Theses and Dissertations

Title: Production and fatty acid profiles of cyclopoid copepod nauplii Apocydops panamensis

Name: Sumiarsa, Gede Suwarthama

Degree: PhD

Chair: R. P. Phelps


University: Auburn University

Location: Auburn, Alabama

Date: 2003

Pages: 170

Keywords: Production,fatty acid profiles,cyclopoid copepod nauplii,Apocydops panamensi


A series of experiments was carried out to enhance the production and nutrition content of cyclopoid copepod nauplii Apocydops panamensis for use as larval food of the red snapper Lutjanus campechanus in the hatchery. The work was divided into two parts. Part I was performed to evaluate several fertilization regimes in brackishwater ponds to produce the copepod nauplii, and Part II was performed to assess the nutritional content of the copepod nauplii from several fertilization regimes, post-acclimation and post-enrichment procedures. Three experiments were completed for the production of copepod nauplii over a two-year period. Two experiments were carried out in 1999 for 30 and 36 days, respectively, assessing organic fertilizers: dehydrated alfalfa meal, menhaden fishmeal and wheat bran, each at an initial dose of 250 kg/ha, and fresh ground fish at 120 kg/ha. The third experiment was carried out in 2000 for 49 days assessing initial applications of 250 kg/ha rice bran and 250 kg/ha wheat bran with and without aeration. Inorganic 38:8:0 fertilizer was added in each regime at an initial dose 20 L/ha. Both organic and inorganic fertilizers were added weekly at half the rate of the initial dose. The results showed that the lowest and highest average copepod nauplii densities in these studies were between (mean ± standard error) 887 ± 172 and 5,080 ± 1,224 individuals/L, with no significant differences in mean copepod nauplii densities among the fertilization regimes in each study. However, the mean copepod nauplii density in wheat bran with aerated ponds in Study 3 was relatively high compared to unaerated ponds. Calanoid copepods Acartia sp. were vulnerable to an ectocommensal fouling disease, and they were succeeded by the cyclopoid copepod A. panamensis starting in the second-half of Study 1. Interactions among zooplankton and water quality are complex, and no one factor was a good predictor of copepod nauplii abundance. A series of studies was conducted in Part n to assess the lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the cyclopoid copepod nauplii A. panamensis under a variety of settings in the hatchery. Fatty acid profiles of copepod nauplii before and after acclimation were assessed. Four enriching materials Al Super Selco®, SaltCreek® Super Hufa, Algamac®-2000 and AquaGrow® were used to enrich copepod nauplii in half, normal and double doses of manufacturer's recommendation at three, six and twelve-hour exposure periods. In addition, lipid content and fatty acid profiles were also assessed from each solution material. Average lipid content of newly harvested copepod nauplii ranged from 5.66 to 7.76 % (g/100 g dry weight) with insignificant differences among regimes in Study 3. Mean lipid content of post-acclimated copepod nauplii after six hours was 3.85 ± 0.26 % (g/100 g dry weight) with a mean survival rate of 90.4 ± 3.4 %. All enrichment protocols restored lipid content and fatty acid profiles to levels similar to pre-acclimation. Based upon mean final lipid content, survival rate, DHA/EPA ratio, and time effectiveness, enrichment of copepod nauplii with Al Super Selco® for three hours was the most effective protocol evaluated.

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