective treatment spray of Cleary's 3336
HOLLY, HELLERIThielaviopsis Root RotRoots show black lesions and often black root tips. Plants grow poorly.-
HYDRANGEACercospora Leaf SpotIrregular brown lesions of variable sizes develop on leavesSanitation; Cleary's 3336 or Domain protective sprays.
IMPATIENSImpatiens Necrotic
Spot Virus
New growth is dwarfed and stunted; foliage may show yellowing spots/patterns or black spots/patterns. Sanitation; thrips control with insecticides.
IMPATIENSPhytophthora Crown
& Root Rot
Medium brown, wet, soft rot of lower stem and roots. Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IMPATIENSPythium Root RotMedium brown, wet, soft rot of lower stem and roots. Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IMPATIENSRhizoctonia Crown RotDark brown, dried crown/rot. Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IVY, ENGLISHAlternaria Leaf SpotLarge, brown-black, sometimes zonate, circular-oval spots (3-5 mm diam.).See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IVY, ENGLISHBacterial Leaf SpotAngular, black, watersoaked spots (2-3 mm diam).Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
IVY, ENGLISHPhyllosticta Leaf SpotBrown, circular tooval leaf spots.See recommendations for Alternaria.
IVY, ENGLISHPhytophthora Root RotBrown, water-soaked root decay.Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
JUNIPERPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown, soft, and water-soaked.Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
JUNIPERTwig Blight
Phomopsis)
Brown twig tips; small cankers at base of small twigs.Sanitation. Cleary's 3336, Domain, or a benomyl fungicide labelled for ornamentals.
JUNIPER, SHOREPhythium Root RotSmall roots become water-soaked and decayed. Infected roots may be only slightly brown.-.
LIGUSTRUMColletotrichum
Leaf Spot
Medium brown circular-irregular leaf spots.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
LILACPhytophthora Root Rot)Roots become brown and water-soaked.Subdue 2E may be used as a protective treatment. First test a few plants to be sure phytotoxicity is not a problem.
LIRIOPEColletotrichum Leaf SpotBrown, circular-irregular leaf spots (2-10 mm diam). When spots coalesce, a large portion of leaf may turn brown and die. Often leaf tips are affected.Sanitation; Cleary's 3336, Domain, or a benomyl fungicide labelled for ornamentals.
LIRIOPERoot-Knot Nematode
(Meloidogyne)
Plants grow poorly. Roots exhibit irregularly-shaped galls.Leave soil fallow for a few years; plant nematode-resistant plants or solarize area (ANR-713).
MAGNOLA, JAPANESEBacterial Leaf SpotBrown, irregular leaf spots with water-soaked margins.Strict sanitation.
MAGNOLIA, JAPANESEPowdery MildewWhite powdery dusting on twigs and upper surfaces of leaves; infected areas die.Cleary's 3336 would provide protective control.
MAPLEAnthracnose
(Kabatiella)
Large, light-brown irregular spots and blotches may kill whole leaves; spots often follow leaf veins.Sanitation. Fungicide sprays.
MAPLEGanoderma
Wood/Root Rot
Dieback; brown wood rot.Sanitation.
MAPLEPhyllosticta Leaf Spot Spots are circular-irregular, and have brown centers with purple margins (1/8" - 1/2" diam).Sanitation. Fungicide sprays.
MONDO GRASSAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Brown irregular lesions on leaves.Sanitation. See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
MORNING GLORYRust
(Puccinia)
Orange powdery patches on leaf surfaces; infected areas die.Sanitation.
MORNING GLORYWhite Rot
(Albugo)
White raised patches form on leaves; infected areas dieSanitation; reduce irrigation.
OAKAnthracnose
(Apiognomonia)
Brown blotches often along leaf veins or leaf edges.Sanitation; see Alabama Pest Management Handbook for small oak trees.
OAKOak Leaf Blister
(Taphrina)
Round, slightly convex-concave light brownleaf spots (4-5 mm diam).Sanitation; see the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
OAKPhyllosticta Leaf Spot Circular, brown spots (2-4 mm diam).Sanitation.
OAKSlime Flux A foul smelling ooze runs down trunk surface. Initial infection of fungi, bacteria, and yeast develops in wound area.Sanitation.
PERIWINKLEAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Brown, sunken cankers on stem sections.Cleary's 3336, Domain, or WP benomyl; Sanitation.
PERIWINKLEPhomopsis Blight) Brown, sunken cankers on stem sections.Cleary's, Domain, or WP benomyl; Sanitation.
PERIWINKLEPhytophthora Aerial
Blight
Dark brown, black cankers encircle stems and cause wilt and dieback.Sanitation. See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PERIWINKLERhizoctonia Aerial
Blight/Crown Rot
Lower leaves and lower stem near the soil line become browned and decayed.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook; Sanitation.
PETUNIAPhytophthora Foliage
Blight/Root Rot
Foliage develops spots, blight, collapse.Sanitation.
PHOTINIABacterial Leaf SpotBrown, irregular leaf spots with water-soaked edges.Strict sanitation.
PHOTINIAEntomosporium Leaf SpotRed-black circular leaf spots.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PINE, VIRGINIAPitch Canker
(Fusarium)
Sunken lesions on branches/trunk with resin flow.Sanitation.
PINE, LOBLOLLYPythium Root RotBrown, water-soaked roots.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
POINSETTIAPythium Root RotRoots become soft, brown, water-soaked.See the Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
PYRACANTHASouthern Blight
(Sclerotium)
See Aster.Solarization.
RHODODENDRONBotryosphaeria CankerSunken, brown, dried, cracked, elliptical lesions develop on branches.Sanitation; protective spray of Cleary's 3336 or Domain.
ROSECercospora rosicola
Leaf Spot
Circular brown spots.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook for black spot.
SNAPDRAGONPhytophthora Root RotRoots become brown and water-soaked.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
SYCAMOREAlternaria Leaf SpotIrregular brown leaf spots.Sanitation. Collect and remove all fallen leaves this fall
SYCAMOREPowdery MildewWhite powdery substance on leaves.See Alabama Pest Management Handbook.
SYCAMOREScorch (Xylella)Leaves become brown and dried at the margins.Tree pruning; tree removal.
VERBENAFusarium Crown RotBrown lower stem rot.Cleary's drenches may help.
VINCA MINORAnthracnose
(Colletotrichum)
Brown, irregular spots develop on leaves.Sanitation. Cleary's 3336, Domain or a benomyl product labelled for ornamentals.
VINCA MINORPythium Root RotRoots become brown and watersoaked.Aliette protective treatments or Subdue 2E. (Test a few plants for phytotoxicity).
VINCA MINORRhizoctonia Stem
Blight
Brown lesions near soil line.Sanitation. Cleary's 3336 or benomyl protective sprays.


