FOR THE LANDSCAPE IN THE SOUTHEAST

For more information about hollies, contact your county Extension office.

Circular ANR-837

THE ALABAMA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SYSTEM

Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities


C O N T E N T S

History And Folklore What Makes A Holly A HollyDistribution
Some Commercially Available Species Of Holly
EVERGREEN HOLLIES
American Holly (Ilex opaca) Chinese Holly (Ilex cornuta) Japanese Holly (Ilex crenata)
English Holly (Ilex aquifolium) Yaupon Holly (Ilex vomitoria) Inkberry Holly (Ilex glabra)
Dahoon Holly (Ilex cassine) Large Leaf Holly (Ilex latifolia) Long Stalk Holly (Ilex pedunculosa)
Kurogane Holly (Ilex rotunda) Nepal Holly (Ilex integra) Myrtle Leaf Holly (Ilex myrtifolia)
Perny Holly (Ilex pernyi) Ciliospinosa Holly (Ilex ciliospinosa)
DECIDUOUS HOLLIES
Ambiguous Winterberry (Ilex ambigua) Swamp Holly (Ilex amelanchier) Winterberry Holly (Ilex verticillata)
Possumhaw Holly (Ilex decidua) Finetooth Holly (Ilex serrata)
INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS
Ilex x altaclarensis =
(I. aquifolium x I. perado)
Ilex x aquipernyi =
(I. aquifolium x I. pernyi)
Ilex x attenuata =
(I. cassine x I. opaca)
I. (aquifolium x ciliospinosa) I. (cornuta x aquifolium) Ilex (aquifolium x cornuta)
I.(cornuta 'Burfordii x latifolia) I. (cornuta x pernyi) I. (cornuta 'Burfordii' x pernyi)
I (cornuta x pernyi) x (aquifolium x rugosa) I. (cornuta x rugosa) I. x koehneana =
I. (aquifolium x latifolia)
I. x meserveae =
I. (rugosa x aquifolium)
I. (serrata x verticillata) I. [(cornuta x pernyi) x latifolia]
I. (integra x pernyi) I. [(aquifolium x integra) x pernyi].
Uses In The Landscape
Establishment And Culture
PlantingFertilizationHardiness
Pruning Insects And PestsDiseases
Production And Commercial Operations
PollinationPropagation Container Production
Conclusion
Appendix A--Tables
Table A-1. Holly Species And Hybrids Useful In Cross-Pollination
Table A-2. Order Of Bloom Dates For Deciduous Hollies And American Holly
At Simpson Nursery, Vincennes, Indiana, 1979 and 1990
Appendix B--Official And Unofficial Holly Arboreta


Holly is a very popular shrub and ornamental tree. It belongs to the genus Ilex, in which there are many species, with a variety of shapes and sizes. Holly shrubs range in height from 1 to 20 feet; full-grown holly trees range from 20 to 60 feet in height. They can be evergreen or deciduous (drops leaves in winter). Leaves may be smooth or spiny. There are male and female hollies, but fruit is found only on female hollies after pollination. Fruit colors are red, orange, yellow, black, or white, depending on the species and cultivar. With their great diversity of size, shape, texture, adaptability, and other ornamental characteristics, it is rare that any landscape design is complete without specifying hollies. Hollies are the backbone of most landscape designs in areas where they flourish, and they are very significant to the nursery industry in Alabama and throughout the Southeast.

History And Folklore

The use of holly for indoor decoration or for landscape purposes is the result of traditions from many cultures spanning many centuries. Holly was a symbol of foresight to the ancient Greeks; it was a symbol of good will that the ancient Romans sent to friends during their Saturnalia celebration, which took place in December. The ancient Chinese used holly to decorate during their New Year festivals, occurring in February. To Christians, the spiky leaves and red berries symbolized the crown of thorns and the blood of Christ.

The Welsh believed that if the holly were brought in before Christmas Eve, quarrels would occur. Some Germans and English believed the choice of male or female holly in the house would indicate the rule of the household for the next year. Some English believed that if the holly were left up after New Year's Eve, bad luck would be the consequence.

Many Indians in North and South America used holly in religious practices. They brewed a tea from holly leaves, and those who could not keep the drink down could not attempt dangerous missions.

Holly was also believed to have medicinal powers. Concoctions were made by the Europeans, Chinese, and North American Indians to cure restlessness, cough, fever, measles, smallpox, kidney disease, and childbirth pains.

For landscape purposes, early Europeans believed that holly could deter evil spirits, ward off enchantments, and protect the house from lightning. Today, hollies in the landscape provide color to cheer winter and provide food for wildlife. Other cultures, such as east Asian, also have traditions and folklore relative to holly.

What Makes A Holly A Holly?

Hollies are woody plants, usually with smooth bark. They have simple leaves, an arrangement of a single leaf blade on each leaf stalk. All hollies have alternate leaves, which occur one at a time rather than opposite each other on the stem. Not all hollies have spiny leaves. Hollies are either male or female (dioecious). Male hollies produce pollen, while the female hollies produce fruit. Flowers of the female holly have stamens, but the anthers do not produce pollen. The color of the fruit may be red, orange, yellow, black, or white. Even though they are commonly called berries, the fruit of the holly is like a peach rather than a berry. It is fleshy with several stones or pits, so, technically, the fruit is a multiseeded drupe.

Distribution

Hollies can be found in the temperate and tropical zones of North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. There are about 700 species worldwide. Of these 700, only 150 are in cultivation, and of those, only about 40 are commonly seen. Almost all (98 percent) of the cultivated hollies originated in Europe, China, Japan, or North America.

Some Commercially Available Species Of Holly

Evergreen Hollies

American Holly (Ilex opaca). American holly can be found from Massachusetts south to Florida and west to Texas. It is hardy in USDA Hardiness Zones 5 to 9 and thrives in Alabama. Alabama is in Zone 7 (north) and Zone 8 (south). This holly can tolerate environments of salt spray as well as deep shade. They are also tolerant of poor soil conditions in a typical urban landscape. However, they thrive in full sun in rich soil. The height of the American holly ranges from 15 to 60 feet. The leaf size, shape, growth habit, and the fruit size, shape, and color vary. Usually, the fruit is red, but sometimes orange or yellow. American holly is very popular for use in landscaping. Older cultivars have light green leaves, but new releases such as 'Jersey Princess' (female), 'Dan Fenton' (female), and 'Jersey Knight' (male) were selected for their deep green color. There are more than 1,000 cultivars of American holly. Some of the newer introductions and available cultivars are listed below.

'Alfred Colon'
Male; dense, slow growing form; hardy in Zone 5; leaves are long, flat, ellipsoidal, and spiny.

'Amy'
Female; leaves are large, lustrous, and spiny; fruit is large, red, and plentiful.

'Canary'
Female; leaves have small spines and are light green in color; produces an abundance of yellow fruit.

'Carolina #2'
Female; common in the Southeast; leaves are dark green; fruit is bright red and plentiful.

'Christmas Carol'
Female; dense, pyramidal form; leaves are flat and range from medium to pastel green in color; fruit is red, found in clusters, and is very abundant.

'Clarendon Spreading'
Female; spreading form; leaves are large and spiny; fruit is red.

'Clarissa'
Female; very hardy; excellent foliage in winter; fruit is bright red and very large.

'Cumberland'
Female; dense form; leaves are oblong, curved, spiny, and a lustrous green; fruit is globose and bright red.

Ilex Opaca 'Dan Fenton'
'Dan Fenton'
Female; pyramidal form; can reach a height of 20 feet and a width of 15 feet; leaves are round, spiny, and a lustrous, dark green; fruit is round; new introduction and a significant improvement over most American hollies.

'Danny Allen'
Female; pyramidal form; can reach a height of 10 feet and a width of 6 feet; leaves are small, oblong, spiny, and dark green; fruit is red.

'David'
Male; compact form; leaves are small, curved, and dark green.

'Dr. Cribbs'
Male; dense, pyramidal form; fast growing; leaves are large and dark green.

'Fallaw'
Female; dense, upright form; fast growing; leaves are oblong; fruit is clear-yellow.

'Farage'
Female; large, deeply spined, dark green leaves; fruit is bright red.

'Fred Anderson'
Male; pyramidal form; hardy in Zone 5; leaves are oblong, flat, spiny, and a lustrous, dark green; flowers profusely.

'Girard's Male'
Male; upright, columnar form; leaves are curled.

'Gloucester'
Female; dense, pyramidal form; vigorous; can reach a height of 15 feet and a width of 6 feet; leaves are long, ellipsoidal, curved, spiny, and lustrous; fruit is red and abundant.

'Goldie'
Female; leaves are dull and green; abundant yellow fruit.

'Greenleaf'
(See I. * attenuata; not a true I. opaca although often sold as one.)

'Griscom'
Female; fast growing; leaves are thick, oblong, dark green, and contain small spines; fruit is dark red and ellipsoidal.

'Hedgeholly'
Female; compact form; leaves are small, oblong, curved, spiny, and a lustrous, dark green; fruit is globose and dark red.

'Janice Arlene'
Female; pyramidal form; can reach a height of 20 feet and a width of 7 feet; leaves are oblong and spiny; fruit is globose and red.

'Jersey Knight'
Male; leaves are a glossy, dark green.

'Jersey Princess'
Female; leaves are a glossy, dark green, darker than most American hollies; fruit is red and plentiful.

'Lamp Post'
Female; dense, pyramidal form; can reach a height of 30 feet and a width of 10 feet; leaves are a lustrous, dark green and spiny; fruit is large, slightly ellipsoidal, and red.

'Leatherleaf'
Male; extremely hardy; leaves are thick, spiny, and dark green.

'Lenape Moon'
Female; pyramidal form; leaves are small; fruit is yellow and abundant.

'Mamie Eisenhower'
Female; leaves are small and dark green; fruit is bright red and abundant.

'Manig'
Female; leaves are large, spiny, and dark green; fruit is large and dark orange-red.

'Martha's Vineyard'
Female; pyramidal form; leaves are ellipsoidal and spiny; fruit is large and bright red.

'Maryland Dwarf'
Female; broad, low form; leaves are green; fruit is red and scarce.

'Menantico'
Female; vigorous; leaves are oblong, curved, spiny, and deep green; fruit is globose, bright red, and plentiful.

'Merry Christmas'
Female; leaves are small to medium-sized with short spines; they are a glossy, dark green; fruit is bright red and ellipsoidal.

Ilex opaca, 'Miss Helen'
'Miss Helen'
Female; tree is conical; leaves are dark green and thick; fruit is red, lustrous, and ripens early; popular selection.

