APRIL 2003

Welcome to April and showers or monsoons!

There has to be a balance somewhere. The pendulum has swung from severe drought to frog-drowning downpours. I know you are finding it hard to get all spring chores done in between the rains.

We are continuing to monitor our Asian ambrosia beetle (AAB) traps that we put out to test various traps and chemical treatments. We were looking at several concentrations of Astro, an experimental compound and Dursban as well as a control with no chemical treatments. The nursery had problems with AAB in the past few years and we were ready to pounce on the critters this year armed with the latest technology. I have been getting a similar feeling to what turkey hunters must experience the day before hunting season. They say that they often have to dodge the arrogant fat birds as they walk down the road only to find when the gun sounds to begin the hunt, the turkeys are nowhere to be found. I hate to attribute any active intelligence and cunning to AAB's but we put traps in fields that had problems in previous years and in newly planted ashes that had to be stressed. So far we have had no attacks on our experimental areas. To the nursery, that is great news but for evaluation of our chemical treatments, it is a frustrating experience. See the pictures below to see our study:

October Glory Red Maple with flags indicating different chemical treatments.

Early indications show the Lindgrin trap attracting and catching many more beetles using the same lure.

Beetles collected in the bottom of Lindgrin trap with kill red strip to the left.

Redbuds were in bloom

as well as another spring tree blooming at the same time. This one is the tree form of loropetalum. This form may become even more popular than the shrub form.

Loropetalum

I think this form of the large shrub/small tree will increase its sales further as people see how great these plants are as a tree.

One spring blooming plant that I look forward to seeing each year is Kerria japonica.

Kerria japonica is an old fashioned plant that doesn't generate standing ovations but offers great year-round appeal for those who tolerate or enjoy free flowing or an unkempt growth habit. There are very few problems. I am not sure if we have ever had one come into the Plant Diagnostic Lab. Most nurseries carry the double flowered 'Pleniflora' and it has become the standard but 'Shannon' and other single flowered cultivars are equally as appealing or more so. The idea is to collect them all. We need to help gardeners become more addicted to plant collecting. I continue to think that a big area of marketing that we miss is providing easy collections of the great cultivars of various species that we grow. If you could begin to entice people to become rabid fanatics of plant collecting, it could explode our chances to expand our plant pallet and opportunities for niche nurseries. People collect roses and a few other species but we have an opportunity to get them excited about the unending collections of azaleas, hydrangeas, ivies, viburnums, hollies and even boxwoods. Try to push a 6 pack collection of butterfly bushes in 2 quart or trade gallon containers. I think with the right pizzazz in the marketing strategy you would be growing smaller plants faster with greater margins of profit. I am spending your money but I think it is a good proven strategy for many other products and even in our own industry.

I recently rediscovered a publication that I let expire a few years ago called HortIdeas. It was one of my monthly favorites that I borrowed from and talked about often. A couple from Gravel Switch, Kentucky have offered this publication for almost 20 years. Their newsletter offers Hort Shorts from a wide array of gardeners' over-the-fence gossip to the latest research from academia and the journals of horticulture. It offers a digest of many horticulture publications around the world and includes veggies, fruits and landscape plants. I do not venture into the fruit and veggie world often and it helps me keep up with their activities as well as what is happening in my own field. It is a wonderful publication and worth the subscription price of $25. You can get the publication by email or snail mail. HORTIDEAS (ISSN 0742-8219) is published monthly by Gregory and Patricia Y. Williams, 750 Black Lick Road, Gravel Switch, KY 40328. Annual subscription rates: U.S. - $25.00 periodicals rate or $27.00 first class; Canada and Mexico - $32.00; Overseas - $30.00 surface mail or $42.00 air mail. Their E-mail address is gwill@mis.net.