UPCOMING EVENTS

March 18, 2000 - September 17, 2000:
Japan Flora 2000 'Communication Between Man and Nature'.
Awaji Island, Japan. See
http://web.pref.hyogo.jp/jpnflora/english/index.htm or Meg VanSchoorl at MVANSCHOOR@agr.wa.gov

August 3-6, 2000:
SNA 2000 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researchers' Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~isa

September 15-16, 2000:
Alabama Christmas Tree Association Meeting.
Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Contact Ken Tilt (334-844-5484) or email (ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu) for further information.

October 1-4, 2000:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Hyatt Regency Oak Brook, Chicago, IL. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail mbippser@neca.com

October 6-7, 2000:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

October 8-11, 2000:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Norfolk, VA. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax 817-882-4121, SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

November 8, 2000:
Georgia-Florida Green Industry Update
Especially for Nursery and Greenhouse Growers>br> Cairo, Georgia
For more information write to Conferences, P.O. Box 1209, Tifton, GA 31793

November 9, 2000:
Georgia-Florida Green Industry Update
Especially for Landscape Organizations
Tallahassee, Florida
For more information phone 912-386-3416

November 10, 2000:
Georgia-Florida Green Industry Update
Especially for Landscape, Nursery and Greenhouse Growers>br> Kingsland, Georgia
For more information write to Conferences, P.O. Box 1209, Tifton, GA 31793

January 27-31, 2001:
Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Convention.
Fort Worth, TX. Contact Paul Smeal at 1107 Kentwood Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24060-5656, 540-552-4085; fax 540-953-0805, e-mail psmeal@vt.edu

August 2-5, 2001:
SNA 2001 - Southern Nurserymen's Association Researcher's Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA. Contact SNA at 770-973-9026; SNA Infoline at 770-973-4636; http://www.sna.org

September 30 - October 3, 2001:
Eastern Region International Plant Propagators' Society Annual Meeting.
Lexington, KY. Contact Margot Bridgen, 26 Woodland Road, Storrs, CT 06268; phone 860-429-6818; e-mail mbippser@neca.com

October 12-13, 2001:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

October 18-21, 2001:
Southern Region International Plant Propagators' Society.
Houston, TX. Contact David Morgan at 817-882-4148; fax: 817-882-4121; SR IPPS, P.O. Box 1868, Ft. Worth, TX 76101; e-mail: dmorgan@bsipublishing.com

October 11-12, 2002:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com or http://www.tnnursery.com/mtna

Send horticultural questions and comments to ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu.

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.