'Morgan Gold'
Female; dense form; fast growing; leaves are oblong and dark green; fruit is ellipsoidal and yellow.

'Mrs. Santa'
Female; dense, conical form; leaves are oblong, thin, leathery, curved, and light green; fruit is ellipsoidal, dark red, and plentiful.

'Nelson West'
Male; leaves are narrow, spiny, and light green.

'North Wind'
Male; compact, columnar form; hardy in Zone 6; leaves are small, oblong, and spiny.

'Old Heavy Berry'
Female; leaves are large and dark green; abundant, large, red fruit; vigorous.

'Perfection'
Female; dense, spreading form; leaves are flat, oblong, spiny, and medium to dark green; fruit is a lustrous, dark red and ellipsoidal.

'Perfection Xanthocarpa'
Female; dense, spreading form; leaves are flat, oblong, spiny, and medium to dark green; fruit is a lustrous yellow and ellipsoidal.

Ilex opaca,'Satyr Hill'
'Satyr Hill'
Female; dense form; fast growing; leaves are oblong, rounded at the tip, and spiny; fruit is large and slightly globose.

'September Fire'
Female; pyramidal form; can reach a height of 10 feet and a width of 6 feet; leaves are large, oblong, curved, and spiny; fruit is red and globose.

'Valley Evergreen'
Female; pyramidal form; can reach a height of 20 feet and a width of 10 feet; leaves are small, oblong, slightly curved, and spiny; fruit is ellipsoidal and red.

'Vera'
Female; dense, spreading form; leaves are twisted, curled, and dark green; fruit is oblong and orange-red; used as orchard holly; fruit is prominently displayed without being covered by the leaves. Used for wreaths.

'William Hawkins'
An unusual American holly with narrow, strap leaves. A collector's plant.

'Wyetta'
Female; conical to pyramidal form; leaves are a lustrous, dark green; fruit large and showy; vigorous.

'Xanthocarpa'
Female; often used for yellow-fruited forms of I. opaca.

'Yellowberry'
Female; conical form; fruit is a clear-yellow.

Chinese Holly (Ilex cornuta). Chinese holly is native to China, Korea, and Japan and is popular in the United States. It is hardy in Zones 7 to 9. Chinese holly is perfect for the South because it can tolerate drought and heat. It can reach heights of 10 to 25 feet, but Chinese holly is usually used as a shrub. An interesting characteristic of this holly is its ability to produce fruit without pollination sometimes. Male plants are not needed for a good showing of fruit. It is a favorite in landscapes because the foliage is a glossy, dark green color, and the fruit is bright red. Ilex cornuta has a deep root system and is often used in dry, urban sites. There are many cultivars of Chinese holly. Some of them are listed below.

'Anicet Delcambre'
Often sold as 'Needlepoint'; female; leaves are long, narrow, and a glossy, dark green with a single terminal spine; plentiful fruit.

'Berries Jubilee'
Female; reaches heights of 6 to 10 feet; leaves are large; fruit clusters inside the canopy.

'Burfordii'
Female; considered a shrub at a height of 10 feet and a tree at heights of 20 to 25 feet; leaves are a glossy, dark green with a single terminal spine; fruit is abundant and can occur without pollination.

'Carissa'
Reaches heights of 3 to 4 feet; leaves are slightly rounded with a single, terminal spine; they are evergreen with a leathery-plastic appearance; rim of the leaf is transparent.

Ilex cornuta, Dazzler
'Dazzler'
Female; reaches heights above 10 feet; leaves contain five spines; most fruitful of the Chinese hollies.

'Delcon'
Female; fast growing; can reach a height of 10 feet; leaves are long, thin, and twisted with a terminal spine.

'Dwarf Burford'
Also called 'Burfordii Nana'; female; reaches heights of 5 to 6 feet (occasionally to 8 feet); leaves are single-spined; fruit is dark red.

' Fineline'
Similar to 'Burfordii'; columnar form; leaves contain a distinctive, translucent edge that is very attractive; reaches heights of 15 to 20 feet and a width of 8 feet.

'O. Spring'
Leaves are varigated, cream colored; thrives in partial shade.

Ilex cornuta, 'Rotunda'
'Rotunda'
Dense, mounded form; reaches heights of 3 to 4 feet (up to 5 feet in some cases) with widths of 6 to 8 feet; forms an impenetrable hedge; very popular in the South.

Ilex cornuta, 'Willowleaf'
'Willowleaf'
Female; reaches heights of 15 feet; leaves are long and thin; fruit is blood-red.

Japanese Holly (Ilex crenata). Japanese holly is native to east Asia. It is the backbone of the Mid-Atlantic nursery trade and an important broad-leafed evergreen in the southern nursery trade. Often mistaken for boxwood, its leaves are small, glossy, and evergreen. The female Japanese holly produces inconspicuous, black or sometimes white fruit. Japanese holly is easy to propagate and transplants readily. It is hardy in Zone 7. This holly can grow in shade and prefers loose, moist, well-drained, slightly acid soil. It will not tolerate the same hot, dry sites as Chinese holly. Japanese holly is good for landscapes or hedges. It is easily sheared or selectively pruned. There is an abundance of cultivars of Japanese holly. Several of them are listed below.

'Allen Seay'
Formerly 'Nigra'; male; leaves are a glossy, dark green and maintain their color during the winter.

'Angelica'
Hardy holly with low, spreading form; leaves are long and thin.

'Beehive'
Male; dense, mounded form; greater width than height; very hardy; glossy, dark green leaves.

'Bennettii'
Semi-upright form; leaves are dark green.

Ilex crenata, 'Cherokee'
'Cherokee'
Male; upright form; leaves are very small.

'Compacta'
Male; reaches a height of 6 feet; leaves are a glossy, dark green; little pruning is required.

Ilex crenata, Convexa
'Convexa'
Female; very hardy Zone 6; can reach a height of 9 feet and a width of 24 feet; pruning necessary to maintain hedge; leaves are small; abundant black fruit.

'Delaware Diamond'
Fomerly 'Elfin'; renamed 'Delaware Diamond' because I. opaca 'Elfin' already exists; male; dwarf, mounded form; leaves are tiny and oblong.

'Dwarf Pagoda'
Female; grows approximately 2 to 4 inches per year; tiny leaves and irregular branches give the appearance of heavy foliage; rock garden favorite.

'Elfin'
See 'Delaware Diamond.'

'Fastigiata'
Female; narrow form; leaves are thick, slightly convex, and dark green; excellent accent plant.

Ilex crenata, 'Glory'
'Glory'
Male; dense, round form; fast growing; hardy in Zone 6 (possibly Zone 5); small, thick leaves are a lustrous green.

'Golden Gem'
Female; low, spreading form; leaves are golden; color is best if holly is in full sun.

'Green Cushion'
Male; dense, spreading form; very hardy; leaves are small and dark green.

'Green Dragon'
Male; tiny leaves and irregular branches give the appearance of heavy foliage; similar to 'Dwarf Pagoda.'

'Green Island'
Loose, open shrub; reaches a height of 5 feet and a width of 10 feet; leaves are a glossy, medium green.

Ilex crenata, 'Green Lustre'
'Green Lustre'
Female; loose, open shrub; reaches a height of 5 feet and a width of 10 feet; leaves are a lustrous, dark green.

'Helleri'
Dwarf holly; female; dense, mounded form; leaves are not as glossy as many Japanese hollies.

Ilex crenata, 'Hetzi'
'Hetzi'
Female; larger form of 'Convexa'; leaves are larger, convex, and a glossy, dark green; fruit is large, black, and plentiful.

'Highlight'
Male; reaches a height of 13 feet; leaves are a glossy, dark green; propagation is more difficult than with other cultivars.

Ilex crenata, 'Highlander'
'Highlander'
Female; tall, pyramidal form; reaches heights of over 6 feet.

'Hoogendorn'
Dense, low form; leaves are a bright green.

'Howard'
Male; reaches a height of 6 feet; spreading form; leaves are oblong and convex.

'Hunt Selection'
Fast growing, oblong leaves are dark green; stems are a light, yellow-green.

'Ivory Tower'
Female; spreading form; fruit is ivory.

'Jersey Pinnacle'
Male; dense, upright form; leaves are a lustrous, dark green.

'Major'
Male; leaves are flat and dark green; similar to 'Rotundifolia.'

'Mariesii'
Leaves are small and round.

'Maxwell'
Male; vigorous; leaves are a light olive green and slightly convex.

'Microphylla'
Shrub or small tree; leaves are the smallest in this species.

Ilex crenata, 'Midas Touch'
'Midas Touch'
Male; leaves are variegated with yellow and green.

'Miss Muffet'
Female; dwarf, dense, mounded form; leaves are small, flat and oblong.

'Mr. C'
Male; dense, spreading form; leaves are dark green.

'Nakada'
Male; vigorous; leaves are small and round.

'Nigra'
See 'Allen Seay.'

'Noble Upright'
Male; pyramidal form; very hardy (Zone 6).

'Northern Beauty'
Male; compact form; leaves are a glossy, dark green; similar to 'Hetzi.'

'Piccolo'
Female; miniature, compact, round form; grows 1 inch per year; leaves are extremely small.

'Pincushion'
Small, dense, rounded form; leaves are small.

'Pyramid'
Female; dense, pyramidal form; very hardy; leaves are a lustrous green; fruit is glossy.

'Recurvifolia'
Male; spreading form; leaves are long, flat, and light green.

Ilex crenata, 'Repardens'
'Repandens'
Male; dense, spreading form; reaches heights of 2 to 3 feet and widths of 4 to 6 feet; leaves are thin, glossy, and dark green.

'Schwoebel's Compacta'
Female; hardy (Zone 6); vigorous; spreading form; leaves are small, slightly convex, and light green.

'Sentinel'
Tall, male; leaves are lustrous and convex; very cold hardy.

'Snowflake'
Female; upright form; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are oblong, concave, and variegated with ivory.

'Steeds'
Male; pyramidal form; leaves are a glossy, dark green.

'Tiny'
Female; leaves are large, convex, and a lustrous, dark green.

'William Jackson'
Male; spreading form; reaches heights of 2 to 3 feet and widths of 4 to 6 feet; leaves are thin and a glossy, dark green; similar to 'Repandens.'

'Willow Leaf'
Male; leaves are oblong and light green.

'Watanabeana'
Female; free growing; fruit is yellow.