Gravel Switch, KY conjures up a vision of a couple of horticulture graduates from the 60's buried in the mountains of Kentucky in a log cabin. The only contact with the big world is their computer network. HortIdeas is the way they manage to have the lifestyle of eating from the garden and catching trout from the mountain stream rippling under the foot bridge behind their cabin. In reality, they probably look out the massive mirrored windows in the executive suite of the Kentucky Corporate Mutual Building in downtown Gravel Switch on the main throughfare of the city which is Black Lick Road. However, I prefer to think of them enjoying the untouched backwoods of rural Kentucky while constantly feeding us a mountain of information to keep us moving at our accustomed speed. Give it a try, I think you will enjoy it.

Have a nice April!

Ken


DISCLAIMER: Please remember that all information presented is a summary of research and not an endorsement of any product or a recommendation of chemicals. The official labels from the manufacturing companies offer the legal and proper use and handling information for all products.


The following articles are featured in this month's Something to Grow On:

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GREEN INDUSTRY TO ALABAMA

OUTSIDE DECORATING TRENDS

ALL-AMERICA ROSE SELECTIONS NAMED FOR 2004

ATTENTION UPC CODE USERS

FIREANT TREATMENT AVAILABLE

DUCK FOOT - 2004 IVY OF THE YEAR

PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

UPCOMING EVENTS


ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GREEN INDUSTRY TO ALABAMA

Grant Requested from USDA for Survey of Economic Impact of the Green Industry of Alabama

The Green Industry is composed of all those who propagate, produce, sell, distribute, design, install and maintain landscape plants. It is a large industry that does not receive much press or attention and unfortunately we do not know much about the true value of the industry to the state of Alabama. This has caused major problems when realistic numbers were needed to justify our use of resources. It is important for the industry and the health of the economy of Alabama that we conduct an economic impact survey of our industry.

The families of this industry have historically been a major part of the agriculture community and the economy of Alabama. They have been characterized as a large independent group of small family farms and businesses, present in every county of Alabama, who took great pride in their independence. They have worked hard to comply with governmental laws to protect their employees and be sensitive to the environment. They are one of the few industries that proactively researched and adopted their own Best Management Practices to monitor and conserve our water resources. A key distinction between Green Industry crops and traditional agricultural crops is that each family nursery farm is responsible for the marketing and distribution of all of their products. There is no central marketing group. Each plant carries the name and reputation of the family producing the crop. They have never received subsidies from the government and they are happy that they have not had to rely on help from our tax base. Many of our growers have backgrounds in other traditional agricultural crops and have great respect for these farmers' efforts and concerns and the need they have had for support.

We have some reliable economic data on wholesale portions of our Green Industry but the flow through impact of all the varied industry activities to the consumer has never been quantified. Our industry has now reached a point where it needs minimal support from our government to characterize its size, scope, impact and assess future needs and trends for the industry. Other agricultural crops are annually monitored to help their industries manage themselves, respond to economic trends and remain economically stable and viable. The Green Industry needs an Economic Impact Survey to achieve this end.

The recent drought caused many uninformed city managers to cut off irrigation of landscape plants while continuing unlimited flow to restaurants, car washes and other businesses using large amounts of water. What they did not realize was the enormous economic impact this action had on small green businesses throughout the state. A ripple effect staggered the industry as orders were cancelled at nurseries, shipping was halted, design, installation and maintenance dried up and retail stores almost had to close their doors since water is the life blood of the plants we sell. We know that the farm gate value of Nursery/Greenhouse and Sod crops represents $221 million dollars to our state's economy. Alabama Agricultural Statistics has provided these needed figures. What we do not know is the economic ripple effect of this industry to the economy and people of Alabama. All surrounding states have surveyed for this information including, Georgia, Texas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida and Arkansas is in the second year of its survey. From Tennessee we know that their farm gate value was listed at $207 million and generated an economic impact of $6.4 billion to their state and employed 74,000 people. Production of landscape plants is the fastest growing segment of agriculture in the country. In Alabama, Green Industry crops represent the largest economic agricultural crop in the state. We are proud of our fellow farmers in cotton, peanuts and soybeans and do not offer this figure to slight their contributions but to highlight the importance of the Green Industry to Alabama and emphasize the need for funds for an Economic Impact Study of our Green Industry.

