Theses and Dissertations

Title: Rates of dissipation of certain rotenone preparations, their residual effects on bluegill production, and their effects on populations of fish-food organisms

Name: Wright, Thomas Wayne

Degree: MS

Chair: Dr. H.S. Swingle

Resides: FAA Library

University: Auburn

Location: Auburn, Alabama

Date: 1957

Pages: 47

Keywords: Dissipation,Rotenone,Residual Effects,Bluegill,Fish-Food Organisms.


A study was made with three commercial preparations of rotenone to determine the relative duration of their toxicity at various periods of the year to bluegills, their effects upon fish-food organisms, and their residual effects upon subsequent bluegill production.The three preparations of rotenone were: cube, a powder form adjusted for these tests to a 5.0 per cent rotenone content: Noxfish, a liquid emulsifiable form containing 5.0 per cent rotenone: and Pronoxfish, a liquid emulsifiable form containing 2.5 per cent rotenone plus 2.5 per cent Sulfoxcide, a synergist to rotenone. Experiments conducted in 0.0025-acre concrete ponds throughout the period of one year indicated that at concentrations of 1, 4, and 8 p.p.m. cube remained toxic to bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, in wire cages longer than Noxfish or Pro-noxfish. Four earthen ponds (0.1 to 3.4 acres) were treated with 1 p.p.m. Noxfish: duration of toxicity to bluegills in wire cages was 8 to 12 days in the winter months. Pro-noxfish, in the same type ponds and at the same concentration, remained toxic from 7 to 18 days. By use of the data from the earthen ponds, equations were derived to predict the number of days that each form of rotenone would be expected to remain toxic to bluegill. For Noxfish, applied at the rate of 1 p.p.m., the equation was as follows:D = 14.38 - 0.1208 (T) + 0.8388 (A)where D is days duration of toxicity, T is average temperature (o F) of water, and A is the average depth of the pond in feet. The equation derived for 1 p.p.m. Pro-noxfish was as follows:D = 22.71 - 0.3295 (T) + 1.9739 (A)These equations only apply to temperature ranges from 50 oF to 70o F. In laboratory experiments the LD50 levels for Daphnia with each of the three preparations were as follows: Cube (p.p.m.) Noxfish (p.p.m.) Pro-noxfish (p.p.m.) 80oF 0.48 0.24 0.32 75oF 0.57 0.49 0.44 68oF 0.55 0.56 0.57 Copepods, of the genus Cyclops, were more sensitive to rotenone than any of the fish-food organisms tested. The LD50 levels for each of the rotenone preparations at 80oF. and 68oF were as follows: Cube (p.p.m.) Noxfish (p.p.m.) Pro-noxfish (p.p.m.) 80oF 0.22 0.12 0.14 68oF 0.24 0.14 0.19 Phantom larvae, chaoborus punctipennis (Say), were very resistant to rotenone as compared to the other fish-food organisms tested. The LD50 level at 80oF. for each of the preparations was as follows: Cube (p.p.m.) Noxfish (p.p.m.) Pro-noxfish (p.p.m.) 0.65 1.07 1.13 Cube was the most toxic preparation to phantom larvae, while Pro-noxfish was the least toxic.Midge larvae, Tendipes crassicaudatus (Malloch) and T. plumosus (Linnaeus), were more sensitive to rotenone than the phantom larvae. At 80oF. the LD50 level of each rotenone preparation was as follows: Cube (p.p.m.) Noxfish (p.p.m.) Pro-noxfish (p.p.m.) 0.25 0.10 0.33 Noxfish was the most toxic preparation and Pro-noxfish the least toxic.Two earthen ponds were treated either 1 p.p.m. Noxfish or Pro-noxfish during the winter of 1956 and 1957. Bottom samples and plankton samples examined before and after treatments indicated that populations of micro-crustacea were seriously reduced after treatment with either formulation of rotenone. In the same ponds, populations of midge larvae and phantom larvae were noticeably reduced. The residual effects of rotenone on bluegill production were checked by treating 0.0025-acre concrete ponds with 4 and 8 p.p.m. of each of the rotenone preparations. After the toxicity had dissipated, the ponds were stocked with known weights of bluegills. The ponds were drained six months after stocking and the bluegill production determined. The results in pounds per acre were as follows: 4 p.p.m. 8 p.p.m. 0 p.p.m. Cube 357 352 Noxfish 576 367 Pro-noxfish 415 457 333 As a result of these tests, it was concluded that the use of Pro-noxfish, Noxfish or cube had no residual deleterious effects upon subsequent bluegill production, even if 4 and 8 times the amount usually recommended was used to treat the pond.

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