English Holly (Ilex aquifolium). English holly is native to England, France, Germany, southern Europe, northern Africa, and Asia. It was introduced to Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia in 1869 as a landscape tree. It adapted well there and flourished. Unfortunately, holly is rarely used in landscapes in the Pacific Northwest today. It grows too large, and the spiny leaves are not pleasant to contact or to clean up under a tree. Eventually, the use of English holly spread to the East. Unfortunately, English hollies have not adapted well to Deep South heat. Although weekly watering during the summer helps, they are not recommended for Alabama. Attempts are being made to graft some selected cultivars onto southern, heat-tolerant species rootstock. English hollies usually reach heights of 30 to 50 feet, but some have been found reaching 80 feet in height. Leaves of the English holly are glossy and dark green or variegated. They can be covered with spines, even on the surface of the leaf, or they can be spineless. The fruit forms in clusters, and the color ranges from yellow to red. English holly is a favorite for landscaping and for being sold as Christmas greens. There are many cultivars of English holly. Some of them are listed below.

Ilex aquifolium, 'Angustifolia'
'Angustifolia'
Both male and female forms; very slow-growing, narrow, columnar form; leaves are flat, narrow, spiny, and a lustrous, dark green; fruit is red.

'Apricot Glow'
Female; pyramidal form; can reach a height of 12 feet and a width of 5 feet; leaves are oblong and spiny; fruit is apricot-orange-red.

Ilex aquifolium, 'Argentea-marginata'
'Argentea-marginata'
Female; leaves are dark green with whitish margins.

'Aureo-marginata'
Leaves are spiny and dark green with a bright yellow border.

'Balkans'
Female; hardiest English holly; leaves are a lustrous, dark green.

'Ciliata Major'
Fast-growing holly; leaves are flat, oblong, and spiny.

'Deletta'
Female; dense, pyramidal form; very hardy; leaves are oblong, curved, spiny, and a lustrous, dark green; fruit is ellipsoidal and abundant.

'Doug Barbour'
Male; dense, pyramidal form; hardy in Zone 5; leaves are ellipsoidal, flat, spiny, and a dull green.

Ilex aquifolium, 'Ferox'
'Ferox'
Also called "Hedgehog holly"; male; leaves are small with marginal and surface spines.

'Ferox Argentea'
Male; small, green leaves have white borders; they also display marginal and surface spines.

'Ferox Aurea'
Male; small leaves, edged in green, contain yellow blotch in center; they also display marginal and surface spines.

'George Daniel'
Male; pyramidal form; hardy in Zone 6; leaves are oblong and spiny.

'Ingramii'
Male; bark is purple; leaves are small, oblong, spiny, and a dark olive green.

'Larry Peters'
Male; dwarf, pyramidal form; leaves are long, narrow, lustrous, and spiny.

'Lily Gold'
Leaves are variegated with gold.

'Lorne Peters'
Male; compact, pyramidal form; hardy in Zone 5; leaves are oblong, flat, spiny, and lustrous.

'Mary Peters'
Female; columnar form; hardy in Zone 5; leaves are oblong, thick, flat, and very spiny; fruit is slightly ellipsoidal.

'Moonlight'
Leaves are yellow and turn to green when new growth occurs or when holly is left in the shade.

'Pinto'
Female; leaves are a lustrous green variegated in the center with gold; fruit is red.

'Silver Queen'
Pyramidal form; leaves are marginally variegated with silver.

'Silvery'
Leaves are marginally variegated with silver.

'Sparkler'
Female; vigorous; abundant fruit sets earlier than most cultivars.

'Teufels Zero'
Female with weeping branches; hardy in Zones 6 to 9.

'Winter Green'
Female; pyramidal form; can reach a height of 8 feet and a width of 4 feet; leaves are oblong, curved, spiny, and a lustrous, dark green; fruit is globose and red.

MORE EXAMPLES OF ILEX AQUIFOLIUM:

Ilex a. Crispa Aurea-PictaBB86
Little BullLaurifolia
MalmborgMonstrosa
Ilex a. CrassifoliaHarlequin
TremoughGolden Milkboy
Winter QueenDude

Yaupon Holly (Ilex vomitoria). Yaupon holly is native to the United States. It is a caffeine holly. The American Indians made a tea from the leaves to use as an internal purifying medicine. Later, when the plant was introduced to England, it was appropriately named Ilex vomitoria. It is hardy in Zones 7 to 10 and is distributed from Virginia south to Florida and west to Texas. Yaupon holly can grow in sandy soil, swamps, and coastal areas. It is often seen growing in the wetlands of south Alabama. It is also very drought resistant. Yaupon holly resembles Japanese holly but is adapted to the Southeast. It is not as susceptible to pests such as mites, nematodes, and phytophthora as Japanese holly. Gray stems and twigs are characteristics of this species. Versatility is another characteristic of the yaupon holly. The different sizes and shapes allow for formal or informal landscaping. This holly can be 3 to 5 feet or can reach heights of 20 to 25 feet, depending on the cultivar. Some say yaupon holly produces the most fruit of all holly species. Yaupon hollies are marginally hardy and would have limited use in north Alabama or Georgia. Some of the cultivars of yaupon holly are listed below.

'Nana'
Popular dwarf holly, reaches heights of 3 to 5 feet; dense form; leaves are small; branches are susceptible to breakage.

'Pendula'
Weeping holly; can reach heights of 20 to 25 feet; easily transplanted.

'Pride of Houston'
Shrub of medium size; fruit is abundant.

'Shadow's Female'
Large shrub or small tree; leaves are large, rounded, and dark green; fruit is bright red.

'Stokes Dwarf'
Very similar to 'Nana'; more dense with smaller leaves.

'Straughn's'
Thought to be a good substitute for boxwood; less susceptible to breakage than 'Nana' but often splits down the center as if pulled apart.

'Straughn's Dwarf'
Male; reaches heights of 5 to 6 feet; leaves are a lustrous, dark green.

"Will Fleming'
Very narrow, upright habit.

'Yellow Berry'
Fruit is a consistent yellow.

Ilex vomitoria, 'Dade County'

Inkberry Holly (Ilex glabra). Inkberry holly is native to the United States and is the only holly that spreads by underground runners. It is a tall, multi-branched, evergreen shrub. This holly can reach heights of 6 to 12 feet and widths of 8 to 10 feet. Inkberry holly is very adaptable to poor soils and is tolerant of extreme temperatures. It can often be found growing wild in the wetland areas of south Alabama. Inkberry holly is very pest resistant. It is hardy in Zones 4 to 9. The leaves are a lustrous, dark green, and the fruit is typically black. This holly has many desirable features and merits greater use. A number of sizes and shapes of this holly are now available in the nursery trade. Some of the cultivars are listed below.

'Compacta'
Dwarf, female; reaches heights of 4 to 6 feet; dense branching and leaves.

Ilex glabra, 'Ivory Queen'
'Ivory Queen'
Reaches heights of 6 to 8 feet; leaves are glossy and green; fruit is off-white; easily propagated by cuttings.

'Chamzin Nordic'
Dense form; reaches heights of 3 to 4 feet and widths of 3 to 4 feet; leaves are a glossy, deep green.

'Shamrock'
Dense form; leaves are small, flat, and a glossy, dark green; slow growing.

Dahoon Holly (Ilex cassine). Dahoon holly is native to the United States, and it thrives in the South. This is another holly that is often found growing in the wetland areas of south Alabama. This holly is a small, evergreen tree. It reaches heights of 20 to 30 feet. The fruit of the Dahoon holly is usually red, but the color can range from red to yellow. Dahoon holly is hardy in Zones 7 to 9 and can grow in sun or shade and does well in wet, swampy sites. This holly is marginally hardy and should not be used north of Mobile unless placed in a protected area. Some of the cultivars of Dahoon holly are listed below.

Ilex cassine, 'Angustifolia'
'Linnaeus'
Female; native to swampy, coastal areas from Virginia to Florida; can reach a height of 39 feet; leaves are oblong and dark green; fruit is usually red but sometimes yellow.

'Lowei'
Leaves are dark green; fruit is small but abundant and yellow.

This holly was crossed with our native American holly to give many commercial nursery and landscape cultivars including: 'Foster's holly,' 'East Palatka,' 'Hume,' 'Blazer,' and others.

Large Leaf or Lusterleaf Holly (Ilex latifolia). Large leaf holly is native to China and Japan. The large leaves are dark green and very glossy. They can be finely or coarsely serrated. The fruit of the large leaf holly is red and abundant. Large leaf holly is hardy in Zone 7. This holly is not hardy north of Birmingham. It requires protection during extremely cold weather in that area. Many crosses have been made with this holly to yield some notable cultivars including 'Emily Bruner,' 'Ginny Bruner,' 'Martha Berry,' and the I. koehneana hybrids.

Long Stalk Holly (Ilex pedunculosa). Long stalk holly is native to east Asia. It is a broad-leaf evergreen that reaches a height of 25 to 30 feet. The fruit of the Long stalk holly is cherry-like in appearance and swings on long stalks, hence the name. This holly is hardy in Zone 5. Long stalk holly prefers full sun but can grow in shade. It also tolerates a wide variety of soils. Better adapted to middle and north Alabama, this holly merits greater use. It is a treasure waiting to be discovered. Long stalk holly requires a male I. pedunculosa for pollination.

Ilex pedunculosa

Kurogane Holly (Ilex rotunda). A Zone 9 holly, Kurogane holly is marginal in Zone 8. Leaves are spineless, dark green, eliptical or rounded. A small tree with attractive red fruit borne in umbels or hanging on rays of pedicels. Attractive plant but difficult to find.

Ilex rotunda

Nepal Holly (Ilex integra). Nepal holly is native to Korea, China, and Japan. The leaves are spineless and form a dense crown for large or small trees. The fruit is a bright, dark red. This holly is hardy in Zone 7. Nepal holly is rare in cultivation but is a possible replacement for Chinese holly. It is highly variable from seed. Selections are being made and tested at the University of Tennessee and North Carolina State University.

Myrtle Leaf Holly (Ilex myrtifolia). Myrtle Leaf holly is native to the southeastern United States. It thrives in swampy sites. Myrtle leaf holly is a small tree or shrub that can reach heights of 10 to 15 feet. The leaves are narrow, glossy, and evergreen. The large fruit of this holly is usually red but sometimes yellow. It is not commercially available.

Ilex myrtifolia'Steed's Male'

Perny Holly (Ilex pernyi). Perny holly is native to China. It can reach heights of 12 to 15 feet. The leaves are dark green, squarish, and spiny, while the fruit is bright red. Perny holly will grow in full sun or shade but prefers an acid, well-drained soil. One of the cultivars is listed below.

'Veitchii'
Female; leaves are larger than average for Perny holly.