We have applied for funding through the USDA Division of Plant Industries. We hope the state will recognize that this information is important for our industry. We have not asked for much in the past but it is time for agriculture to give a little back to support this industry. We hope you will be receiving a note soon to fill out a confidential survey and that you will also realize its value and take the 10 or 15 minutes it takes to answer a few questions.


OUTSIDE DECORATING TRENDS

American consumers are turning their decorating passion to the outside, spending more on their gardens, according to a new report from Unity Marketing, called Future Vision: Garden Market. Pam Danziger, president of Unity Marketing, predicts: "For the next 5 to 10 years, garden marketers and retailers will enjoy a period of steady growth as consumers shift their decorating focus from the home's interior to the garden, patio and lawn." The fastest-growing category is hardware -- accessories, furniture, tools and equipment that enhance the gardening experience -- which jumped 18% over 2000 levels. http://www.unitymarketingonline.com

(from The Weekly Dirt for April 1, 2003 by Carol Miller at cmiller@branchsmith.com).

ALL-AMERICA ROSE SELECTIONS NAMED FOR 2004

3 All-America Rose Selections winners have been named for 2004: Day Breaker, an upright, bushy floribunda with bright, multi-shade flowers in yellow, blending to pink and apricot, from Edmunds' Roses. Honey Perfume, a floribunda with bright apricot-yellow flowers in large, open clusters on an upright, well-branched plant, from Jackson and Perkins Wholesale Inc. Memorial Day, a medium-tall, upright and bushy hybrid tea with very large spiraled flowers in clear pink, from Weeks Wholesale Rose Grower. http://www.rose.org

(from Weekly NMPRO email, April 1, 2003, edited by Todd Davis).

ATTENTION UPC CODE USERS

Any grower that puts UPCs on plant material will be charged an annual renewal fee by the Uniform Code Council (UCC) beginning in 2003. Previously, UPC users paid a one-time fee. Renewal fees are based on the number of products needed to identify and a company's gross sales revenue. Based on the formula, the fee ranges from $150 to $1,500 per prefix, with a maximum of $9,000 per member. Check the invoice to make sure your fee was calculated properly. http://www.uc-council.org

(from Weekly NMPRO email, April 1, 2003, edited by Todd Davis).

FIREANT TREATMENT AVAILABLE

Growers shipping plants outside the imported fire ant quarantine may soon have a new insecticide approved for treating plant materials. USDA proposed adding methoprene to its list of approved treatments for the ants. The proposal would make Extinguish from Wellmark International available to treat containerized plants and field-grown woody ornamentals within quarantine areas.
http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/news/press.html

(from Weekly NMPRO email, April 1, 2003, edited by Todd Davis).

DUCK FOOT - 2004 IVY OF THE YEAR

Hedera helix 'Duck Foot' was named 2004 Ivy of the Year by American Ivy Society. This miniature's duck-foot-shaped leaves reach 1 inch across. It's self-branching, well suited for pots, baskets and topiaries and hardy to USDA Hardiness Zone 5. New growth is shiny and light green and darkens with age. The plant grows well in deep shade or bright sun. The group's 2003 selection is 'Golden Ingot.' http://www.ivy.org

(from Weekly NMPRO email, April 1, 2003, edited by Todd Davis).

PLANT PATHOLOGY REPORT

AUBURN PLANT DISEASE REPORT - FEBRUARY
Jackie Mullen
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist

The Auburn lab received 42 plant samples in February. Many (almost 40 percent) of these samples were geranium samples submitted by the Alabama State Department of Agriculture and Industries. See the paragraph below for more information on the geranium samples. Other samples seen included on bacterial leaf spot on dwarf gardenia, downy mildew on snapdragon, Phytophthora root rot on boxwood and Illicium, Alternaria leaf spot on impatiens, and Pythium root rot on English ivy.

