Theses and Dissertations

Title: Chlorine: its toxicity to goldfish, fathead minnows, golden shiners, and bluegills and its removal from water

Name: White, Jr Clarence Edward

Degree: MS

Chair: Dr. H.S. Swingle

Resides: FAA Library

University: Auburn

Location: Auburn, Alabama

Date: 1955

Pages: 68

Keywords: Chlorine,Toxicity,Goldfish,Fathead Minnows,Golden Shiners,Bluegill.


At the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Alabama, it became evident that city water would have to be dechlorinated before it was usable for fisheries research. Chlorinated water hampered tests because many fish parasites and disease organisms were unable to grow and react normally, and at times the chlorine concentration was sufficiently high to kill these organisms and the fish upon which they lived. The toxicity of chlorine to fish in completely filled and sealed glass containers could not be determined since the chlorine demand of water caused a continuous decrease in the free chlorine concentration from 0.3 ppm to 0.02 ppm in 12 hours at 80o F. When fish were held in troughs with a flow of continuously chlorinated water at a temperature of 80o F. for a 24-hour period, the concentrations required for various mortalities were as follows:Three methods of dechlorination were tried. They were aeration, addition of sodium thiosulfate, and passing the water through activated carbon filters. Aeration was not effective as a method of dechorination. Sodium thiosulfate was a good dechlorinating agent, 0.83 ounces (23.48 gms.) being required to remove 1 ppm free chlorine agent from 1000 gallons of water. However, expensive regulation equipement was needed to declorinate flowing water with sodium thiosulfate. Of the three methods investigated, the passing of water through carbon filters was the easiest and most dependable method of dechlorinating water. Sodium thiosulfate was not toxic to bluegills, golden shiners, or goldfish up to 180 ppm at 70o-72o F. It was impossible to draw conclusions from the data obtained on the effects of sodium thiosulfate on fathead minnows, but no mortality occured up to 10 ppm sodium thiosulfate at 70o-72o F

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