Ciliospinosa Holly (Ilex ciliospinosa). Ciliospinosa holly is native to China. It is a narrow, columnar tree that can reach a height of 20 feet. The narrow leaves are dark-green, and the fruit is bright red.

Deciduous Hollies

Deciduous hollies are truly treasures waiting to be discovered by the home gardener. Although not exceptional in spring and summer, they are very exciting in the fall and winter. These are plants you purchase for their dazzling display of fruit during the fall and winter.

Ambiguous Winterberry (Ilex ambigua). Ambiguous winterberry holly can be found in the coastal plains from North Carolina south to Florida and west to Texas. This holly is hardy in Zone 7. It can reach a height of 20 feet. The leaves of this holly are long and narrow. The fruit is large and a lustrous red and, even though it matures early, it will not hold long. This holly is rare in cultivation and is under-utilized .

Swamp Holly (Ilex amelanchier). A difficult to find deciduous native shrub in the Southeast. Swamp holly grows 6 to 8 feet tall in wetland areas. It has an unusual red velvet fruit. This plant has potential for ornamental use in the landscape.

Winterberry Holly (Ilex verticillata). Winterberry holly can be found from Nova Scotia south to Florida and west to Texas. This holly is hardy in Zone 5. It can reach heights of 6 to 10 feet. Winterberry holly prefers wet, swampy areas but can adapt to drier land. The leaves are dark green and turn to a purplish, bronze color in the fall. The fruit, which is usually red but sometimes yellow or orange, is highlighted after the leaves drop. Many cultivars exist for Winterberry holly. Some of them are listed below.

'Afterglow'
Dense form; reaches a height of 10 feet and a width of 10 feet; leaves are small, lustrous, and green; fruit is globose and the color ranges from orange to orange-red.

'Aurantiaca'
Flowers early; fruit begins orange-red and fades to orange-yellow.

'Cacapon'
Dense holly; reaches heights of 6 to 8 feet; leaves are glossy, crinkled, and dark green; fruit is red and plentiful; similar to 'Afterglow.'

'Earlibright'
Fruit is orange-red.

'Nana'
See 'Red Sprite.'

'Red Sprite'
Sometimes called 'Nana'; reaches heights of 3 to 5 feet; leaves are a glossy, dark green; fruit is bright red and largest of the various cultivars.

'Stop Light'
Leaves are dark green; fruit is a brilliant, deep red, and large.

'Sunset'
Reaches heights of 8 to 9 feet; fruit is large, abundant, and red.

'Winter Red'
Reaches a height of 9 feet and a width of 8 feet; leaves are glossy and dark green; fruit is bright red.

'Winter Gold'
Sport of 'Winter Red'; reaches a height of 9 feet and a width of 8 feet; leaves are glossy and dark green; fruit is bright, golden orange.

Ilex verticillata

Possumhaw Holly (Ilex decidua). Possumhaw holly is found from Virginia south to Florida and west to Texas. It can reach heights of 20 to 30 feet. The leaves are a lustrous, dark green turning to yellow in the fall. The color of the fruit ranges from yellow to orange to scarlet and is beautifully displayed and contrasted against the gray bark. Possumhaw holly is hardy in Zones 5 to 9. Some cultivars are listed below.

'Byers Golden'
Yellow-berried selection from north Alabama. Difficult to propagate and difficult to find.

'Council Fire'
Dense, oval form; can reach a height of 6 feet and a width of 5 feet; fruit forms in clusters along the stem and is orange.

'Finch's Golden'
Yellow-berried selection from south Alabama.

'Pocahontas'
Larger than 'Council Fire'; fruit is red.

'Red Cascade'
Weeping form; can reach a height and width of 20 feet; leaves are a lustrous dark green; fruit forms singly.

'Sentry'
Columnar form; can reach a height of 20 feet; leaves are not as lustrous green as others and fall early; fruit is subglobose and very firm.

'Warren Red'
Columnar form; can reach a height of 25 feet; leaves are a lustrous dark green; fruit is bright red, globose, and abundant.

Finetooth Holly (Ilex serrata). Finetooth holly, also called Japanese winterberry, is similar to winterberry holly. The only exceptions are its smaller, darker fruit and its finetoothed leaves. This holly is native to Japan and China and is hardy in Zones 5 to 7. Finetooth holly can reach heights of 12 to 15 feet. The dull, green leaves are simple, elliptical, and alternate. The fruit is small but plentiful, ripens in late summer, and persists for a long time. Some cultivars are listed below.

'Koshobai'
Dwarf holly from Japan; good bonsai plant; branches are twisted and new growth is purple; fruit is red and very small.

'Leucocarpa'
White-fruited holly.

'Xanthocarpa'
Yellow-fruited holly.

Ilex serrata, 'Sundrops'
Interspecific Hybrids

Some of the prettiest hollies are hybrids. A hybrid is the result of crossing two separate plant species within a given genus. These hybrids should have only the positive traits of both parents. Numerous hybrids exist and are popular in landscapes. Some hybrids and cultivars are listed below.

Ilex x altaclarensis = (I. aquifolium x I. perado)
'Camelliifolia'
Female; hardy in Zone 7; large leaves are a glossy, dark green and spiny; fruit is large and dark red.

Ilex x aquipernyi = (I. aquifolium x I. pernyi)
'Aquipern'
Large shrub; can reach a height of 25 feet; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are larger and longer than I. pernyi; more vigorous and hardy than I. pernyi.

Ilex x aquipernyi 'Dragon Lady'
'Dragon Lady'
Pyramidal form; reaches heights of 15 to 20 feet; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are a glossy, dark green and are spiny; fruit is large and red.

'Gable'
Male and female forms exist; can reach a height of 20 feet; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are curved, spiny, leathery, and a lustrous green; fruit is red and forms in clusters.

'San Jose'
Female; pyramidal form; reaches heights of 20 to 30 feet; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are a glossy, dark green; fruit is bright red; easily propagated by cuttings.

'Wieman's Pacific Queen'
Female; dense, pyramidal form; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are curved, stiff, spiny, and a lustrous, dark green; fruit is globose and red.

Ilex x attenuata = (I. cassine x I. opaca)
'Alagold'
Seedling of 'Foster #2'; hardy in Zone 7; fruit is yellow .

'Blazer'
More compact and slower growing than Foster holly with more bright red fruit, and a better selection for corner planting than 'Foster #2.'

'Eagleson'
Fast growing; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are medium to dark green; some are spiny; fruit is red.

'East Palatka'
Hardy in Zone 7; leaves are dark green and may be spiny; fruit is bright red and abundant.

'Greenleaf'
Pyramidal form; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are a lustrous, medium green, and spiny; fruit is bright red.

'Foster #2'
Dense, pyramidal form; reaches heights of 20 to 30 feet; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are small, glossy, green, and spiny; fruit is red and plentiful.

'Foster #4'
Male; dense, pyramidal form; reaches heights of 20 to 30 feet; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are small, glossy, green, and spiny.

I. (aquifolium x ciliospinosa) 'Brilliant'
I. (aquifolium x ciliospinosa)

'Brilliant'
Conical form; reaches heights of 10 to 20 feet; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are large; fruit is red, abundant, and sets without pollination.

Ilex (aquifolium x cornuta) 'Edward J. Stevens'
I. (cornuta x aquifolium)

'Edward J. Stevens'
Male; pyramidal form; reaches heights of 15 to 25 feet; hardy in Zones 7 to 9; leaves are a glossy, dark green with 2 to 3 spines on each side; vigorous.>

Ilex (aquifolium x cornuta) 'Nellie R. Stevens.'
'Nellie R. Stevens'
Female; pyramidal form; reaches heights of 15 to 25 feet; hardy in Zones 7 to 9; leaves are a glossy, dark green with 2 to 3 spines on each side; abundant red fruit; vigorous.

I. (cornuta 'Burfordii' x latifolia) 'Emily Bruner'
I. (cornuta 'Burfordii'x latifolia)

'Emily Bruner'
Female; compact, pyramidal form; can reach a height of 20 feet; hardy in Zones 7 to 9; leaves are dark green; fruit is large, red, and covers the entire stem.

Ilex (cornuta x latifolia) 'Ginny Bruner'
'Ginny Bruner'
Leaves smaller than 'Emily Bruner'; hardy in Zone 7; fruit forms earlier--even while the cultivar is in the nursery.

Ilex (cornuta x latifolia) 'James Swan'
'James Swan'
Male pollinator for 'Emily Bruner' and 'Ginny Bruner'; hardy in Zone 7.

Ilex x 'Doctor Kassab'
I. (cornuta x pernyi)
'Doctor Kassab'
Female; compact, pyramidal form; reaches heights of 15 to 20 feet; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are dark green; fruit is red.

Ilex x 'Professor Joe'
'Professor Joe'
Male; pollinator for 'Doctor Kassab.'

I. (cornuta 'Burfordii' x pernyi) 'Lydia Morris'
I. (cornuta 'Burfordii' x pernyi)
'Lydia Morris'
Female; compact, pyramidal shrub; can reach a height of 12 feet; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are a glossy, black-green and spiny; fruit is bright red.

I. (cornuta 'Burfordii' x pernyi) 'John T. Morris
'John T. Morris'
Male; compact, pyramidal shrub; can reach a height of 12 feet; hardy in Zone 6; leaves are a glossy, black-green, and spiny.

I. (cornuta x pernyi) x (aquifolium x rugosa) 'Doctor Bissonnette'
I. (cornuta x pernyi) x (aquifolium x rugosa)
'Doctor Bissonnette'
Similar to 'Doctor Kassab' but not as columnar in shape and possibly more hardy. This is currently undergoing testing.
I. (cornuta x rugosa) 'China Boy'
I. (cornuta x rugosa)
'China Boy'
Male; dense, mounded form; can reach a height of 10 feet and a width of 8 feet; very cold hardy; good heat tolerance; hardy in Zones 4 to 9; leaves are a lustrous green.

I. (cornuta x rugosa) 'China Girl'
'China Girl'

Female; round form; can reach a height and width of 10 feet; very cold hardy; good heat tolerance; hardy in Zones 4 to 9; leaves are a glossy green and tend to cup; fruit is red, 1/3 inch in diameter, and plentiful.

Ilex x koehneana 'Wirt L. Winn'
I. x koehneana = I. (aquifolium x latifolia)

'Wirt L. Winn'
Female; pyramidal form; reaches heights of 35 to 50 feet; leaves are a lustrous, dark green and are spiny; fruit is large, red, and plentiful.

'Martha Berry'
Female; pyramidal form; reaches heights of 30 feet; glossy, green leaves with twist; abundant, red fruit.