Greenhouses throughout the U.S. are being checked for a strain of the bacterial wilt pathogen new in this country. USDA traced the new race, biovar to Goldsmith=s Kenya production facility. In December, geranium cuttings infected with race 3 biovar 2 of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum were identified in two greenhouses, one in Michigan and one in New Hampshire. These greenhouses subsequently and unknowingly shipped rooted cuttings of geraniums out to greenhouses in many states. Evidently many cuttings were shipped from Glass Corners Greenhouses - Michigan. In Alabama state agriculture inspectors have sent/brought damaged geranium samples from 16 greenhouses for testing for the presence of R. solanacearum. The early symptoms of bacterial wilt - yellowing of lower leaves - could be confused with symptoms of root damage or other root stress. Later symptoms of this disease - wilt and continued yellowing - could sometimes be confused with another serious bacterial disease called bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas pelargonii. We have received 24 geranium samples during February and early March. Many of these samples have been checked with visual study, microscopic study, culture and serology (immunostrip testing). Some bacteria were produced in culture and they reacted as R. solanacearum would to four preliminary culture tests. These bacteria were sent to a separate lab at Auburn (Plant Pathology research lab dealing with bacterial plant pathogens-Dr. J. Kloepper; Mr. John McInroy) for gas chromatography analysis of bacterial fatty acids to identify the bacteria specifically to genus and species. Gas chromatography results are still not completed for some samples as of March 18. A recently acquired immunostrip test kit (similar in principle to ELISA) is now being used as the main method of diagnosis for this disease. The immunostrip test has given positive results to some samples tested. Positive bacteria and plants must be sent to a Beltsville USDA/APHIS lab for PCR testing to identify the exact R. solanacearum race and biovar. More information on this problem is available at the following web sites: http://www.growertalks.com/ralstonia/, www.aphis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/sa_phgeraniums.html, www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ep/ralstonia/, www.pestalert.org, www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/clinic/Ralstonia/Ralstonia.html, http://extlab7.entnem.ufl.edu/PestAlert/tmm-0303.html.

The bacterial leaf spot on dwarf gardenia appeared as typical for bacterial leaf spot disease. Spots were dark, more obvious on lower leaf surfaces, angular and vein-bound, wet-looking at lesion edges. Microscopic study showed that bacterial streaming was present. Bacterial leaf spots are difficult to control. Damaged plants should be removed. Avoid over-head watering. Copper protective sprays will help protect foliage from new infections.

Downy mildew on snapdragon appeared as yellow blotches on lower leaves. The undersides of the damaged leaves contained a fine gray mold visible with a hand lens. To control downy mildew, remove damaged plants and apply a protective fungicide to near-by healthy plants. See the AL Pest Management Handbook for recommended fungicides.

Phytophthora and Pythium root rot diseases cannot be diagnosed by symptoms. Sometimes microscopy can show diagnostic spore structures but usually culture work and/or ELISA is needed. These two fungi are called water molds because they require free water for growth and development. Control of these diseases involves removal of damaged plants, correcting the water problem, and sometimes protective fungicide drenches are appropriate. See the AL Pest Management Handbook for fungicides labelled on specific plants.

The Alternaria leaf spot on impatiens, originally identified by John Olive, was associated with small (1-3 mm diam.) purple-brown, circular spots. Usual recommendations for Alternaria leaf spots involve sanitation and protective fungicide treatments. Cleary's is labelled on impatiens and would help control Alternaria.

