Departmental Reports


Development of Aquaculture in the Philippines


Schmittou, R., J. Grover, S. Peterson, A. Librero, H. Rabanal, A. Portugal, and M. Adriano

Date: 1985

Funding Agency: USAID

Keywords: philippines, aquaculture, development, international

Category: International Country Report

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Most countries have
participated in international development.

either as donors or
recipients, through bilateral and/or multilateral

projects. In the United
States, international development

assistance has been
supported for almost four decades, yet it is not

well understood.
Long-term impacts on country development are

seldom measured by
the typical end-of project evaluations, and information that would contribute
to the understanding of the development

process is rarely
available. One way to understand development

better is to ensure
that adequate information to measure

project impact is
generated throughout the process. Frequently, impact

assessments are not
performed because decision makers realize

the lack of sufficient
reliable information. If the information is not

adequate to measure
impact after a project is completed, it is likely

that information
was not sufficient to do realistic planning and begin

implementation. A
second problem is that teams of specialists sent

to conduct pre- and
post-project studies may be poorly prepared for

their tasks.
Although team members may be well-trained in individual

disciplines, the
team is often: ( I) not balanced or represented by

all relevant
disciplines. (2) not trained in international development

and (3}
not prepared with guidelines and procedures on what information

is needed and how
to obtain it.

Information for
planning and evaluation should be completed relative

to the social, economic,
institutional, governmental, environmental

and technological factors
involved. This report is not an example

of the ideal impact
assessment. It is a compromise between

what was desired and
what was possible, given constraints on such

essentials as data
collection and recording. What was attempted was

to describe the
system and its evolution, and then to see if existing

data could be used
to indicate any cause/effect relationships between

development assistance
and economic/social well-being in the


The objectives of the
study were to:

1. determine the
impact of aquacultural development, in general,

and the
contribution of cooperative (private, public and donor sectors)

specifically, on consumers, producers, Government of

Republic of
Philippines (GRP) service institutions, the environment,

and overall socio-economic
development of the country;

2. measure
donor-assisted aquacultural project contribution to

country development

3. determine the
return in social, economic, and other benefits to

project costs; .

4. identify
existing and potential constraints and opportunities for

future long-range  aquacultural development, and recommend ways

constraints may be
minimized and opportunities maximized.

This report
describes the past, present, and expected future

trends in Philippine
aquaculture development and assesses the roles

that private,
public, and donor sectors have played or might play in

this process.

The Philippines was
chosen because of its freshwater, brackishwater,

and marine aquacultures
using ponds. cages, pens, and

racks. The history
of Philippine aquaculture spans a period of some

500 years. and fish
produced through aquaculture are significant in

the Filipino diet.
Fish from aquaculture were from 8 percent to 12

percent of all fish
produced from 1951 to present, with milkfish

constituting 90 percent
of all aquaculture production. The benefits

of milkfish farming
throughout the country include fry gathering and

nursery and rearing pond production and marketing.

These activities
generated slightly less than 0.5 percent of the GNP. The
Philippines has increased aquaculture production over the

past decade, has
great potential for continued growth, and has had

a long and varied
experience with donor-assisted aquaculture projects.

In addition, the
Philippines was considered a good developing

world example of
the partnership among producers, government institutions,

and donor agencies.
The information base from which an

impact assessment
could be compiled without generating new information

was considered to
be as good for the Philippines as for any

other developing
country. The Philippines has had a relatively stable

system since World War II. Many people who played

roles in aquacultural
development are still active. Their experiences,

for the most part
unrecorded until this study, provide valuable

insight into the
process of aquacultural development in the Philippines.

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