I. x meserveae = I. (rugosa x aquifolium)
These crosses were developed as hardy hollies for Zone 6. They are more susceptible to root rot in Zone 7 south. Current research is trying to graft these plants on to root stock that is not susceptible to the disease.

'Blue Angel'
Female; slow-growing, compact form; can reach a height and width of 8 feet; hardy in Zones 6 to 9; not very cold hardy; crinkled leaves are a lustrous, dark green; fruit is a glossy, dark red.

'Blue Boy'
Male; reaches heights of 10 to 15 feet; hardy in Zone 5; leaves are a glossy, dark green.

Ilex x meserveae 'Blue Girl'
'Blue Girl'

Female; pyramidal form; reaches heights of 8 to 10 feet; hardy in Zone 5; leaves are a lustrous, dark green; fruit is a bright red.

'Blue Maid'
Female; pyramidal form; very hardy and fast-growing; can reach a height of 15 feet; hardy in Zones 4 to 9; fruit is red and plentiful.

'Blue Prince'
Male; compact, pyramidal form; very hardy; reaches heights of 8 to 12 feet; hardy in Zones 5 to 9; leaves are a glossy, leathery, dark green.

Ilex x meserveae 'Blue Princess'
'Blue Princess'
Female; can reach a height of 15 feet and a width of 10 feet; hardy in Zones 5 to 9; leaves are a glossy, dark bluish-green; fruit is dark red and plentiful.

'Blue Stallion'
Male; fast-growing; hardy in Zones 5 to 9; leaves are a glossy, dark green and are spineless.

'Golden Girl'
Female; dense, pyramidal form; hardy in Zones 5 to 9; leaves are lustrous; fruit is a bright yellow.

I. (serrata x verticillata)
These are the only interspecific hybrids among the deciduous holly group to date. These are thought to be an improvement over the parent species.

'Bonfire'
Reaches heights of 8 to 10 feet; hardy in Zone 5; fruit is small, red, and ripens in early fall; the abundant fruit causes the branches to weep.

'Harvest Red'
Can reach a height of 9 feet and a width of 16 feet; hardy in Zone 5; leaves are a glossy, dark green in the summer and turn to a deep red-purple in the fall.

'Sparkleberry'
Can reach a height of 12 feet; hardy in Zone 5; lustrous, red fruit is 3/8 inch in diameter and will persist throughout the winter.

I. (serrata x verticillata) 'Sundrops'
I. [(cornuta x pernyi) x latifolia]
'Mary Nell'
Female; pyramidal form; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are a glossy, dark green and are spiny; fruit is brilliant red and abundant. This is a popular new screen plant for the Southeast.

I. (integra x pernyi) 'Accent'
I. (integra x pernyi)

'Accent'
Male; compact, conical, upright holly and pollination for 'Elegance.'

I. (integra x pernyi) 'Elegance'
'Elegance'

Female; compact, conical holly with small, glossy leaves. Berries are shaped like hearts. Sometimes called valentine holly.

I. [( aquifoliam x integra) x pernyi)]
'Rock Garden'
Compact, spreading form; hardy in Zone 7; leaves are green, oblong, and spiny; abundant flowers.

Uses In The Landscape

Hollies are a favorite in the landscape. They can be evergreen or deciduous; small shrubs or tall trees; and may be rounded, globose, pyramidal, or columnar in form. These characteristics make them ideal for various landscape uses including:

* Hedges and borders.
TEST * Ground covers.
* Screening.
* Foundation plantings.
* Accent plants.
* Specimen trees.

Consider the landscape site and function before you select a holly. The plant should fit the design of the landscape and the site. There is enough diversity to make it unnecessary to force a holly into a poor site.

Establishment And Culture

Planting

Hollies prefer soil that is slightly acid. Many can withstand shade, drought, and salt. The location should provide some shelter from the wind.

Evergreen hollies should be planted in early spring. Autumn planting is also acceptable. Field-harvested deciduous hollies should be planted in early spring and autumn when the plant is dormant. If planted from containers, they can be planted any time of the year as long as proper care is taken. Some container plants are lost because the root ball is not loosened.

Dig a hole three to five times the width of the root ball and add organic matter to the entire planting area. Dig the hole wide, not deep. Plant the holly so the top of the root ball is even with or slightly above the surrounding ground. Replace loose soil around the root ball and firm it but not too tight. Heavy packing will smash the root ball and compact the soil. Add a 3-inch layer of mulch. This will help keep the soil moist and prevent weeds.

Water is essential for newly planted hollies. Thoroughly water the plant and surrounding soil. This will help settle the soil around the root ball. It is best to water every other day for the first week or two. Then reduce watering to 2 days a week for the first growing season. After that, keep them moist but avoid over-watering.

Fertilization

Care should be taken when using fertilizer on newly planted hollies; they are easily burned. Use only half the recommended amount the first year. Fertilizer should be applied in early February and mid-June. It should be sprinkled evenly under the foliage mass and within the root zone and then thoroughly soaked with water. The amount of fertilizer to add depends on how much of which elements are already available in the soil. Take a soil sample to your county Extension office. Phosphorus and lime are best worked into the soil prior to planting since these elements do not move easily down into the root zone. In the absence of soil test recommendations, use a complete fertilizer with a 4:1:2 or 3:1:2 ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Add 2 to 3 ounces of total nitrogen per 100 square feet. Example: If the fertilizer analysis is 18-6-12 (N-P-K), apply 11 to 17 ounces per 100 square feet of root zone area:

[ounces of total N recommended (2 oz.) / %N(18)] * 100 = 11 ounces of 18-6-12 fertilizer

Hardiness

Hardiness refers to the temperature extremes in which a plant will survive. Plants are classified by zones of low temperature tolerances to help you determine if a plant will withstand the average minimum temperatures in your area. Alabama ranges from Zone 7 in north Alabama to Zone 8 in south Alabama. Higher elevations in North Alabama can have low temperatures more typical of Zone 6, and areas of coastal Alabama can be classified as Zone 9. A plant designated as a Zone 8 plant would not tolerate some winters in a Zone 7 area. The hardiness of hollies varies among the species. They range from Zone 3 to Zone 9, but many are not hardy north of Zone 7. It is important to know the hardiness zone in your area to be sure that the holly you select is suitable.

Pruning

Small pruning cuts can be made any time of the year. Most pruning is best done when the holly is dormant. Pruning done in early autumn can prevent dormancy, and tender new growth--or the entire plant--can be killed during early freezes. Christmas is an excellent time to prune holly for decoration, and the plant can be shaped at the same time. Hollies can be sheared for hedges, but little pruning is required. Pruning should be used to train a leader or to remove dead wood. When shaping a holly, prune to a bud or lower branch. New growth might not appear if the entire branch is removed. Pruning is a matter of taste. Severe pruning (many hollies can be cut to within 6 inches of the ground and recover) is best done in late winter, prior to bud-break. This allows for limited time before regrowth and a shorter period of an unsightly pruned plant.

Insects And Pests

Holly is a plant that has developed many defenses against damaging pests. But, some insects have overcome these defenses.

Leafminers. Leafminers are black flies usually about 1/8 inch long. Each species of holly has a different species of leafminer. During the spring, leafminers emerge and attack the soft, new leaves of the holly. The female has an ovipositor at the tip of her abdomen. She uses it to puncture the leaves of the holly and lay eggs. Sap flows from the wound. The newly hatched larva then feed on the sap and tunnel into the leaves. Too many wounds cause improper development of the leaves.

Leaf feeders. Leaf feeders include caterpillars and weevils. Various types of caterpillars can be found on hollies. The oblique-banded leafroller can be a pest to American holly. These caterpillars roll up the leaves and live there. The saddleback caterpillar and the puss caterpillar will sting if they come in contact with human skin. Weevils can also be a problem. The black vine weevil, rough strawberry root weevil, two-banded Japanese weevil, and Fuller rose beetle feed on the leaves of holly.

Mites and scales. The southern red mite, the tenuipalpid mite, and the eriophyid mite are commonly found on holly, especially Japanese holly. These insects are small and difficult to see. Off-color, yellow foliage are often symptoms of these pests. Scale insects are another pest of holly. These insects attach themselves to the plant and pierce the leaves and twigs with their mouths in search of sap. The extra sap is excreted as honeydew and causes sooty mold. The black, sooty mold can be rubbed off with your finger. There are two types of scale insects: armored and soft scaled. Armored scales are protected by a hard, waxy secretion. These scales are the largest scale insects on holly. They are covered with a white, soft, gummy wax. The females die when they lay their eggs, and their bodies harden to give a protective covering to the eggs. Scales are difficult to control, and they are hard to detect because they feed on the underside of leaves.

Spittlebugs. The two-lined spittlebug can be a pest to holly, especially American Holly. They are less than 1/2 inch long, and their color ranges from tan to dark, reddish brown. Spittlebugs can be found in the eastern United States. They lay eggs in dying branches during the summer. The following spring, these eggs will hatch. The nymphs feed at the base of the holly. As they feed, a white, frothy spittle mass covers them. Eventually, they leave the spittle mass, molt, and become adults with wings. Then, they begin feeding on the sap from branches of the holly. This results in dead terminal growth and distortion of the stems and branches. To control the spittlebug, dead and dying branches should be pruned out to prevent eggs from being deposited on the holly.

Spraying without knowing the cause of the damage can often cause more harm than good. Beneficial and competing insects are also destroyed, causing an imbalance and potential buildup of harmful insects. Take insects and damaged leaves to your county Extension office for proper identification and control recommendations.

Diseases

Hollies are less susceptible to pests than most landscape plants and generally require little pesticide application. But, they can be affected by fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and viruses. Luckily, many of the holly diseases are not serious because the pathogens are not aggressive, although, if certain conditions exist, some diseases can occasionally be extremely serious.

There are two classes of disease: abiotic and biotic. Abiotic disease is caused by unfavorable environmental conditions. These diseases are non-pathogenic or non-infectious. Examples include winter injury, flooding, and drought. Biotic disease is caused by living organisms. These diseases are pathogenic or infectious. Examples include:

Fungi

* Root rot pathogens: General decline in plant growth, caused by excess moisture and unfavorable pH levels in the soil.

* Leaf spots: Small, brown spots on leaf; usually marked with dark borders.

Leaf spot on holly

* Blights: Young leaf, fruit, and twig tissue dies; occurs suddenly; spreads quickly.

* Mildews: Organisms growing on the surface of the leaf; serve as host for parasites.

* Sooty molds: Brown or black growth on plant; not serious for holly; detracts from the beauty of the plant.

Viruses

* Yellow leaf spot: Chlorotic spot on leaves; irregular leaf margins; spreads slowly; caused by tobacco ring spot virus.