February 2003 Plant Diseases Seen In The Plant Diagnostic Lab at Auburn
PLANTDISEASECOUNTY
AzaleaColletotrichum Leaf Spot *
AzaleaPestalotia Leaf Spot (Secondary) *
BoxwoodPhytophthora Root RotWilcox
Gardenia, DwarfBacteria Leaf Spot *
IlliciumPhytophthora Root Rot *
ImpatiensAlternaria Leaf Spot *
Ivy, EnglishPythium Root RotJackson
GeraniumBacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum)
(Immunostrip method)
*
GeraniumBotrytis Leaf Spot *
GeraniumBotrytis Petiole Canker *
GeraniumFusarium Crown/Root Rot *
GeraniumPythium Root Rot *
OakSlime FluxRussell
SnapdragonDowny Mildew (Peronospora) *
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery samples.

BIRMINGHAM PLANT DISEASE REPORT - FEBRUARY
J. Jacobi
Extension Plant Pathology Specialist

The lab received 57 samples for the month of February. Some of the problems seen last month included Septoria leaf spot on beard tongue and cold injury on a number of different plants.

February 2003 Plant Diseases Seen In The Birmingham Plant Diagnostic Lab
PLANTPROBLEMCOUNTY
BermudagrassAlgaeJefferson
BoxwoodLeafminerJefferson
BoxwoodPythium Root RotJefferson
BoxwoodWinter InjuryJefferson(4)
CameliaTea ScaleJefferson
Cypress, LeylandBotryosphaeria CankerJefferson
Cypress, LeylandPestalotia Tip BlightJefferson
Dogwood, FloweringDogwood Club GallShelby
Easter LilyFungus Gnats *
Easter LilyPythium Root Rot*
GardeniaCold InjuryJefferson
Holly, ChineseCold InjuryJefferson
Holly, HybridTea ScaleJefferson
Holly, YauponCold DamageJefferson
LiriopeAnthracnose (Colletotrichum sp.)Jefferson
Magnolia, SouthernAlgal Leaf SpotJefferson
Magnolia, SouthernBlack Twig BorerJefferson
PansyCold Injury/Black Root RotJefferson
PansyPythium Root RotJefferson
Penstemom (Beard Tongue)Septoria Leaf Spot *
YewPoor DrainageShelby
*Counties are not reported for greenhouse and nursery samples.

Disease Possibilities for March Diseases often reported in early spring include Helminthosporium leaf spots on bermuda and small grains; the beginnings of powdery mildews, rusts, and/or Septoria leaf blotch on small grains; some downy mildews; Botrytis blight; and bacterial leaf spots on greenhouse crops.


UPCOMING EVENTS

May 14, 2003:
Professional Grounds Management Society - Arboricultural Field Day.
Boone County Arboretum, Burlington, KY.
Contact Walter Bonvell, Xavier University, Physical Plant, 3800 Victory Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45207-7111; 513.745.3151

June 5-7, 2003:
Native Plants in the Landscape Conference.
Millersville University, Millersville, PA.
Contact Department of Professional Training & Education, P.O. Box 1002, Millersville, PA 17551-0302, 717.872.3030, Fax 717.871.2022
URL:
http://www.millersvillenativeplants.org

June 18-21, 2003:
The 2003 International Master Gardener and Trade Show.
Northern Kentucky Convention Center, Covington, KY.
Contact: Bobbi Strangfeld, 513-946-8986, e-mail: strangfeld1@postoffice.ag.ohio-state.edu; Marianne Riofrio, e-mail: riofrio.1@osu.edu, 614-292-8326; Sharon Bale, e-mail sbale@ca.uky.edu; Rick Durham, 859-257-7294, e-mail rdurham@ca.uky.edu;
URL: http://mastergardener.osu.edu/imgc2003/index.html

July 15 - 20, 2003:
ANLA Convention & Executive Learning Retreat.
Location TBA. Contact: ANLA, 202-789-2900; Fax, 202-789-1893.
URL: http://www.anla.org

July 30 - August 2, 2003:
SNA 2003- Southern Nursery Association Researcherís Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact SNA at 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636.
URL:http://www.sna.org

