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Swingle, Homer, G. Pardue, R. Smitherman, D. Moss, H. Schmittou, W. Rogers – Auburn University

Date: 1970

Funding Agency: USAID

Keywords: thailand, asia, aquaculture, international, development, fisheries, research

Category: International Country Report

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1. The following recommendations for an expanded program of fisheries
development in Thailand are based upon conferences held with personnel
of the Thai Department of Fisheries and the USAID Mission, and observations
made during visits to practically all existing government fishery research and
training facilities during two surveys conducted in 1969.
Alternate proposals are presented below relative to technical assistance,
with the first plan being most desirable for maximum results.
1.011 The Auburn University Contract should be modified to
provide one specialist in aquaculture to be located in Bangkok for a 2-year
period or longer to assist the Fisheries Department and to advise the AID
Mission on fisheries development. In addition, one trip yearly will be
made to Thailand by two fisheries specialists from Auburn University to
evaluate the program, assist in planning research-extension, and to provide
specialized training for Thai personnel. One month would be spent
in Thailand by this group.
1. 012 Or, continue the present contract in which no full-time
fishery specialist would be stationed in Thailand, but two trips per year
would be made by fishery specialists from Auburn University to assist
the Fisheries Department in planning research-extension and to furnish
on-the-job specialized training for Thai fishery research and extension ·
personnel. Each visit would be for a period of one month, with members
of the Auburn Team composed of two specialists for the first visit and
and three specialists for the second visit approximately six months later.
The specialists considered most useful in advancement of the program will be sent, with changes in areas of subject matter from visit to visit.
1.02 The research program necessary to acquire the information for an
effective extension program to increase fish production is outlined as follows:
1.021 Methods for Increasing Hatchery Production of Fingerlings for Stocking
Increasing hatchery production of fingerlings can be accomplished by selection of superior brood fish, their maintenance on an adequate diet during the period of egg-formation, careful handling during transfer to the spawning ponds, improvement in spawning techniques, control of parasites and diseases and use of fertilizers and feeds to grow fry to fingerlings.
1.022 Testing for Species Efficiency to Determine Those Most Desirable for Culture Purposes
In testing for species efficiency, a coordinated system for all stations will give maximum results in the shortest period of time. Important factors to be considered for a coordinated system include the size and number of fish stocked per rai, and the number of replications per test (3 is a minimum). Rates of fertilization with phosphate fertilizer and kinds and rates of feeding should be standardized, with a common reference species (Pla Nai) to be used at all stations in the initial period of the testing program.
1.023 Development of Systems of Culture
After the more promising species have been found through testing, they should be stocked into experimental ponds individually and in various combinations with different rates of stocking, fertilization and feeding to determine the most productive and most profitable procedure to be recommended to farmers. Accurate accounts should be kept of cost of fish for stocking, amounts and cost of fertilizer and feeds, total weight of fish produced, and their sale value. The extension program will be a success only if methods recommended for culture of fishes or shrimps enable the farmer to raise and sell at a profit.
1.024 Determine Species Yielding the Highest Sustained Annual Catch in Village Ponds and in Small Irrigation Reservoirs
To determine the best species to use in village ponds and small irrigation reservoirs, rotenone sampling for standing crops should be conducted and the composition of the catch recorded. The percentages (E values) of the total weight due to each species can then be calculated for both the standing crop and the catch. Relative desirability of each species will be determined in part by the catch per unit of area and in part from the index of harvestability
= E (in catch)
E (in standing crop).
This will indicate the species most suitable for stocking new small reservoirs and village ponds. Stomach analyses should be made to determine the kinds and amounts of biota consumed by each species. This will provide information needed to determine which species should be stocked in various ecological habitats to insure that all types of food organisms produced in the impoundment are properly utilized.
The effect of phosphate fertilization on catch and standing crop in village ponds should be tested. Records should also be maintained on the kinds and extent of aquatic weed growth before and after fertilization.
1.025 Determine Species Yielding the Highest Sustained Annual Catch in Large Reservoirs
To determine fish species yielding the highest sustained annual catch in large reservoirs, rotenone sampling for standing crop should be conducted at periodic intervals and the following information should be recorded on all species collected: numbers, length, weight, maximum body depth, and maximum mouth width. In addition, weight, number, and the species composition of the catch by fishermen should be obtained to determine the species most often caught.
1. 026 Establish a Laboratory at the Central Bangkhen Station to Develop Effective Pelleted Fish Feeds
Personnel from the Bangkhen Laboratory should receive 6 months of training at Auburn University learning methods of analyzing, formulating, processing, and testing fish feeds. Subsequently, close cooperation will be established between the two groups to develop suitable feeds for various aquacultures in Thailand. In addition, two persons should receive two-year graduate training abroad in the general field of Fish Nutrition and Feeds.
1.027 Establish a Laboratory for Development of Methods of Control of Fish Parasites and Diseases
A six-months training program for two persons should be organized at Auburn University to initiate the program and there should also be a two-year training program for two persons at the graduate level. Since the Fish Parasite and Disease courses are taught in the Winter and Spring Quarters, short-term personnel should be in Auburn at that time.
1.028 Need for Fellowships in Other Areas of Fisheries

addition to the specialized training programs that should be made available for fishery personnel in areas of fish diseases and fish feeds and feedings, a minimum of two graduate fellowships annually should be made available to qualified workers for a period of two years. At least two particularly well-qualified biologists should be trained at the Ph. D. level. The latter biologists, upon their return to Thailand, would then work closely with other fishery personnel to coordinate and improve effectiveness of the research program.
1.029 Construction at the Inland Stations
The Central Bangkhen Station should be expanded to provide a minimum of 100 additional earthen excavated ponds for research on aquaculture. This will necessitate either moving the station or purchasing land for the construction of new ponds as near to the present location as possible. Sakol Nakorn Station should be expanded so that it can more effectively serve as a regional substation for the Northeast. An additional 50 ponds should be constructed and an improved system developed to fill and drain existing ponds on the station. Expansion of this station is recommended because of its strategic location in the Northeast and because of the abundant water supply available to the station from Nong Harn Reservoir. Chieng Rai Station should be developed as the regional substation for research and extension in the North. It is strategically located and has an adequate water supply.
Ubol Rajthani Station is in an important strategic location in the Northeast, but the Station is on sand and the ponds will not hold water. It should be relocated where good soils and adequate water will be available.
1. 03 The Village Pond Construction program should be expanded to provide tractor equipment and additional funds to greatly increase the rate of construction. This program is one of the most effective ways of rapidly improving living conditions in many local areas of the Northeast where hortage of water is a common fact of daily life during the dry season. These multipurpose ponds can also be managed for high fish production.
1.04 Methods of sealing soils to reduce water seepage from ponds, reservoirs and irrigation ditches should be tried experimentally in various soil types in the Northeast. In many areas reservoirs dry up because of excessive seepage during the dry period.

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