Bacteria

* Bacterial leaf and twig blight: Found only in Massachusetts in 1957; leaves turn black and eventually fall off; heavily fertilized plants are more susceptible.

Diagnosing a disease is very important in determining the proper control measures to be used. The following steps should be used in diagnosing a disease:

1. Determine the affected parts of the plant.

2. Observe the disease occurrence pattern.

3. Look for susceptibility in other varieties.

4. Examine the trunk for possible damage.

5. Look for fungus signs.

6. Examine the roots.

7. Find out the history of the cultural practices on the affected plants and area maintenance (spraying, fertilizing, construction, wetland conditions, etc.).

Report your observations and take samples to your county Extension office for proper identification and recommendations. Once the cause of the disease has been determined, proper control measures can be taken. Often, problems can be eliminated with a change in cultural practices.

There are two types of disease control: cultural and chemical. Cultural controls involve changing the environment to favor plant growth (water plant more or less, increase soil aeration, etc.). Chemical controls use pesticides to cure the disease. Early treatment is important. Chemical regulations are not included here. Call your county Extension office for latest recommendations. Follow the label directions for application instructions and safety precautions.

Production And Commercial Operations

Commercial production of cut holly for sprays, floral designs, and wreaths began in the Pacific Northwest around 1890. Cuttings from trees and hedges were shipped to California. In 1891, a holly orchard was planted in Puyallup, Washington. It contained 40 trees. In 1898, the first holly was cut for sale. In 1948, Oregon produced approximately 750 acres of cut holly. In 1957, Oregon produced 1,380 acres of holly, while Washington produced 399 acres. In 1970, Oregon produced approximately 1,730 acres of holly. The distribution was 70 percent to New England; 20 percent to the Midwest; 5 percent to the South; and 5 percent to California. Currently, there is little commercial holly orcharding in the eastern United States.

Nursery production for landscape use is very significant in Zones 7 to 9 in the eastern United States. The production of holly for landscape use in the eastern United States rivals that of azaleas in dollar volume and numbers produced.

English and American hollies are the most common species for cutting, although English hollies are not suited for the heat in Alabama. Research is currently in progress to overcome this limitation and evaluate other hollies for orchard production and Christmas tree uses.

Pollination

Most nurseries sell hollies by sex or as named cultivars, and the berrying females are naturally sought after. A good nurseryman will try to guide the customer into the purchase of a male holly, to insure pollination and berry set on the female, if he feels it is necessary. But the term "holly" includes a surprisingly wide assortment of shrub and tree types of many different species and hybrids, both deciduous and evergreen. Thus, a legitimate question frequently arises: Which male hollies will pollinate which female hollies well enough to achieve a good dependable berry display? The following information will attempt to classify as many hollies as possible into cross-pollination groups.

In Alabama, some hollies begin blooming in March or earlier, while others blossom in April, May, and even June. On 'Nellie R. Stevens' and other similar cultivars, some open flowers have been observed between Thanksgiving and Christmas, but their main period of bloom is early spring. The small white (sometimes pink or yellow) flowers of holly may be overlooked by casual observers who may mistakenly insist that their hollies never bloom. Yet, they notice the bees swarming around. Honeybees work blooming hollies extensively for the nectar. The fragrance of holly flowers may be a rather faint to a heavy sweet honey aroma, drawing not only bees but other insects.

Most Old World and Asiatic hollies (English, Chinese, etc.) bloom on year-old wood, while most native hollies, except Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria), bloom on new wood, the first growth flush of the year. Regardless of where the flowers are borne, there are distinct differences between male and female flowers. Most male holly blossoms occur in axillary clusters. Tiny petals unfold to reveal tiny white filaments, each tipped with an anther (pollen sac). When the anther is ripe, it splits open to make the sticky, yellow pollen available to the first insect that comes along. Being male blossoms, the remnant female flower parts in the center never develop fully. They are non-functional, being much reduced in size. Female flowers are never produced as prolifically as the male flowers. Usually, only one or two occur per leaf axil. They open to show a single ovary, which looks like a miniature green "berry" in the center of the flower. There will be a poorly developed set of four stamens surrounding the ovary, but they are non-functional and produce no pollen.

A 10 x magnification hand lens permits a clear view of flower anatomy. The ovary carries a white, brown, or black spot at its summit, which is the stigma. When the stigma is receptive, you may see it glistening with stigmatic fluid. The style is non-existent; there is no long path for the pollen tube here as in lilies and other typical garden flowers.

As insects (primarily honeybees) clamber over the flowers, pollen is rubbed off onto the stigma. Viable pollen grains germinate, and the pollen tube grows down into the ovary where sexual fertilization occurs. This sends a chemical signal to the female blossom which then quickly proceeds to allow its petals and stamens to shrivel and dry. The immature, green fruit, enclosing the developing seed, proceeds to grow to full size during the growing season. When mature, the fruit changes to red, orange, yellow, white, or black, depending on species and cultivar. Unpollinated female flowers fall off the tree, except in those cultivars that are parthenocarpic, like Burford holly. They set fruit without benefit of pollination and can be loaded with berries when there is no male holly around for miles. It is incorrect to call them self-pollinating. Of course, cross-pollination increases berry set on parthenocarpic types, too. Parthenocarpically derived berries generally do not have viable seed.

The best pollinator for any female holly is generally a male of the same species. Some species have sufficiently evolved to erect sterility barriers between themselves and other species. In that case, pollination occurs only within the species. If a female is a hybrid, the male parent or a male sibling should be an effective pollinator. Certain groups of species and hybrids are closely enough related and will pollinate others within the group. This will result in a berry, even in many cases where the seed later aborts because of delayed sterility. Where viable seed is produced, and later germinates, the end result is a plant that is a hybrid between the two parent species or hybrids. This often frustrates taxonomic classification and is partly responsible for the confused or uncertain state of nomenclature in some Ilex taxa.

While holly males can be quite promiscuous, there are some practical limits to which species they can pollinate for a consistent production of a good berry crop. Appendix A, Table A-1, lists several groups of compatible holly species and hybrids that should be able to pollinate each other under garden conditions. Representative cultivars are listed for some of the entries. Rare species not likely to be encountered except by holly specialists are marked by an asterisk. Breeders might be able to get a few berries and seed in controlled crosses between groups. Males and females within a group bloom at the same time or at least overlap in bloom period and are compatible enough to set berries when cross-pollination occurs.

Some hollies have no compatibilities outside of their relative species. They include:

I. glabra (L.) A. Gray, inkberry holly.

I. pedunculosa Miquel, longstalk holly.

I. crenata Thunberg ex. J. A. Murray, Japanese holly.

I. vomitoria Aiton, yaupon holly.

Factors other than pollination can limit berry production. Spring frosts and freezes can injure holly blossoms or newly formed berries, causing them to drop. When mid-summer drought occurs, berries are the first organ on the holly plant to suffer. Thirsty berries develop wrinkles from water loss and soon thereafter may drop from the plant. Plants should be watered at the first sign of this type of stress to ensure a berry display in the autumn.

Biennial (alternate year) bearing may be a problem with certain hollies. A heavy berry crop may deplete the carbohydrate and nitrogen reserves so much that few blossom buds are produced for the next year. Leaves may take on a yellowish cast as reserves are exported to supply a heavy berry crop. During the off year, the plant builds up its reserves, sets a heavy crop of blossom buds, and the alternate cycle continues. Early thinning of the heavy berry crop, or additional fertilization, can help force more uniform annual bearing. Also, the energy drained off for berry production leaves less for the growth of the plant. Therefore, female plants may be smaller than male plants even though both are the same age and grow under the same conditions.

Since the holly bloom period covers several months, some species have completed blooming before others begin. Although rare, there are a few documented cases where certain males and females of the same species were observed to bloom at different times in the same planting. This may occur when northern and southern selections of a species enjoying a wide geographic distribution are brought together. Table A-2 shows how this applies to deciduous hollies at the Simpson Nursery in Indiana. Most of the northern selections of winterberry (Ilex verticillata) are nearly finished blooming before selections and seedlings of the southern types begin. The same blooming sequence in Table A-2, although adjusted for earlier dates, may apply in southern states, but testing is needed.

Blooming dates can only be approximate as there are so many variables from year to year. A few days of weather unfavorable for pollination can extend the blooming period for cultivars in bloom at the time. A few warm, sunny days can result in maximum insect activity and shorten the bloom period for the cultivars then open. Older plants bloom earlier than younger, vigorous plants. Limbs near the ground may bloom early. The start of the blooming period is a question. Is it when the first blossom opens, or when a fair number are open? Technically, the date of the first flower is significant. However, the peak of flowering is more significant to the volume of fruit. Dates listed in Table A-2 signify when enough flowers were open to attract insects.

Holly pollen from a single male flower does not remain available or viable for very long. A male flower often opens in the morning, sheds pollen in mid-day, and sheds its petals by the following morning. The higher the temperature, the shorter the flowering period. Male plants can be spotted by the petals lying on the ground. Female flowers, which have a receptive stigma for only a few days, can stay open for a week if unpollinated. Petals quickly shrivel with pollination. Fortunately, not all flowers on a plant open at exactly the same time. But, there is only a short overlap in bloom period of males and females, and if that period is unfavorable for insect activity, berry set may be quite limited.

Distance between male and female holly plants is a factor. Commercial orchards, which produce cut branches of berried holly for the Christmas trade, set out one male for every fifteen female trees. When the spacing is 25 feet between trees in a square grid pattern, that works out so that every female is no farther than 71 feet from a male. In the landscape, pollination and berry set would usually occur with males and females separated up to 1/8 mile (660 feet), while 1 mile would be problematical, and 3 miles would be very unusual but possible.

It really comes down to how far the bees range in your locality and how actively they are working the flowers. This is a judgment call depending on how far bees fly to work plants of the same kind. For the bee, it involves balancing an energy equation: How much energy has to be expended to gather a nectar source containing x amount of sugar? Energy-rich nectar sources close to the hive are worked first. Cool, cloudy, rainy weather diminishes bee activity and subsequent heaviness of berry set. Heavy rain can also wash pollen away.

In summary, pollination and berry set depends on three things: overlapping time of bloom of males and females, compatibility between species, and favorable weather conditions, assuming bees, primarily honey bees, and other insects will be present in the general locality.

Propagation

Holly can be propagated by seed, cuttings, and grafting. Propagation by cuttings is the most preferred method, since cultivars will not come true from seed.