August 15 - 19, 2003:
Garden Writers Association (GWA) 55th Annual Symposium.
Indian Lakes Resort, Chicago, IL.
Contact GWA at 10210 Leatherleaf Court, Manassas, VA 20111; 703.257.1032; Fax, 703.257.0213; e-mail info@gwaa.org
URL: http://www.gwaa.org/symposium/index.html

August 21-23, 2003:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com;
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

September 11-13, 2003:
The Southern Plant Conference.
Charleston, SC.
Contact Danny Summers at SNA, 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636; e-mail, danny@mail.sna.org;
URL: http://www.sna.org

September 30 - October 4, 2003:
American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Meeting and 100th Anniversary.
Providence, RI.
Contact ASHS at 703-836-4606, Fax: 703-836-2024, E-mail: ashs@ashs.org
URL: http://www.ashs.org

October 3-4, 2003:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 5-8, 2003:
IPPS Southern Region NA.
San Antonio, TX.
Contact: Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; phone 817-577-9272; e-mail, dleemorgan@msn.com

October 8-11, 2003:
IPPS Western Region 44rd Annual Conference. Portland, OR.
Contact: Jim McConnell, Bailey Nurseries, Inc., 9855 NW Pike Road, Yamhill, OR 97148; 503-662-3244; e-mail, jim.mcconnell@baileynursery.com
URL: http://www.ipps.org/WesternNA

October 22 - 25, 2003:
IPPS Eastern Region.
Portland, ME. Contact M. Bridgen, Margot Bridgen, IPPS Executive Secretary/Treasurer, 1700 North Parish Dr., Southold, NY 11971; 631.765.9638; Fax 631.765.9648; e-mail ippser@earthlink.net

July 29 - 31, 2004:
SNA 2004 - Southern Nursery Association Researcherís Conference and Trade Show.
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA.
Contact: SNA 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636
URL: http://www.sna.org

August 26-28, 2004:
The Farwest Show. Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com;
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

October 1-2, 2004:
Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Horticultural Trade Show.
McMinnville Civic Center, McMinnville, TN
Contact Ann Halcomb, MTNA Exec. Secr., P.O. Box 822, McMinnville, TN 37111-0822; phone: 931-668-7322; fax: 931-668-9601; e-mail: mtna@blomand.net,
http://www.mtna.com/ or http://www.southeasternnursery.com/mtna/

October 3-6, 2004:
IPPS Southern Region NA
Greenville/Spartanburg, S.C.
Contact: Dr. David L. Morgan, 332 Warbler Drive, Bedford, TX 76021; phone 817-577-9272; e-mail, dleemorgan@msn.com

August 25-27, 2005:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

September TBA, 2005:
The Southern Plant Conference.
Louisville, Kentucky.
Contact: Matt Gardiner, KY Coordinator, 502-245-0238: e-mail, matthew624@aol.com; or Betsie Taylor, KNLA Exec. Dir., 350 Village Drive, Frankfort, KY 40601; 502-848-0055 or 800-735-9791, Fax 502-848-0032 e-mail knla@mis.net
URL: http://www.knla.org
or Danny Summers at SNA, 770-953-3311; Fax 770-953-4411; SNA Infoline, 770-953-4636; e-mail, danny@mail.sna.org;
URL: http://www.sna.org

August 24-26, 2006:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401; 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503-682-5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

August 23-25, 2007:
The Farwest Show.
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center.
Contact Aimee Schendel, Oregon Association of Nurserymen, 29751 SW Town Center Loop West, Wilsonville, OR 97070; 800-342-6401, 503-682-5089 x 2006; Fax, 503.682.5099; e-mail, info@farwestshow.com
URL: http://www.farwestshow.com

Send horticultural questions and comments to ktilt@acesag.auburn.edu.

Send questions and comments to bfischma@acesag.auburn.edu.

Letters to Bernice Fischman - 101 Funchess Hall - Auburn University, AL 36849.