Theses and Dissertations


Title: Water-soluble vitamins essential for the growth of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

Name: Dupree, Harry Kenneth

Degree: PhD

Chair: Dr. Homer S. Swingle

Resides: FAA Library

University: Auburn

Location: Auburn, Alabama

Date: 1960

Pages: 104

Keywords: Vitamins,Growth,Channel catfish,Ictalurus punctatus.

Abstract:

Three series of experiments to determine the water-soluble vitamins essential for the growth of channel catfish were conducted in the Fisheries Laboratory of Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. For this purpose, 20 stainless steel feeding troughs, each 7.0' x 1.0' x 0.8' were available. These troughs were equipped with running water, stand-pipe type drain, and aeration-stone air supply. Water temperature was regulated at 75o Fahrenheit or higher. Gelatin-bound, vitamin-deficient diets supplemented with the crystalline vitamins were used. The rates of growth and percentage mortalities of fish on the vitamin-deficient diets were compared to those of fish fed the vitamin-complete diet.Definite vitamin-deficiency syndromes were shown with diets deficient in pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamine, folic acid, nicotinic acid, B-12, choline, and the fat-soluble vitamins A, and K. No need was demonstrated for biotin, inositol, ascorbic acid, or para-amino-benzoic acid in the diet. The pyridoxine-deficiency symptoms were poor appetite, atrophy of the stomach and intestine, poor growth, increased mortality, and nervous disorders: pantothenic acid-deficiency symptoms were poor appetite, reduced vigor, mucus secretion on the gills, clubbed gills, flabby body tissues, eroded fins, reduced growth, and increased mortality, riboflavin-deficiency syumptoms were poor appetite, reduced vision, opaque lens, hemorrhagic eyes, reduced growth, and increased mortality. The pyridoxine-, pantothenic acid-, and riboflavin-deficiency symptoms were produced within 12, 12, and 21 weeks respectively. The thiamine-deficiency symptoms occurring within 21 weeks were poor appetite, loss of equilibrium, muscular atrophy, and reduced growth: no significant difference in the cumulative mortality had occurred by the twenty-fourth week. The folic acid-deficiency symptoms were poor appetite, eroded fins, increased mortality, and dark spleen and liver: nicotinic acid-deficiency symptoms were poor appetite, weakness, reduced coordination, increased mortality and muscular tetany. These symptoms were produced within 21 weeks. No significant difference in growth had occurred within 30 weeks with either vitamin-deficient diet as compared with the vitamin-complete diet. The symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency were poor appetite and reduced growth: choline-deficiency symptoms were poor appetite, slightly enlarged livers, small hemorrhagic areas in the kidney, and reduced growth. These symptoms were produced within 30 weeks. No significant difference in mortality had occurred within 36 weeks with either vitamin-deficient diet as compared with the vitamin-complete diet. An apparent vitamin A deficiency was characterized by enlarged eyes, hemorrhagic kidneys, white spots on the liver, and clear, serous fluid in the abdominal cavity, and was produced when beta-carotene was used to supply vitamin A. This condition was corrected when vitamin A palmitate was substituted for beta-carotene in the basic diet. An apparent vitamin K deficiency was characterized by excessive hemorrhaging from the gills, bases of the fins, and through the epidermis. It was produced when the basic diet contained 4.0 milligrams menadione per 100 grams. This condition was corrected when the content of menadione in the diet was doubled. No significant differences in growth or mortality were observed with biotin- or inositol-deficient diets within 30 weeks, or with ascorbic acid- or para-amino-benzoic acid-deficient diets within 36 weeks when compared with their respective vitamin-complete diets.

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