Seed
The fruit of the holly contains "seeds" or pyrenes that must be removed from the mealy flesh. The seed coat is virtually impermeable, and the embryo is immature. The result is a 2- to 3-year germination period. For the best results, plant the seeds in a flat, moisten them and place them in a plastic bag; leave the flat on a shelf in a room with a temperature ranging from 60° to 80°F, and wait for the seedlings to emerge. Then, remove the plastic and place the seedlings in normal conditions.

Cuttings
Propagation by cuttings is the most popular method. But, all hollies do not root easily. On the other hand, Chinese and Japanese holly root very well. The best time to take cuttings for most evergreen hollies is from August to November. Deciduous soft-wood cuttings should be taken from June to July. Take the cuttings from terminal branches, where the wood is firm. For best results, wound both sides of the stem (only to the cambium layer) and apply rooting hormone. A well-drained medium of peat:perlite or pine bark can be used. A bottom temperature should be maintained between 70° to 75°F. Misting is also recommended. Keeping unheated cold frames at high humidity can produce rooted cuttings of many species. Time for rooting will take longer than more sophisticated systems. Maintaining high humidity is very important during the rooting process. High-humidity rooting chambers can be made by filling a flower pot with a potting medium and covering with a plastic bag supported by a coat hanger. Put in the shade while rooting. If the above steps are followed, roots should appear within 4 to 8 weeks, and the rooted cuttings can be transplanted with success in 8 to 16 weeks.

Grafting
Propagation by grafting is not a common practice, but it has been successful where root rot was a problem. Grafting selected cultivars of American holly onto American holly seedlings was common practice for many years prior to the perfection of cutting techniques. 'Burfordii' has been used as an understock for several hollies, especially English holly. Unfortunately, these grafted hollies can be difficult to transplant. Some of the "blue hollies" are currently being tested on 'Nellie R. Stevens' root stock to help reduce susceptibility to root rot in southern states.

Container Production

Holly has become a major crop for many nurseries and is shipped all over the United States. These nurseries propagate holly from cuttings. Eventually, they are transplanted to larger containers. Container size usually ranges from 1-, 2-, or 3-gallon plants but varies depending on the market. Hollies can now be found in 20- to 200-gallon containers for the "instant landscape" look. Container medium is usually composed of sand:peat:pine bark (1:1:4). Slow-release fertilizers are added to supply nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and the other required major and minor elements. Soluble fertilizer can also be injected into the irrigation system to maintain nutrient balance. Full season slow release fertilizers are now available that include all the nutrients required for a season's growth. For information on how to grow container plants, ask your county Extension office for Circular ANR-690, "Starting A Container Nursery."

Conclusion

As you can see, there are many reasons for the use of holly as a popular shrub and ornamental tree. There are many species of holly, resulting in plants with a variety of shapes and sizes. Hollies are classified as evergreen or deciduous, and their leaves may or may not contain spines. The fruit is found only on the female, and the fruit color ranges from red, orange, or yellow to black or white.

Although hollies can be found worldwide, 98 percent of the cultivated species originated in Europe, China, Japan, or North America. The use of holly for indoor decoration or for landscape purposes is the result of traditions from many cultures spanning many centuries. Today, holly is the backbone of our landscapes in the Southeast.

Sources Used In This Publication

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Bauers, B. M., Sr. 1985. "Ilex aquifolium 'Angustifolia' (Hort)." Holly Society Journal 3 (3, Summer): 29.

Bauers, B. M., Sr. 1986. "Ilex x aquipernyi 'Gable.' " Holly Society Journal 4 (1, Winter): 41.

Bauers, B. M., Sr. 1987. "Ilex cassine 'Linnaeus.' " Holly Society Journal 5 (1, Winter): 41.

Baker, James R. 1991. "Insect and Mite Pests of Holly." Holly Society Journal 9 (1, Winter): 11-14.

Blazich, Frank A. 1983. "Japanese Holly is Easy to Propagate." American Nurseryman (September 15): 29-36.

Burns, Sidney V. 1985. "Propagation of Hollies." Holly Society Journal 3 (3, Summer): 13-14.

Clark, Ross C. 1988. "Tennessee's Native Hollies." Tennessee Holly News (April).

Cooperative Extension Service, University of Georgia, College of Agriculture.

Davidson, John A. 1992. "Insect Pests of Holly and Their Control." Holly Society Journal 10 (1, Winter): 16-19.

Dengler, Harry William, Theodore R. Dudley, and Gene K. Eisenbeiss. 1970. "English Hollies." The American Horticultural Magazine 49 (4, Fall) 164-78.

Dirr, Michael A. 1988. "To Know Them is to Love Them." American Nurseryman (August 1): 23-41.

Dirr, Michael A. 1990. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants: Their Identification, Ornamental Characteristics, Culture, Propagation, and Uses. Champaign, Illinois: Stipes, 395-420.

Dirr, Michael A., and Charles W. Heuser, Jr. 1987. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation--From Seed to Tissue Culture. Athens, Georgia: Varsity, 134-37.

Dudley, T. R. 1986. "The Story of Hollies Part II: Hollies in the Landscape." Holly Society Journal 4 (4, Autumn): 27-31.

Dudley, T. R. 1987. "The Story of Hollies Part III: Hollies in the Landscape." Holly Society Journal 5 (2, Spring): 17-21.

Dudley, T. R., and G. K. Eisenbeiss. 1992. International Checklist of Cultivated Ilex--Part 2, Ilex crenata. USDA, U.S. National Arboretum Contribution No. 6 (March).

Eisenbeiss, G. K. 1987. "Some Perspectives on Growing Hollies for the Home Landscape." Holly Society Journal 5 (2, Spring): 1-4, 8-9.

Eisenbeiss, G. K. 1990. "Sexual compatibilities among holly species." Holly Society Journal 8 (1): 7-10.

Eisenbeiss, G. K., and T. R. Dudley. 1984. "Ilex Cultivar Registrations." Holly Society Journal 2 (2, Spring): 9.

Eisenbeiss, G. K., and T. R. Dudley. 1984. "International Holly Registrations." Holly Society Journal 2 (3, Summer): 11.

Eisenbeiss, G. K., and T. R. Dudley. 1986. "Holly Registrations." Holly Society Journal 4 (3, Summer): 19-20.

Eisenbeiss, G. K., and T. R. Dudley. 1988. "International Ilex Cultivar Registration, 1987." Holly Society Journal 6 (1, Winter): 30-32.

Eisenbeiss, G. K., and T. R. Dudley. 1988. "International Ilex Cultivar Registration, 1988." Holly Society Journal 6 (2, Spring): 14-15.

Eisenbeiss, G. K., and T. R. Dudley. 1988. "International Ilex Cultivar Registration, 1988." Holly Society Journal 6 (3, Summer): 16-18.

Eisenbeiss, G. K., and T. R. Dudley. 1990. "International Ilex Cultivar Registration, 1989." Holly Society Journal 8 (1, Winter): 18-22.

Eisenbeiss, G. K., and T. R. Dudley. 1990. "International Ilex Cultivar Registration, 1990." Holly Society Journal 8 (4, Autumn): 19-21.

Eisenbeiss, G. K., and T. R. Dudley. 1991. "International Ilex Cultivar Registration, 1991." Holly Society Journal 9 (4, Autumn): 18-20.

Ellis, Barbara W. 1988. "Holly Days." Organic Gardening (December): 28-35.

Elmore, Harold. 1989. "Do I Need a Pollinator for My Holly?" University of Tennessee Arboretum Society Journal, The Leaflet 9 (3): 4.

Galle, Fred C. 1970. "Hollies Native to the United States." The American Horticultural Magazine 49 (4, Fall): 180-94.

"Growing Hollies." N.d. USDA Home and Garden Bulletin, No. 130.

"The Hollies." 1988. Trees by Touliatos--Plant Talk (Summer).

"Hollies for Georgia Homeowners," Bulletin 664. 1969. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Georgia, Athens.

"Holly Legend and Lore." 1988. American Nurseryman (August 1): 47.

Hu, Shiu-Ying. 1970. "Eastern Asian Hollies in Cultivation." The American Horticultural Magazine 49 (4, Fall): 195-207.

"Ilex latifolia Thunberg." 1990. Holly Society Journal 8 (3, Summer): 23.

International Checklist of Cultivated Ilex--Part 1, Ilex opaca. 1973. USDA, U.S. National Arboretum Contribution No. 3 (March).

Joseph, Patricia. 1989. "The Wonderful Yaupons." Holly Society Journal 7 (2, Spring): 3-4.

Kassab, E. Elizabeth. 1992. "My Favorite Holly." Holly Society Journal 10 (2, Spring): 36.

Klingaman, Gerald L. 1981. "A Look at Hollies Commonly Found in the Trade." American Nurseryman (December 15): 10-11, 106-18.

Kosar, W. F. 1970. "Flowering Sequence of Holly Species at the National Arboretum." American Horticultural Magazine 49 (4): 219.

Lansdale, Dave. 1987. "Digging and Planting Small Hollies." Holly Society Journal 5 (2, Spring).

Lowe, Judy. 1988. "Interesting Hollies for Your Yard." Tennessee Holly News (April).

McComb, Charles W. 1986. A Field Guide to Insect Pests of Holly. Baltimore, Maryland: The Holly Society of America (June).

Orton, Elwin R., Jr. 1985. "Ilex * Rock Garden." Holly Society Journal 3 (2, Spring): 7-8.

"Perny Holly--Uncommon, But Nice." 1986. Southern Living 21 (March):88.

Peterson, J. L. 1982. Diseases of Holly in the United States, Bulletin No. 19, Holly Society of America Bulletin No. 19.

Powell, M. A. "Hollies in the Landscape." N.d. Horticulture Information, Leaflet No. 639, N.C. Agricultural Extension Service, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University.

Reed, Christopher. 1987. "Hollies." Horticulture (December): 56-63.

Simpson, Robert C. 1980. "Propagating Deciduous Holly." Combined Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators Society 30: 338-42.

Simpson, Robert C. 1990. "Ilex Blooming Dates--Vincennes, Indiana 1990." Unpublished mimeograph.

Simpson, Robert C. 1991. "Deciduous Hollies Berried Treasures Waiting to be Discovered." Holly Society Journal 9 (2, Spring): 7-14.

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Ticknor, Robert L. 1992. "English Holly--Ilex aquifolium: A Jewel or a Menace in the Pacific Northwest?" Holly Society Journal 10 (4, Autumn): 14-15.

Tilt, Ken. 1987. "My Favorite Holly." Tennessee Holly News (October).

Touliatos, Greg. 1988. "The Hollies." Tennessee Holly News (August).

USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map. 1990. USDA Agricultural Research Service, Miscellaneous Publication 1475.

Yeager, Thomas H., and Dewayne L. Ingram. N.d. Container Production of Holly in Florida, Circular 589, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Appendix A - Tables

Table A-1. Holly species And Hybrids Useful In Cross-Pollination.
The following groups of holly species and hybrids will cross pollinate each other for good berry production under garden conditions. A partial list of reprersentative cultivars is included. Any male within a given group should pollinate any female within that group, but not females in other groups. Taxonomic authority is listed immediately following the scientific name. Parentage of hybrids is given in [square] brackets. Common names are given when known. Cultivar names are enclosed in 'single' quotation marks.
TYPE OF HOLLYCULTIVARS
GROUP 1
I. x altaclarensis (Loudon)
Dallimore
[I. aquifolium x I. perado]
Highclere Holly
'Camelliifolia'
'Golden King'
'James G. Esson'
'Lawsoniana'
'Wilsonii'
I. aquifolium L.
English Holly
'Aureo-marginata'
'Argentea-marginata'
'Balkans'
'Boulder Creek'
'Ciliata Major'
'Ferox' (Male)
'Little Bull' (Male)
'San Gabriel'
'Sparkler'
Many others
I. aquifolium x I. cornuta'Nellie R. Stevens'
'Edward J. Stevens' (Male)
I. x aquipernyi Gable'Aquipern'
'Brilliant'
'San Jose'
*I. x beanii Rehder
[I. aquifolium x I. dipyrena]
I. ciliospinosa Loesener
I. cornuta x I. ciliospinosa'Albert Close'
'William Cowgill'
'Howard Dorsett'
'Edward Goucher'
'Harry Gunning'
I. cornuta Lindley & Paxton
Chinese Holly
'Anicet Delcambre'
('Needlepoint')
'Berries Jubilee'
'Burfordii'
'Cajun Gold'
'Carissa'
'Dazzler'
'D'Or'
'Dwarf Burford'
'O. Spring'
'Rotunda'
'Shangri-La'
'Shiu-Ying'
'Willowleaf'
I. cornuta x I. pernyi'Doctor Kassab'
'John T. Morris' (Male)
'Lydia Morris'
I. cornuta x I. Latifolia'Emily Bruner'
'Ginny Bruner'
'Bob Bruner'
'James Swan' (Male)
*I. dipyrena Wallich
*I. fargesii Franchet
I. integra Thunberg ex J.A. Murray
Nepal Holly
I. x koehneana Loesener
[I. aquifolium x I. latifolia]
Koehne Holly
'Hohman'
'Jade'
'Lassie'
'Ruby'
'Wirt L. Winn'
I. latifolia Thunberg ex J.A. Murray
Lusterleaf Holly
*I. leucoclada (Maximowicz) Makino
I. x meserveae S.Y. Hu
(I. rugosa x I. aquifolium)
'Blue Angel'
'Blue Boy' (Male)
'Blue Girl'
'Blue Maid'
'Blue Prince' (Male)
'Blue Princess'
'Blue Stallion' (Male)
I. perado Aiton
Madeira Holly
I. pernyi Franchet
Perny Holly
I. rugosa F.Schmidt
Prostrate Holly
I. spinigera (Loesener) Loesener
I. x wandoensis in ed.
[I. cornuta x I. integra]
GROUP 2
I. x attenuata Ashe
[I. cassine x I. opaca]
'Alagold'
'Big John' (Male)
'Blazer'
'East Palatka'
'Foster #2' (also #1, #3,
#4 (Male), #5)
'Hume #2'
'Savannah'
I. cassine L.
Dahoon Holly
*I. cumulicola (Ashe) Ashe
I. myrtifolia Walter
I. myrtifolia x I. opaca'Oriole'
'Tanager'
I. opaca Aiton
American Holly
'Cardinal'
'Canary'
'Dan Fenton'
'Farage'
'Jersey Knight' (Male)
'Jersey Princess'
'Miss Helen'
'Old Heavy Berry'
'Wyetta'
Many others
GROUP 3
I. serrata Thunberg ex J.A. Murray
Finetooth Holly
Japanese Winterberry
'Christmas Cheer'
'Leucocarpa'
'Xanthocarpa'
I. serrata x I. verticillata'Apollo'
'Autumn Glow'
'Bonfire'
'Harvest Red'
'Hopewell Myte'
'Raritan Chief'
'Sparkleberry'
I. verticillata (L.) Gray
Winterberry, Michigan Holly
'Aurantiaca'
'Afterglow'
'Bright Horizon'
'Cacapon'
'Christmas Gem'
'Earlibright'
'Fairfax'
'Hopperton'
'Jackson'
'Maryland Beauty'
'Mill Creek'
'Red Sprite'
'Shaver'
'Short Cake'
'Stoplight'
'Sunset'
'Winter Gold'
'Winter Red'
'Xanthocarpa'
Note: Northern selections of I. verticillata may not be pollinated by males of the southern selections because blooming periods may not overlap. Most northern selections do overlap with the bloom of I. serrata and its hybrids. See Table A-2.
GROUP 4
I. decidua Walter
Possumhaw Holly
'Byer's Golden'
'Council Fire'
'Pocahontas'
'Red Cascade'
'Red Escort'
'Reed'
'Sentry'
'Sundance'
'Warren Red'
Note: Female I. decidua will usually set fruit well if male I. opaca are nearby as the bloom period of many cultivars overlap. See Table A-2.
*I. longipes Chapman
Georgia Holly
* Rare and not likely to be encountered except by holly specialists.

Table A-2. Order Of Bloom Dates For Deciduous Hollies And American Holly At Simpson Nursery, Vincennes, Indiana, 1979 and 1990.*
Type Of Holly19791990
I. decidua (early) May 13 - 27 May 5 - 23
I. decidua (late) May 17 - 30 .
I. opaca, most cultivarsMay 19 - 30 May 9 - 28
I. serrata
(well pollinated)
.June 5 - 13
I. serrata x verticillata
hybrids
..
'Autumn Glow'.June 3-15
'Harvest Red'.June 3 - 15
'Raritan Chief' (Male).June 3 - 15
'Bonfire'.June 8 - 16
'Apollo' (Male).June 12 - 18
'Sparkleberry'.June 12 - 18
I. verticillata
(northern types)
May 30 - June 6.
Dwarf male selectionsMay 30 - June 8June 1 - 12
'Aurantiaca'May 30 - June 4June 1 - 10
'Red Sprite'. June 3 - 15
'Stoplight. June 3 - 12
'Short Cake'. June 3 - 12
'Tiasquam'. June 3 - 12
'Maryland Beauty'. June 4 - 12
'Afterglow'June 4 - 14June 6 - 13
'Shaver'June 6 - 15June 7 - 18
'Jackson' (Male)June 6 - 15.
'Cacapon'June 6 - 15June 9 - 17
'Fairfax'June 9 - 18.
'Quitsa'. June 11 - 17
'Sparkleberry'. June 12 - 18
I. verticillata. .
(southern types)June 11 - 28.
'Sunset'. June 14 - 19
'Winter Red'June 12 - 28June 14 - 21
'Winter Gold'. June 14 - 21
males for 'Winter Red'June 12 - 28June 14 - 23
southern type seedlingsJune 19 - July 3June 19 - July 4
*Adapted from published and unpublished information of Robert C. Simpson, a longtime nursery grower of deciduous hollies. Bloom dates will be 2-3 weeks earlier as you move south to Tennessee and Alabama. This is offered as a guide only from observations in Indiana. Flowering will vary with the provenance of the seeding source and the location of the hollies.
NOTE: I. opaca males will pollinate I. decidua females.

Appendix B - Official And Unofficial Holly Arboreta

Zone Garden And Address Zone Garden And Address
4bDenver Botanic Gardens
909 York Street
Denver, CO 80206
5b The Holden Arboretum
9500 Sperry Road
Mentor, OH 44060
5bThe Dawes Arboretum
7770 Jacksontown Road, SE
Newark, OH 43055
5b Taylor University Arboretum
Upland, IN 46989
5b The Chicago Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 400
Glencoe, IL 60022
5bSecrest Arboretum
Ohio State University
Wooster, OH 44691
6aBernheim Forest Arboretum
Clermont, KY 40110
6aDepartment of Botany
Porter Hall
Ohio University
Athens, OH 45701
6aHighland Botanical Garden
180 Reservoir Avenue
Rochester, NY 14620
6aMissouri Botanical Garden
2345 Tower Grove Road
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63110
7aThe Tyler Arboretum
515 Painter Road
P.O. Box 216
Lima, PA 19037
7aMorris Arboretum
University of Pennsylvania
9414 Meadowbrook Avenue
Philadelphia, PA 19118
7aPlanting Fields Arboretum
Planting Fields Research
Oyster Bay, Long Island, NY 11771
7aHolly Haven Hybrids
136 Sanwood Road
Knoxville, TN 37923
7aThe Tyler Arboretum
515 Painter Road
P.O. Box 216
Lima, PA 19037
7aThe Scott Arboretum
Swarthmore College
Swarthmore, PA 19711
7aUniversity of Delaware
Department of Plant Science
Newark, DE 19717-1303
7aUniversity of Tennessee Arboretum
901 Kerr Hollow Road
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
7aU.S. National Arboretum
3501 New York Avenue, N.E.
Washington, DC 20002
7bNC State University Arboretum
Department of Horticulture, NCSU
Box 7609
Raleigh, NC 27695-7609
7bEbersole Holly Garden, S.C.C.
2200 Airport Road
Pinehurst, NC 28374
7bCallaway Gardens
Pine Mountain, GA 31822
7bUniversity of Alabama
338 Thomas Street
Box 870176
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0176
7bBotanical Garden
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634-0375
8bUniversity of British Columbia
Botanical Garden
6501 North West Marine Drive
Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5
CANADA
8bWashington Park Arboretum
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
8bVandusen Botanical Garden
5251 Oak Street
Vancouver, BC V6M 4H1
CANADA
Bokrijk Arboretum
Stationstraat 70, 3530 Houthalen
BELGIUM

Acknowledgments

We respectfully acknowledge the professional advice of Mr. Gene K. Eisenbeiss, horticulturist at the U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, D.C., for reviewing the text and verifying the nomenclature and taxonomic authorities listed. We further acknowledge the expertise of Mr. Robert Simpson and Mr. Harold Elmore, who made many helpful suggestions on pollination. And, we would like to extend a special thank you to Ms. E. Elizabeth Kassab, Mr. Lloyd Hahn, Mr. Carl W. Suk, and Mr. Cliff Dickinson, for their review of the text.